- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Aim & Scope
Animal Bioscience (AB) aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry. Animal Bioscience will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems. Animal Bioscience is subdivided into 10 sections. Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming systemhttps://submit.animbiosci.org/ KCI SCOPUS SCI SCIE
Volume 35 Issue 10
Microbial short-chain fatty acids: a bridge between dietary fibers and poultry gut health - A reviewAli, Qasim;Ma, Sen;La, Shaokai;Guo, Zhiguo;Liu, Boshuai;Gao, Zimin;Farooq, Umar;Wang, Zhichang;Zhu, Xiaoyan;Cui, Yalei;Li, Defeng;Shi, Yinghua 1461
The maintenance of poultry gut health is complex depending on the intricate balance among diet, the commensal microbiota, and the mucosa, including the gut epithelium and the superimposing mucus layer. Changes in microflora composition and abundance can confer beneficial or detrimental effects on fowl. Antibiotics have devastating impacts on altering the landscape of gut microbiota, which further leads to antibiotic resistance or spread the pathogenic populations. By eliciting the landscape of gut microbiota, strategies should be made to break down the regulatory signals of pathogenic bacteria. The optional strategy of conferring dietary fibers (DFs) can be used to counterbalance the gut microbiota. DFs are the non-starch carbohydrates indigestible by host endogenous enzymes but can be fermented by symbiotic microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). This is one of the primary modes through which the gut microbiota interacts and communicate with the host. The majority of SCFAs are produced in the large intestine (particularly in the caecum), where they are taken up by the enterocytes or transported through portal vein circulation into the bloodstream. Recent shreds of evidence have elucidated that SCFAs affect the gut and modulate the tissues and organs either by activating G-protein-coupled receptors or affecting epigenetic modifications in the genome through inducing histone acetylase activities and inhibiting histone deacetylases. Thus, in this way, SCFAs vastly influence poultry health by promoting energy regulation, mucosal integrity, immune homeostasis, and immune maturation. In this review article, we will focus on DFs, which directly interact with gut microbes and lead to the production of SCFAs. Further, we will discuss the current molecular mechanisms of how SCFAs are generated, transported, and modulated the pro-and anti-inflammatory immune responses against pathogens and host physiology and gut health.
Evaluation of coat color inheritance and production performance for crossbreed from Chinese indigenous Chenghua pig crossbred with BerkshireLi, Yujing;Yuan, Rong;Gong, Zhengyin;Zou, Qin;Wang, Yifei;Tang, Guoqing;Zhu, Li;Li, Xuewei;Jiang, Yanzhi 1479
Objective: This work was to determine coat inheritance and evaluate production performance for crossbred pigs from Berkshire×Chenghua (BC) compared with Chinese indigenous Chenghua (CH) pigs. Methods: The coat color phenotypes were recorded for more than 16,000 pigs, and the genotypes of melanocortin 1 receptor (MCIR) gene were identified by sequencing. The reproductive performance of 927 crossbred BC F4 gilts and 320 purebred CH gilts was recorded. Sixty pigs of each breed were randomly selected at approximately 60 days of age to determine growth performance during fattening period, which lasted for 150 days for BC pigs and 240 days for CH pigs. At the end of the fattening period, 30 pigs of each breed were slaughtered to determine carcass composition and meat quality. Results: The coat color of BC pigs exhibits a "dominant black" hereditary pattern, and all piglets derived from boars or sows genotyped ED1 ED1 homozygous for MC1R gene showed a uniform black coat phenotype. The BC F4 gilts displayed a good reproductive performance, showing a higher litter and tear size and were heavier at farrowing litter and at weaning litter than the CH gilts, but they reached puberty later than the CH gilts. BC F4 pigs exhibited improved growth and carcass characteristics with a higher average daily live weight gain, lower feed-to-gain ratio, and higher carcass lean meat rate than CH pigs. Like CH pigs, BC F4 pigs produced superior meat-quality characteristics, showing ideal pH and meat-color values, high intramuscular fat content and water-holding capacity, and acceptable muscle-fiber parameters. C18:1, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:2 were the main fatty acids in M. longissimus lumborum in the two breeds, and a remarkably high polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of ~0.39 was observed in the BC F4 pigs. Conclusion: The BC F4 pigs exhibit a uniform black coat pattern and acceptable total production performance.
Association study and expression analysis of olfactomedin like 3 gene related to meat quality, carcass characteristics, retail meat cut, and fatty acid composition in sheepListyarini, Kasita;Sumantri, Cece;Rahayu, Sri;Uddin, Muhammad Jasim;Gunawan, Asep 1489
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify polymorphism in olfactomedin like 3 (OLFML3) gene, and association analysis with meat quality, carcass characteristics, retail meat cut, and fatty acid composition in sheep, and expression quantification of OLFML3 gene in phenotypically divergent sheep. Methods: A total of 328 rams at the age of 10 to 12 months with an average body weight of 26.13 kg were used. A novel polymorphism was identified using high-throughput sequencing in sheep and genotyping of OLFML3 polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Among 328 rams, 100 rams representing various sheep genotypes were used for association study and proc general linear model was used to analyse association between genotypes and phenotypic traits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used for the expression analysis of OLFML3 mRNA in phenotypically divergent sheep population. Results: The findings revealed a novel polymorphism in the OLFML3 gene (g.90317673 C>T). The OLFML3 gene revealed three genotypes: CC, CT, and TT. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) associated with meat quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss; carcass characteristics such as carcass length; retail meat cut such as pelvic fat in leg, intramuscular fat in loin and tenderloin, muscle in flank and shank; fatty acids composition such as tridecanoic acid (C13:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), ginkgolic acid (C17:1), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), heneicosylic acid (C21:0), and nervonic acid (C24:1). The TT genotype was associated with higher level of meat quality, carcass characteristics, retail meat cut, and some fatty acids composition. However, the mRNA expression analysis was not different among genotypes. Conclusion: The OLFML3 gene could be a potential putative candidate for selecting higher quality sheep meat, carcass characteristics, retail meat cuts, and fatty acid composition in sheep.
Genetic parameters of milk and lactation curve traits of dairy cattle from research farms in ThailandObjective: This study was aimed to estimate the genetic parameters, including genetic and phenotypic correlations, of milk yield, lactation curve traits and milk composition of Thai dairy cattle from three government research farms. Methods: The data of 25,789 test-day milk yield and milk composition records of 1,468 cattle from lactation 1 to 3 of Holstein Friesian (HF) and crossbred HF dairy cattle calved between 1990 and 2015 from three government research farms in Thailand were analysed. 305-day milk yield was estimated by the Wood model and a test interval method. The Wood model was used for estimating cumulative 305-day milk yield, peak milk yield, days to peak milk yield and persistency. Genetic parameters were estimated using linear mixed models with herd, breed group, year and season of calving as fixed effects, and animals linked to a pedigree as random effects, together with a residual error. Univariate models were used to estimate variance components, heritability, estimated breeding values (EBVs) and repeatability of each trait, while pairwise bivariate models were used to estimate covariance components and correlations between traits in the same lactation and in the same trait across lactations. Results: The heritability of 305-day milk yield, peak milk yield and protein percentage have moderate to high estimates ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 while days to peak milk yield, persistency and fat percentage have low heritability ranging from 0.08 to 0.14 in lactation 1 cows. Further, heritability of most traits considered was higher in lactation 1 compared with lactations 2 and 3. For cows in lactation 1, high genetic correlations were found between 305-day milk yield and peak milk yield (0.86±0.07) and days to peak milk yield and persistency (0.99±0.02) while estimates of genetic correlations between the remaining traits were imprecise due to the high standard errors. The genetic correlations within the traits across lactation were high. There was no consistent trend of EBVs for most traits in the first lactation over the study period. Conclusion: Both the Wood model and test interval method can be used for milk yield estimates in these herds. However, the Wood model has advantages over the test interval method as it can be fitted using fewer test-day records and the estimated model parameters can be used to derive estimates of other lactation curve parameters. Milk yield, peak milk yield and protein percentage can be improved by a selection and mating program while days to peak milk yield, persistency and fat percentage can be improved by including into a selection index.
Identification and functional prediction of long non-coding RNAs related to skeletal muscle development in Duroc pigsMa, Lixia;Qin, Ming;Zhang, Yulun;Xue, Hui;Li, Shiyin;Chen, Wei;Zeng, Yongqing 1512
Objective: The growth of pigs involves multiple regulatory mechanisms, and modern molecular breeding techniques can be used to understand the skeletal muscle growth and development to promote the selection process of pigs. This study aims to explore candidate lncRNAs and mRNAs related to skeletal muscle growth and development among Duroc pigs with different average daily gain (ADG). Methods: A total of 8 pigs were selected and divided into two groups: H group (high-ADG) and L group (low-ADG). And followed by whole transcriptome sequencing to identify differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and mRNAs. Results: In RNA-seq, 703 DE mRNAs (263 up-regulated and 440 down-regulated) and 74 DE lncRNAs (45 up-regulated and 29 down-regulated) were identified. In addition, 1,418 Transcription factors (TFs) were found. Compared with mRNAs, lncRNAs had fewer exons, shorter transcript length and open reading frame length. DE mRNAs and DE lncRNAs can form 417 lncRNA-mRNA pairs (antisense, cis and trans). DE mRNAs and target genes of lncRNAs were enriched in cellular processes, biological regulation, and regulation of biological processes. In addition, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was used to detect the functions of DE mRNAs and lncRNAs, the most of DE mRNAs and target genes of lncRNAs were enriched in QTLs related to growth traits and skeletal muscle development. In single-nucleotide polymorphism/insertion-deletion (SNP/INDEL) analysis, 1,081,182 SNP and 131,721 INDEL were found, and transition was more than transversion. Over 60% of percentage were skipped exon events among alternative splicing events. Conclusion: The results showed that different ADG among Duroc pigs with the same diet maybe due to the DE mRNAs and DE lncRNAs related to skeletal muscle growth and development.
Effect of temporary weaning and creep feeding on calf growth and the reproductive efficiency of their Hereford damsCruz, R. Santa;De Barbieri, I.;Olmo, V. Morales;Montossi, F.;Vinoles, C. 1524
Objective: The objective was to test if creep feeding (CF) improves the average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight of calves submitted to temporary weaning (TW) and if the combination of CF and TW improves conception and pregnancy rates of cows. Methods: Primiparous (n = 74) and primiparous and multiparous (n = 104) cows grazing native grasslands were used in experiment 1 and 2; respectively. The experimental design was in plots divided into complete random blocks with two replications. The CF was the big plot and TW the small plot, thus four experimental groups were formed: i) -CF-TW (n = 21 and 27); ii) -CF+TW (n = 16 and 24); iii) +CF-TW (n = 20 and 26); iv) +CF+TW (n = 17 and 27) with cow-calf pairs for experiments 1 and 2; respectively. Nose plate application for TW had a duration of 14 and 15 days for experiment 1 and 2: respectively. In experiment 1, calves were fed at 1% of live weight for 112 days using a commercial supplement with 18.4% crude protein. In experiment 2, the supplementation lasted 98 days, and was carried out with corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) at 40% of the potential intake on a daily basis. Results: The TW reduced ADG during the TW period and the following 14 days, but the negative effect of TW was maintained until the final weaning only in experiment 2. The CF increased ADG during TW period in both experiments. The TW promoted an earlier conception of the dams (12 days in -CF treatment and 19 days in +CF treatment, p<0.01) and CF increased pregnancy rate in experiment 1, being the effects not consistent between experiments. Conclusion: The CF consistently promoted an increase in ADG during the period of TW and increased final weaning weight of calves, therefore it is economically viable.
Microbiome-metabolomics analysis of the effects of decreasing dietary crude protein content on goat rumen mictobiota and metabolitesZhu, Wen;Liu, Tianwei;Deng, Jian;Wei, Cong Cong;Zhang, Zi Jun;Wang, Di Ming;Chen, Xing Yong 1535
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of decreasing dietary crude protein content on rumen fermentation, mictobiota, and metabolites in goats. Methods: In an 84-day feeding trial, a total of twelve male Anhui white goat kids with initial body weight 15.9±1.13 kg were selected and randomly classified into two groups, feeding a normal crude protein diet (14.8% CP, NCP) or a low crude protein diet (12.0% CP, LCP). At the end of the experimental trial (on day 84), six animals were randomly selected from each group and were slaughtered to collect rumen fluid samples for the analysis of rumen fermentation parameters, microbiome, and metabolome. Results: The concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid, acetate, and propionate were decreased (p<0.05) in the LCP group in comparison with those in the NCP group. The abundances of genera Prevotella, Campylobacter, Synergistetes, and TG5, which were associated with nitrogen metabolism, were lower (p<0.05) in the LCP group compared with those in the NCP group. The levels of 78 metabolites (74 decreased, 4 increased) in the rumen fluid were altered (p<0.05) by the treatment. Most of the ruminal metabolites that showed decreased levels in the LCP group were substrates for microbial protein synthesis. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that vitamin B6 metabolism was significantly different (p<0.05) in rumen fluid between the two treatments. Conclusion: Decreased dietary protein level inhibited rumen fermentation through microbiome and metabolome shifts in goat kids. These results enhance our understanding of ruminal bacteria and metabolites of goat fed a low protein diet.
Effects of feeding high-energy diet on growth performance, blood parameters, and carcass traits in Hanwoo steersKang, Dong Hun;Chung, Ki Yong;Park, Bo Hye;Kim, Ui Hyung;Jang, Sun Sik;Smith, Zachary K.;Kim, Jongkyoo 1545
Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the effects of a 2% increase in dietary total digestible nutrients (TDN) value during the growing (7 to 12 mo of age) and fattening (13 to 30 mo of age) period of Hanwoo steers. Methods: Two hundred and twenty Hanwoo steers were assigned to one of two treatments: i) a control group (basal TDN, BTDN, n = 111 steers, growing = 70.5%, early fattening = 71.0%, late fattening = 74.0%) or high TDN (HTDN, n = 109 steers, growing = 72.6%, early = 73.1%, late = 76.2%). Growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, and gene expression of longissimus dorsi (LD) (7, 18, and 30 mo) were quantified. Results: Steers on the BTDN diets had increased (p≤0.02) DMI throughout the feeding trial compared to HTDN, but gain did not differ appreciably. A greater proportion of cattle in HTDN received Korean quality grade 1 (82%) or greater compared to BTDN (77%), while HTDN had a greater yield grade (29%) than BTDN (20%). Redness (a*) of LD muscle was improved (p = 0.021) in steers fed HTDN. Feeding the HTDN diet did not alter blood parameters. Steers fed HTDN diet increased (p = 0.015) the proportion of stearic acid and tended to alter linoleic acid. Overall, saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids of LD muscle were not impacted by the HTDN treatment. A treatment by age interaction was noted for mRNA expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIA, IIX, and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) (p≤0.026). No treatment effect was detected on gene expression from LD muscle biopsies at 7, 18, and 30 mo of age; however, an age effect was detected for all variables measured (p≤0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicated that feeding HTDN diet could improve overall quality grade while minimum effects were noted in gene expression, blood parameters, and growing performance. Cattle performance prediction in the feedlot is a critical decision-making tool for optimal planning of cattle fattening and these data provide both benchmark physiological parameters and growth performance measures for Hanwoo cattle feeding enterprises.
Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid and rumen-protected methionine increased growth performance and meat quality of Tan lambsZhang, Jian Hao;Li, Hai Hai;Zhang, Gui Jie;Zhang, Ying Hui;Liu, Bo;Huang, Shuai;Guyader, Jessie;Zhong, Rong Zhen 1556
Objective: Tan lambs (n = 36, 3 mo old, 19.1±0.53 kg) were used to assess effects of dietary guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and serum parameters. Methods: Lambs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, with 6 pens per group and 2 lambs per pen. Dietary treatments were: basal diet alone (I); basal diet supplemented with 0.08% GAA+0.06% RPM (II); and basal diet supplemented with 0.08% GAA+0.08% RPM (III). Diets were provided three times a day for 90 d. Intake per pen was recorded daily and individual lamb body weight (BW) was measured monthly. Carcass traits were measured after slaughter and meat quality at the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken on a subgroup of lambs for analysis of indicators mostly related to protein metabolism. Results: Final BW and average daily gain for the first and second month, and for the entire experiment were greater in Treatment II compared to Treatment I (p<0.05), whereas feed to gain ratio was lower (p<0.05). Treatment II had the optimal dressing percentage and net meat weight proportion, as well as crude protein and intramuscular fat concentrations in muscles. Treatment II improved meat quality, as indicated by the greater water holding capacity, pH after 45 min and 48 h, and lower shear force and cooking loss. Dietary supplementation of GAA and RPM also increased the meat color a* and b* values at 24 h. Finally, Treatment II increased total protein, and serum concentrations of albumin and creatinine, but decreased serum urea nitrogen concentrations, indicating improved protein efficiency. Conclusion: In this study, 0.08% GAA+0.06% RPM supplementation improved growth performance and meat quality of Tan lambs.
Effects of dietary methyl sulfonyl methane and selenium on laying performance, egg quality, gut health indicators, and antioxidant capacity of laying hensKim, Yoo Bhin;Lee, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Da-Hye;Lee, Kyung-Woo 1566
Objective: This study investigated the effects of dietary methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) and selenium (Se) on the laying performance, egg quality, gut health indicators, egg yolk Se content, and antioxidant markers in laying hens. Methods: One hundred ninety-two 73-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into four groups with eight replicates of six hens each. Four diets were prepared in a 2×2 factorial arrangement with or without MSM and Se. The trial lasted for 12 wk. Results: There were no interaction effects or main effects (p>0.05) on laying performance and egg quality. However, feed intake increased in Se-fed hens (p = 0.051) and decreased in MSM-fed hens (p = 0.067) compared with that of hens in the control group. Dietary MSM increased (p<0.05) the ileal villus height and villus height:crypt ratio in hens compared with those receiving the non-supplemented control diet. Dietary MSM and Se did not affect the percentage of short-chain fatty acids in the ileal contents. Dietary Se enriched the Se content in egg yolk compared with that of the non-supplemented control diet (p<0.05). Dietary Se increased (p<0.05) glutathione peroxidase levels in the liver and serum samples compared to the control diet. The total antioxidant capacity in the liver increased (p<0.05) in laying hens that were fed MSM-supplemented diets than in hens fed the control diet. Dietary MSM significantly increased the relative superoxide dismutase levels in serum samples (p<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with either MSM or Se independently improved the antioxidant capacity of laying hens. Furthermore, dietary Se produced Se-enriched eggs, but this effect was neither additive nor synergistic with dietary MSM.
Effect of partially replacing soybean meal with sunflower meal with supplementation of multienzymes on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, ileal digestibility, digestive enzyme activity and caecal microbiota in broilersYaqoob, Muhammad Umar;Yousaf, Muhammad;Imran, Safdar;Hassan, Safdar;Iqbal, Waqar;Zahid, Muhammad Umer;Ahmad, Naveed;Wang, Minqi 1575
Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) with sunflower meal (SFM) with added exogenous multienzymes (MEs) on various biological parameters in broilers. Methods: One week-old, 400 broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments (control, 3SFM, 6SFM, and 9SFM) with 5 replicates/treatment (20 chicks/replicate). Control diet was without SFM and MEs, while diets of 3SFM, 6SFM, and 9SFM treatments were prepared by replacing SBM with SFM at levels of 3%, 6%, and 9%, respectively, and were supplemented with MEs (100 mg/kg). Feeding trial was divided into grower (8 to 21 day) and finisher phases (22 to 35 day). External marker method was used to measure the nutrient digestibility. At the end of trial, twenty birds (one birds per replicate) with similar body weight were slaughtered for samples collection. Results: No significant effect of dietary treatments was found on all parameters of growth performance and carcass characteristics, except relative weight of bursa. Weight (25.0 g) and length (15.80 cm) of duodenum were significantly (p<0.05) higher in 3SFM than control. Lowest (p<0.05) villus height/crypt depth ratio was found in 3SFM and 9SFM than control. Most of meat quality parameters remained unaffected, however, highest pH of breast meat (6.16) and thigh meat (6.44) were observed in 9SFM and 3SFM, respectively. Lowest (p<0.05) cook loss of thigh meat was found in 6SFM (31.76%). Ileal digestibility of crude protein was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 3SFM (72.35%) than control (69.46%). In addition, amylase (16.87 U/mg) and protease (85.18 U/mg) activities were significantly (p<0.05) higher in 3SFM than control. However, cecal microbial count remained unaffected. Conclusion: Partial replacement (up to 9%) of SBM with SFM, with added MEs can help to improve the nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and digestive enzyme activities without affecting cecal microbial count and growth performance in broilers.
Exogenous emulsifiers and multi-enzyme combination improves growth performance of the young broiler chickens fed low energy diets containing vegetable oilWickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka;Macelline, Shemil Priyan;Kim, Eunjoo;Shin, Taeg Kyun;Cho, Hyun Min;Jayasena, Dinesh D.;Heo, Jung Min 1585
Objective: The present study examined the effects of exogenous emulsifiers and multi-enzyme supplementation into a low energy density diet on growth performance, visceral organ parameters, blood metabolites, ileal morphology, and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens from hatch to 21 days. Methods: One hundred and sixty-eight one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to 24 pens and each pen was assigned to one of four dietary treatments to give six replications with seven chickens in a cage. Dietary treatments were: i) positive control with standard energy level (PC); ii) negative control with 100 kcal/kg lower energy of the standard level (NC); iii) NC diet supplemented 0.05% calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate as an emulsifier (NC+E); and iv) NC diet supplemented with both 0.05% calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and 0.05% multi-enzyme (NC+E+M). Corn and soybean meal-based control diets containing vegetable oil were formulated to meet the Ross 308 nutrition specification. Chickens were fed ad-libitum with the treatment diets and sampling was conducted on day 21. Results: Our results revealed that emulsifier and multi-enzyme supplementation into NC diets improved (p<0.05) feed efficiency of the broiler chickens compared to the broiler chickens fed NC diets from hatch to 21 days. Supplementation of emulsifier and multi-enzyme into NC diet improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility of the broiler chickens. However, emulsifier and multi-enzyme supplementation into diet did not influence (p>0.05) visceral organ weight, blood metabolites, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens fed NC diets. Conclusion: Supplementation of emulsifier and multi-enzyme in the NC diet would support improving growth performance in young broiler chickens with improved feed efficiency and increased nutrient digestibility thereby curtailing the negative impact of energy reduction in the diets.
Three-step in vitro digestion model for evaluating and predicting fecal odor emission from growing pigs with different dietary protein intakesObjective: The objective of this study was to select an effective in vitro digestion-fermentation model to estimate the effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) on odor emission during pig production and to suggest potential prediction markers through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods: In the in vitro experiment, three diet formulations with different CP contents (170 g/kg, 150 g/kg, and 130 g/kg) but containing the same standardized ileal digestible essential amino acids (SID-EAA) were assessed. Each diet was evaluated by two different in vitro gastric-intestinal phase digestion methods (flask and dialysis), combined with fresh pig feces-ferment inoculation. Eighteen growing barrows (31.9±1.6 kg) were divided into three groups: control diet (180 g CP/kg, without SID-EAA adjustment), 170 g CP/kg diet, and 150 g CP/kg diet for 4 weeks. Results: The in vitro digestion results indicated that in vitro digestibility was affected by the gastric-intestinal phase digestion method and dietary CP level. According to the gas kinetic and digestibility results, the dialysis method showed greater distinguishability for dietary CP level adjustment. Nitrogen-related odor compounds (NH3-N, indole, p-cresol, and skatole) were highly correlated with urease and protease activity. The feeding study indicated that both EAA-adjusted diets resulted in a lower odor emission especially in p-cresol and skatole. Both protease and urease activity in feces were also closely related to odor emissions from nitrogen metabolism compounds. Conclusion: Dialysis digestion in the gastric-intestinal phase followed by fresh fecal inoculation fermentation is suitable for in vitro diet evaluation. The enzyme activity in the fermentation and the fecal samples might provide a simple and effective estimation tool for nitrogen-related odor emission prediction in both in vitro and in vivo experiments.
Effect of propolis supplementation and breed on growth performance, immunity, blood parameters and cecal microbiota in growing rabbitsAl-Homidan, Ibrahim;Fathi, Moataz;Abdelsalam, Magdy;Ebeid, Tarek;Abou-Emera, Osama;Mostafa, Mohamed;Abd El-Razik, Mohamed;Shehab-El-Deen, Mohamed 1606
Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of dietary supplemented propolis in two growing rabbit breeds on growth performance, immune response, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, and cecal microflora composition. Methods: A total of 90 growing rabbits aged 6 weeks from two breeds (V-line and Jabali) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary propolis experimental treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a 2×3 factorial arrangement with two rabbit breeds and three levels of dietary propolis supplementation (0, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg). Each sub-treatment has 15 rabbits. The experimental period lasted six weeks. Results: There were no significant differences in growth performance and carcass characteristics due to propolis administration. Propolis supplementation at a high level significantly increased (linear; p<0.05) cellular-mediated immunity compared with the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the rabbits receiving propolis exhibited a significant increase (linear and quadratic; p<0.03) in IgM immunoglobulins compared to the control. The current study provides further evidence that the dietary inclusion of propolis can significantly reduce pathogenic bacterial colonization in growing rabbits. The total count of microflora, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. was significantly lower (linear; p<0.01) in supplemented rabbit groups compared to the control group according to the microbiological analysis of cecal digesta. Based on breed effect, the results indicated that Jabali rabbits (local) performed better than V-line rabbits (foreign) in the majority of the studied traits. Conclusion: Dietary propolis is promising for further investigation into improving intestinal health and enhancing immunity in growing rabbits.
Oxidative stress impairs the meat quality of broiler by damaging mitochondrial function, affecting calcium metabolism and leading to ferroptosisChen, Zuodong;Xing, Tong;Li, Jiaolong;Zhang, Lin;Jiang, Yun;Gao, Feng 1616
Objective: This work was conducted to investigate the effects of oxidative stress on meat quality, mitochondrial function, calcium metabolism and ferroptosis of broilers. Methods: In this study, a total of 144 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 3 groups (control group, saline group, and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] group) with 6 replicates of 8 broilers each. The study lasted for 42 d. The broilers in the saline and H2O2 groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0.75% saline and 10.0% H2O2 on the 16th and 37th day of the experimental period respectively, the injection volumes were 1.0 mL/kg of broiler body weight. On the 42nd day of the experimental period, two chicks were randomly selected from each cage, a total of thirty-six chicks were stunned by electric shock and slaughtered to collect breast muscle samples. Results: The H2O2 exposure reduced pH value, increased drip loss and shear force of breast meat (p<0.05), impaired the ultrastructure and function of mitochondria. The H2O2 exposure damaged the antioxidant system in mitochondria, excessive reactive oxygen species carbonylation modified calcium channels on mitochondria, which impaired the activities of key enzymes on calcium channel, resulted in the increased calcium concentration in cytoplasm and mitochondria (p<0.05). In addition, the H2O2 exposure increased the iron content and lipid peroxidation (p<0.05), which induced ferroptosis. Conclusion: Oxidative stress could impair meat quality by causing mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in calcium metabolism disorder and ferroptosis.
Effect of dietary metallo-protease and Bacillus velezensis CE 100 supplementations on growth performance, footpad dermatitis and manure odor in broiler chickensObjective: This study focused on the effect of dietary metallo-protease and Bacillus velezensis CE 100 on growth performance, carcass parameters, intestinal microflora, footpad dermatitis (FPD), and manure odor in broiler chickens. Methods: One hundred-ten (two-day-old Ross 308) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five groups with two replicate pens. The dietary treatments were divided to control, metallo-protease groups (A1, added with 0.1%; A2, added with 0.2%) and B. velezensis CE 100 groups (B1, added with 0.5%; B2, added with 1.0%). Results: The feed intake was decreased in A1 and B2 compared to the other group (p<0.05). The liver weight was lower in B2 than in A2 (p<0.05). The Salmonella in the cecum was decreased in A2 compared to control and A1 (p<0.05). However, the lactic acid bacteria were increased in all treatments (p<0.05). The litter moisture content was decreased in A2, B1, and B2 (p<0.05). The litter quality visual score was increased in all treatments (p<0.05). The FPD score and prevalence were reduced in all treatments (p<0.05). The (CH3)2S emission was decreased in all treatments (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study indicated that both additives improve litter quality and reduce the incidence of FPD. These findings suggest that dietary metallo-protease and B. velezensis CE 100 have the potential to improve the broiler chickens' welfare.