- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Aim & Scope
Animal Bioscience (AB) aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry. Animal Bioscience will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems. Animal Bioscience is subdivided into 10 sections. Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming systemhttps://submit.animbiosci.org/ KCI SCOPUS SCI SCIE
Volume 35 Issue 12
Public concern on the methods of raising food-producing animals has increased, especially in the last two decades, leading to voluntary and mandated changes in the animal production methods. The primary objective of these changes is to improve the welfare of farm animals. The use of gestational stalls is currently a major welfare issue in swine production. Several studies assessed the welfare of alternative housing systems for gestating sows. A comparative study was performed with gestating sows housed in either individual stalls or in groups in a pen with an electronic sow feeder. This review assessed the welfare of each housing system using physiological, behavioral, and reproductive performance criteria. The current review identified clear advantages and disadvantages of each housing system. Individual stall housing allowed each sow to be given an individually tailored diet without competition, but the sows had behavioral restrictions and showed stereotypical behaviors (e.g., bar biting, nosing, palate grinding, etc.). Group-housed sows had increased opportunities to display such behavior (e.g., ability to move around and social interactions); however, a higher prevalence of aggressive behavior, especially first mixing in static group type, caused a negative impact on longevity (more body lesions, scratch and bite injuries, and lameness, especially in subordinate sows). Conclusively, a more segmented and diversified welfare assessment could be beneficial for a precise evaluation of each housing system for sows. Further efforts should be made to reduce aggression-driven injuries and design housing systems (feeding regimen, floor, bedding, etc.) to improve the welfare of group-housed sows.
Genome-wide association study for frozen-thawed sperm motility in stallions across various horse breedsNikitkina, Elena V.;Dementieva, Natalia V.;Shcherbakov, Yuri S.;Atroshchenko, Mikhail M.;Kudinov, Andrei A.;Samoylov, Oleg I.;Pozovnikova, Marina V.;Dysin, Artem P.;Krutikova, Anna A.;Musidray, Artem A.;Mitrofanova, Olga V.;Plemyashov, Kirill V.;Griffin, Darren K.;Romanov, Michael N. 1827
Objective: The semen quality of stallions including sperm motility is an important target of selection as it has a high level of individual variability. However, effects of the molecular architecture of the genome on the mechanisms of sperm formation and their preservation after thawing have been poorly investigated. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the sperm motility of cryopreserved semen in stallions of various breeds. Methods: Semen samples were collected from the stallions of 23 horse breeds. The following semen characteristics were examined: progressive motility (PM), progressive motility after freezing (FPM), and the difference between PM and FPM. The respective DNA samples from these stallions were genotyped using Axiom Equine Genotyping Array. Results: We performed a GWAS search for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and potential genes related to motility properties of frozen-thawed semen in the stallions of various breeds. As a result of the GWAS analysis, two SNP markers, rs1141327473 and rs1149048772, were identified that were associated with preservation of the frozen-thawed stallion sperm motility, the relevant putative candidate genes being NME/NM23 family member 8 (NME8), olfactory receptor family 2 subfamily AP member 1 (OR2AP1), and olfactory receptor family 6 subfamily C member 4 (OR6C4). Potential implications of effects of these genes on sperm motility are herein discussed. Conclusion: The GWAS results enabled us to localize novel SNPs and candidate genes for sperm motility in stallions. Implications of the study for horse breeding and genetics are a better understanding of genomic regions and candidate genes underlying stallion sperm quality, and improvement in horse reproduction and breeding techniques. The identified markers and genes for sperm cryotolerance and the respective genomic regions are promising candidates for further studying the biological processes in the formation and function of the stallion reproductive system.
Single nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis of the genetic structure of the Min pig conserved populationMeng, Fanbing;Cai, Jiancheng;Wang, Chunan;Fu, Dechang;Di, Shengwei;Wang, Xibiao;Chang, Yang;Xu, Chunzhu 1839
Objective: The study aims to uncover the genetic diversity and unique genetic structure of the Min pig conserved population, divide the nucleus conservation population, and construct the molecular pedigree. Methods: We used KPS Porcine Breeding Chip v1 50K for SNP detection of 94 samples (31♂, 63♀) in the Min pig conserved population from Lanxi breeding Farm. Results: The polymorphic marker ratio (PN), the observed heterozygosity (Ho), and the expected heterozygosity (He) were 0.663, 0.335, and 0.330, respectively. The pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (FPED) was significantly different from those estimated from runs of homozygosity (FROH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (FSNP) based on genome. The Pearson correlation coefficient between FROH and FSNP was significant (p<0.05). The effective population content (Ne) showed a continuously decreasing trend. The rate of decline was the slowest from 200 to 50 generations ago (r = 0.95), then accelerated slightly from 50 to 5 generations ago (1.40PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ are suitable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in sowsKim, Hwan-Deuk;Jo, Chan-Hee;Choe, Yong-Ho;Lee, Hyeon-Jeong;Jang, Min;Bae, Seul-Gi;Yun, Sung-Ho;Lee, Sung-Lim;Rho, Gyu-Jin;Kim, Seung-Joon;Lee, Won-Jae 1850
Objective: The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the most accurate and reliable technique for analysis of gene expression. Endogenous reference genes (RGs) have been used to normalize qPCR data, although their expression may vary in different tissues and experimental conditions. Verification of the stability of RGs in selected samples is a prerequisite for reliable results. Therefore, we attempted to identify the most stable RGs in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in sows. Methods: The cycle threshold values of nine commonly used RGs (18S, HPRT1, GAPDH, RPL4, PPIA, B2M, YWHAZ, ACTB, and SDHA) from HPG axis-related tissues in the domestic sows in the different stages of estrus cycle were analyzed using two RG-finding programs, geNorm and Normfinder, to rank the stability of the pool of RGs. In addition, the effect of the most and least stable RGs was examined by normalization of the target gene, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), in the hypothalamus. Results: PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ were the most stable RGs in the HPG axis-related tissues in sows regardless of the stages of estrus cycle. In contrast, traditional RGs, including 18S and ACTB, were found to be the least stable under these experimental conditions. In particular, in the normalization of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus against several stable RGs, PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ, could generate significant (p<0.05) elevation of GnRH in the preovulatory phase compared to the luteal phase, but the traditional RGs with the least stability (18S and ACTB) did not show a significant difference between groups. Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of verifying RG stability prior to commencing research and may contribute to experimental design in the field of animal reproductive physiology as reference data.Fermentative products and bacterial community structure of C4 forage silage in response to epiphytic microbiota from C3 foragesWang, Siran;Shao, Tao;Li, Junfeng;Zhao, Jie;Dong, Zhihao 1860
Objective: The observation that temperate C3 and tropical C4 forage silages easily produce large amounts of ethanol or acetic acid has puzzled researchers for many years. Hence, this study aimed to assess the effects of epiphytic microbiota from C3 forages (Italian ryegrass and oat) on fermentative products and bacterial community structure in C4 forage (sorghum) silage. Methods: Through microbiota transplantation and γ-ray irradiation sterilization, the irradiated sorghum was treated: i) sterile distilled water (STSG); ii) epiphytic microbiota from sorghum (SGSG); iii) epiphytic microbiota from Italian ryegrass (SGIR); iv) epiphytic microbiota from oat (SGOT). Results: After 60 days, all the treated groups had high lactic acid (>63.0 g/kg dry matter [DM]) contents and low pH values (<3.70), acetic acid (<14.0 g/kg DM) and ammonia nitrogen (<80.0 g/kg total nitrogen) contents. Notably, SGIR (59.8 g/kg DM) and SGOT (77.6 g/kg DM) had significantly (p<0.05) higher ethanol concentrations than SGSG (14.2 g/kg DM) on day 60. After 60 days, Lactobacillus were predominant genus in three treated groups. Higher proportions of Chishuiella (12.9%) and Chryseobacterium (7.33%) were first found in silages. The ethanol contents had a positive correlation (p<0.05) with the abundances of Chishuiella, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Sphingobacterium. Conclusion: The epiphytic bacteria on raw materials played important roles in influencing the silage fermentation products between temperate C3 and tropical C4 forages. The quantity and activity of hetero-fermentative Lactobacillus, Chishuiella, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Sphingobacterium may be the key factors for the higher ethanol contents and DM loss in silages.Li, Yan Fen;Wang, Li Li;Jeong, Eun Chan;Kim, Hak Jin;Ahmadi, Farhad;Kim, Jong Geun 1871
Objective: The primary goal was to identify the effectiveness of chemical or biological additives in delaying the deterioration of early-harvested wilted rye silage after exposure to air. Methods: Rye harvested as a whole plant at the early heading stage was wilted for 24 h. The wilted forage was divided into treatments including sodium diacetate (SDA) at 3 (SDA3) and 6 g/kg (SDA6), Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), L. buchneri (LB), or their equal mixture (LP+LB) at 1×106 colony-forming unit/g fresh matter. Results: After 60 d of conservation in 20-L silos, lactic acid was greater in LP and LP+LB silages than other treatments (102 vs 90.2 g/kg dry matter [DM]). Acetic acid was greatest in SDA6 (32.0 g/kg DM) followed by LB (26.1 g/kg DM) and was lowest in LP treatment (4.73 g/kg DM). Silage pH was lower with microbial inoculation and the lowest and highest values were observed in LP and untreated silages, respectively. After 60 d, neutral detergent fiber concentration was lowest in SDA6 silages, resulting in the greatest in vitro DM digestibility (846 g/kg DM). Aerobic stability was longest in SDA6 (176 h) followed by LB treatment (134 h). Instability after aerobiosis was greatest in LP silages (68 h), about 8 h less than untreated silages. After aerobic exposure, yeast and mold numbers were lowest in SDA6 silages, resulting in DM loss minimization. Exhaustion of acetic acid and lactic acid after aerobic exposure was lowest with SDA6 but greatest with untreated and LP silages. Conclusion: Treatment of early-cut wilted rye forage with SDA at 6 g/kg resulted in silages with higher feeding value and fermentation quality, and substantially delayed deterioration after aerobic exposure, potentially qualifying SDA at this load for promotion of silage quality and delaying aerobic spoilage of early-harvested (low DM) rye forage.Irawan, Agung;Ratriyanto, Adi;Respati, Adib Norma;Ningsih, Niati;Fitriastuti, Rahma;Suprayogi, Wara Pratitis Sabar;Hadi, Rendi Fathoni;Setyono, Wahyu;Akhirini, Novi;Jayanegara, Anuraga 1881
Objective: The present study aimed to quantify the effects of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on broiler chickens' performance by employing a meta-analysis approach. Methods: A total of 16 studies were included in the database after being systematically selected using a PRISMA protocol. Hedges' g effect size was used to quantify pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models at 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Publication bias among studies was computed with Egger's test and visualized using funnel plots. Results: Results indicated that dietary FSBM inclusion increased final body weight (BW) (SMD = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.221 to 0.951, p = 0.002) of broiler chickens, particularly in starter period (SMD = 0.691, 95% CL: 0.149 to 1.233, p = 0.013) while in the finisher period, the effect was weaker (SMD = 0.509, 95% CI: 0.015 to 1.004, p = 0.043). Average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected with FSBM inclusion when compared to control. Subgroup analysis revealed that FI increased in starter period (SMD = 0.582, 95% CI: 0.037 to 1.128, p = 0.036). When considering types of microorganism as moderating variables in the subgroup analysis, we found that Aspergillus oryzae, mixed probiotics+bromelain protease, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus bacteria significantly increased ADG and FI (p<0.01). Additionally, either Bacillus subtilis+protease or Bacillus subtilis alone decreased FCR (p<0.001). However, meta-regression analysis showed that levels of FSBM inclusion had no effects on final BW (p = 0.502), ADG (p = 0.588), FI (p = 0.861), and FCR (p = 0.462). Conclusion: Substituting SBM in broiler chickens' diet with FSBM improved BW of broiler chickens, especially in the starter period whereas the effects on ADG, FI, and FCR were mostly dependent on microbial strains used for fermentation.Effects of fermented soybean meal with Bacillus velezensis, Lactobacillus spp. or their combination on broiler performance, gut antioxidant activity and microfloraTsai, C.F.;Lin, L.J.;Wang, C.H.;Tsai, C.S.;Chang, S.C.;Lee, T.T. 1892
Objective: A series of experiment were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing a part of soybean meal (SBM) at 6% of broiler diets with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) obtained by single or two-stage fermentation by measuring growth performance, antioxidant activity in the jejunum and distal intestinal microflora. Methods: Soybean meal samples were prepared by single-stage fermentation using Bacillus velezensis (Bv) (FSBMB), or Lactobacillus spp. (as commercial control) (FSBML). Additional SBM sample was prepared by two-stage fermentation using Bv and subsequently using Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 (Lb) (FSBMB+L). Enzyme activity, chemical composition, trichloroethanoic acid-nitrogen solubility index (TCA-NSI) and antioxidant activity were measured. Then, in an in vivo study, 320 Ross308 broilers were divided into four groups with ad libitum supply of feed and water. Four groups were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (SBM), or one of fermented SBM diets (FSBMB+L, FSBMB, and FSBML). Growth, serum characteristics, microflora, and the mRNA expression of selected genes were measured. Results: Compared to SBM, FSBMB+L contained lower galacto-oligosaccharide, allergic protein, and trypsin inhibitor, and higher TCA-NSI by about three times (p<0.05). Reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging ability correlated positively with the TCA-NSI content in FSBM. Growth performances were not significantly different among four groups. In jejunum of 35-day-old broilers, partial replacement of SBM by FSBMB+L increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT), and the FSBMB group had the highest catalase activity (p<0.05). Partial replacement of SBM by FSBM increased relative mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) (p<0.05); however, FSBMB+L increased CAT mRNA level to 5 times of the control (p<0.05). Conclusion: Using Bv- and Lb-processed SBM through two-stage fermentation to partially replace 6% of diets will improve the gut's antioxidant activity under commercial breeding in broilers.Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of corticotrophin releasing factor on the gene expression of ghrelin and corticotrophin releasing factor receptors in broiler chickensObjective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on the feed intake of broiler chickens and explore its influencing mechanism. Methods: The study included two trials. In trial 1, 32 male broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, Gallus gallus domesticus) were given ventricle buried tubes, and they were allowed to recover for 3 days. At 8:00 AM, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with CRF or normal saline was performed in 10-day-old broiler chickens, which were divided into the 5, 10, and 20 ㎍ and control (normal saline) groups according to the dose of CRF injection. In trial 2, chickens were divided into the 10 ㎍ and control group (physiological saline) to repeat trial 1. Results: Results of trial 1 showed that the cumulative amount of feed intake in the 10 or 20 ㎍ groups was considerably lower than that of the control group after ICV injection with CRF. The lowest amount of feed intake was obtained with the addition of 10 ㎍ of CRF. In trial 2, the expression of ghrelin in the hypothalamus injected with 10 ㎍ of CRF increased significantly, but the expression of ghrelin in various sections of the small intestine considerably decreased. The expression of CRF receptor subtypes 1 (CRFR1) in the hypothalamus and some parts of the small intestine remarkably increased, and the expression of CRF receptor subtypes 2 (CRFR2) increased only in the duodenum, whereas the expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR-1α) in the jejunum and ileum increased considerably after ICV injection of 10 ㎍ of CRF. Conclusion: The CRF at 10 ㎍ increased ghrelin expression in the hypothalamus and CRFR1 expression in the small intestine, and this phenomenon was related to the suppressed feed intake of broiler chickens.Apparent metabolizable energy, growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quail fed select modern grain sorghum varietiesMoritz, A.H.;Krombeen, S.K.;Presgraves, J.;Blair, M.E.;Buresh, R.E.;Bridges, W.C.;Arguelles-Ramos, M.;Wilmoth, T.A. 1911
Objective: This study was performed to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of tannin-free red/bronze, white/tan and U.S. No. 2 varieties of grain sorghum for feeding Japanese quail and validate their nutrient profile by evaluating effects on performance and carcass traits with full-substitution of corn. Methods: Experiment 1 determined the AMEn content of red/bronze, white/tan, and U.S. No. 2 grain sorghum varieties fed to mixed-sex Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (n = 314) at 3 and 6-weeks of age. Analyses were based on a 2×4 factorial treatment design with age and grain types defining the treatments, and a randomized complete block experiment design with cage and trials defining the block. AMEn values were validated by evaluating the performance and carcass traits of Japanese quail (n = 644) from 1 to 40 days of age in Experiment 2 with birds were fed 1 of 4 complete diets. Statistical analyses were conducted on performance data and select individual carcass trait measurements. Results: Determined AMEn values at 3-weeks of age were 3,524±122.03 (red/bronze), 3,252±122.03 (white/tan), and 3,039±123.44 (U.S. No. 2) kcal/kg. At 6-weeks of age, determined AMEn were 3,373±297.35 (red/bronze), 3,279±297.35 (white/tan), and 2,966±298.64 (U.S. No. 2) kcal/kg. Carcass traits showed live body weight (p = 0.0409) and hot carcass weight (p = 0.0234) were greatest in U.S. No. 2; however, carcass yield (p<0.0001) was lowest. No significant differences were observed among treatments for feed intake, feed conversion ratio, breast weight and breast yield (p>0.05). Conclusion: These studies demonstrated that tannin-free grain sorghum varieties may be a potential alternative to corn in quail diets while maintaining growth performance and carcass parameters.Age quadratically affects intestinal calcium and phosphorus transporter gene expression in broiler chickensLv, Xianliang;Hao, Junfang;Wu, Lihua;Liu, Mengyuan;He, Lei;Qiao, Yingying;Cui, Yanyan;Wang, Guan;Zhang, Chunmei;Qu, Hongxia;Han, Jincheng 1921
Objective: This research aimed to evaluate the effects of age on growth, tibia development, and intestinal calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) transporter gene expressions in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 224 male Arbor Acres broilers were fed with nutrient-adequate diets and reared in eight cages (28 broilers per cage). Eight broilers (one broiler per cage) were selected and killed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 days of age, respectively. Results: Body weight continuously increased with age of broiler chickens from 5 to 40 days. The bone weight, ash weight, diameter, and length of the tibia also increased with broiler age. By contrast, the tibia ash, Ca, and P percentages quadratically changed with age (p<0.001), and the highest values of mineral contents were observed at 20, 25, and 25 days of age, respectively. The mRNA abundances of calcium-binding protein 28-kDa (CaBP-D28k), sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1), and plasma membrane ATPase 1b (PMCA1b) increased from 5 to 25 days and then decreased up to 40 days. Similar results were noted in the mRNA abundances of IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb), inorganic phosphate transporter 1 (PiT-1), inorganic phosphate transporter 2 (PiT-2), nuclear vitamin D receptor (nVDR), and membrane vitamin D receptor (mVDR). The mRNA abundances of Ca and P transporters and VDRs were the highest at 25 days of age. Conclusion: These data indicate that age quadratically affects intestinal Ca and P transporter gene expression and mineral absorption capacity in broiler chickens.Oketch, Elijah Ogola;Lee, Jung Woo;Yu, Myunghwan;Hong, Jun Seon;Kim, Yu Bin;Nawarathne, Shan Randima;Chiu, Josh Wen-Cheng;Heo, Jung Min 1929
Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of exogenous emulsifiers in broiler chickens that were fed tallow-incorporated reduced-energy diets over 35 days. Methods: A total of 256 Ross 308 one-day-old broilers (42.28±0.16 g) were randomly allocated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to 32 pens with eight chicks per cage. Birds were fed one of four dietary treatments as follows: i) positive control (PCN; energy sufficient diet); ii) negative control (NCN; energy-deficient diet, -100 ME kcal/kg); iii) PCL (PCN plus 0.05% emulsifier); and iv) NCL (NCN plus 0.05% emulsifier). Growth performance was evaluated weekly whereas assessments for the carcass traits, digestibility, some blood metabolites, ileal morphology, and meat quality were measured on d 21 and d 35. Results: Birds fed the NCL diet had higher (p<0.05) body weights, daily gains, daily feed intake, and improved feed efficiency over the entire 35-day period. Improvements (p<0.05) for the ileal digestibility of crude fat, energy, and dry matter commensurate with longer (p<0.05) villus heights were also observed with emulsifiers in the NCL and PCL diets. For the carcass measurements, only the liver weights were increased (p<0.05) with emulsifiers in the supplemented groups. For blood metabolites, higher (p<0.05) lipase levels were noticed with emulsifiers in the NCL and PCL diets. In addition, marginal reductions (p = 0.076; p = 0.095, respectively) were also noted with emulsifiers for the total cholesterol and triglyceride contents on d 35. Regarding meat quality, breast muscle yellowness was increased (p<0.05) with emulsifier use in supplemented groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that emulsifier supplementation at 0.05% in diets could potentially improve the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers over 35 days. This could compensate for the lower growth performance that could be recorded with fat-incorporated lower-energy diets.Recommended levels of calcium and non-phytate phosphorus for yellow-feathered broilers (finisher phase)Objective: This study examined the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) on performance, tibial characteristics, meat quality and plasma biochemical variables in yellow-feathered broilers during 85 to 105 d of age. Methods: A total of 720 heads of 85-d broilers were allocated into 9 groups and provided with three levels of Ca (0.65%, 0.75%, 0.85%), and NPP (0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%) in diets for 21 d. Results: The final body weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were affected (p<0.05) by dietary Ca. From the quadratic regressions, the optimal level of Ca in diet were 0.71% for FW and ADG, and 0.67% for ADFI. Dietary Ca and NPP both significantly affected tibial breaking strength and density. From the quadratic regressions, the optimal level of Ca and NPP in diet were 0.81% and 0.37% for tibial density. The shear force of breast muscle of broilers given 0.75% or 0.85% Ca were lower than that in birds with 0.65% Ca and drip loss of birds given 0.65% or 0.75% Ca was lower than that in birds with 0.85% Ca (p<0.05). The drip loss of birds given 0.25% NPP was lowest among all NPP treatments (p<0.05). Calcium affected (p<0.05) the plasmal contents of phosphorus, osteocalcin (OC), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin and the contents of OC and PTH were also influenced by dietary NPP. Conclusion: Dietary Ca and NPP level affected tibial characteristics, meat quality and biochemical variables in plasma of finisher-phase yellow-feathered broilers (85 to 105 d) and Ca also affected growth performance. Dietary 0.71% Ca and 0.30% NPP were enough for growth performance, while considering the growth performance, tibial characteristics, meat quality and biochemical variables together, 0.75% Ca and 0.37% NPP were recommended.Effects of selenium source and level on the physiological response, reproductive performance, serum Se level and milk composition in gestating sowsObjective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium (Se) source and level on the physiological response, reproductive performance, serum Se level, and milk composition in gestating sows. Methods: A total of 54 multiparous sows (Yorkshire×Landrace) with average body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and parity were assigned to one of five treatments with 10 or 11 sows per treatment using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with one additional treatment in a completely randomized design. Inorganic or organic Se (IS or OS) sources were added to the diet at 0.30 ppm and 0.50 ppm Se. A non-Se-fortified corn-soybean meal basal diet served as a negative control. Treatments were as follows: i) Control: corn-soybean based diet, ii) IS30: control+inorganic Se 0.30 ppm, iii) IS50: control+inorganic Se 0.50 ppm, iv) OS30: control+ organic Se ppm, and v) OS50: control+organic Se 0.50 ppm. Results: At day 21 of lactation, piglet weight and weight gain in the OS treatments were higher than those in the IS treatments (p<0.05). Meanwhile, adding 0.5 ppm Se also resulted in the same significant differences in piglet BW and weight gain (p<0.05). Colostrum and milk Se concentrations increased (p<0.05) with Se level for both Se sources but were greater when sows were fed organic Se (p<0.05). Except for 24 hours postpartum, the Se concentrations were higher when sows were fed organic Se (p<0.05). Sow serum Se content was greater as Se levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.5 ppm at day 110 of gestation, 24 hours postpartum and day 21 of lactation (p<0.05). The pig serum Se concentration increased as the dietary Se level increased (p<0.05) and was higher when the sow dietary Se source was organic (p<0.05). Organic Se 0.5 ppm also had the highest serum Se level at two measured points (p<0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, supplementation with organic Se or 0.5 ppm Se in a gestating diet could improve piglet performance, the Se status of sows and piglets and milk composition, but organic Se at 0.5 ppm is optimal.Kim, Hee-Jin;Shin, Dong-Jin;Kim, Hye-Jin;Cho, Jinwoo;Kwon, Ji-Seon;Kim, Dongwook;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Jang, Aera 1957
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the thigh meat quality of Ross 308 broiler from conventional and welfare farms. Methods: Thigh meat samples of Ross 308 broilers (age, 35 d; carcass weight, 1.1 kg) from conventional farm (RCF, n = 60) and animal welfare farms (RAWF, n = 60) were analyzed. Proximate composition, pH, color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), water-holding capacity (WHC), shear force, total aerobic bacteria (TAB), and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) were measured and the levels of bioactive compounds such as dipeptides (anserine and carnosine), creatine, creatinine, and their anti-oxidation activity were determined. Results: The RCF and RAWF did not differ significantly in their proximate composition, WHC, color, and creatine and carnosine levels. The pH value was significantly lower in RAWF than in RCF on day 7. The shear force value was significantly higher in RAWF than in RCF throughout the storage duration. TAB in RCF on day 9 were significantly higher than those in RAWF. The VBN content of RAWF was significantly lower than that of RCF after 5 days of storage. Creatinine content was significantly higher in RAWF (3.50 mg/100 g) than in RCF (3.08 mg/100 g) on day 1. Along with higher carnosine and anserine contents of RAWF, it had significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities than those of RCF. Conclusion: These results imply that the animal welfare farming system beneficially affects the overall oxidative stability of Ross 308 thigh meat.Impact of different shades of light-emitting diode on fecal microbiota and gut health in broiler chickensIanni, Andrea;Bennato, Francesca;Di Gianvittorio, Veronica;Di Domenico, Marco;Martino, Camillo;Colapietro, Martina;Camma, Cesare;Martino, Giuseppe 1967
Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota of broiler chickens reared in the presence of different shades of light-emitting diode (LED) lights, correlating this information with biochemical and molecular evidence that allowed drawing conclusions on the state of health of the animals. Methods: Overall, the metagenomic approach on fecal samples was associated with evaluations on enzymes involved in the cellular response to oxidative stress: glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase and catalase; while the inflammatory aspect was studied through the dosage of a proinflammatory cytokine, the interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the evaluation of the matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9). Specifically, analysis was performed on distinct groups of chickens respectively raised in the presence of neutral (K = 3,300 to 3,700), cool (K = 5,500 to 6,000), and warm (K = 3,000 to 2,500) LED lightings, and a direct comparison was performed with animals reared with traditional neon lights. Results: The metagenomic analysis highlighted the presence of two most abundant bacterial phyla, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, with the latter characterized by a greater relative abundance (p<0.05) in the group of animals reared with Neutral LED light. The analysis on the enzymes involved in the antioxidant response showed an effect of the LED light, regardless of the applied shade, of reducing the expression of GPX (p<0.01), although this parameter is not correlated to an effective reduction in the tissue amount of the enzyme. Regarding the inflammatory state, no differences associated with IL-6 and MMP-9 were found; however, is noteworthy the significant reduction of MMP-2 activity in tissue samples obtained from animals subjected to illumination with neutral LED light. Conclusion: This evidence, combined with the metagenomic findings, supports a potential positive effect of neutral LED lighting on animal welfare, although these considerations must be reflected in more targeted biochemical evaluations.Seasonal atmospheric characteristics in a swine finishing barn equipped with a continuous pit recirculation system using aerobically treated manureObjective: This study was conducted to determine the seasonal characteristics of odorous material emissions from a swine finishing barn equipped with a continuous pit recirculation system (CPRS) using aerobically treated manure. Methods: The CPRS consists of an aerobic manure treatment process and a pit recirculation system, where the solid fraction is separated and composted. The aerated liquid fraction (290.0%±21.0% per day of total stored pig slurry) is continuously recirculated to the top of the slurry in the pit. Four confinement pig barns in three piggery farms were used: two were equipped with CPRS, and the other two operated a slurry pit under the slatted floor across all seasons. Results: The indoor, exhaust, and outside odor intensities were significantly lower in the CPRS group than in the control group (p<0.001). In the CPRS group, the odor intensity outside was significantly lower in the fall than in the other seasons (p = 0.015). In the indoor atmosphere, the temperature and CO2, NH3, and H2S contents of the CPRS group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). In the CPRS group, indoor temperature did not significantly change in the spring, summer, and fall seasons and was significantly lower in the winter (p = 0.002). NH3, H2S, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole levels were significantly lower in the CPRS group than in the control group (p<0.05). There were significant seasonal differences on the odorous material in both the control and CPRS groups (p<0.05), but the pattern was not clear across seasons. Conclusion: The CPRS can reduce the indoor temperature in the summer to a level similar to that in the spring and fall seasons. The CPRS with aerated liquid manure is expected to reduce and maintain malodorous emissions within acceptable limits in swine facilities.
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