The 2015 revised mathematics curriculum had newly introduced the term 'process-focused assessment'. The official document, however, did not offer an explicit definition of the new term, but only by virtue of narrative. This has encouraged practitioners and researchers to figure out themselves what it is and how it differs from those in use, formative assessment and performance assessment in particular, in use. In consequence, many versions of interpretation, all of which are not necessarily consistent, have been developed and implemented in schools, This, in turn, still has created a chaotic situation carrying out the process-focused assessment. This study attempted to make the meaning of the process-focused assessment more explicit by conducting a comprehensive review of the related literature, for implementing it in its intended way.