Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP)
- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Aim & Scope
Animal Bioscience (AB) aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry. Animal Bioscience will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems. Animal Bioscience is subdivided into 10 sections. Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming systemhttps://submit.animbiosci.org/ KCI SCOPUS SCI SCIE
Volume 36 Issue 2
Su A, Lee;Diego A., Lopez;Hans H., Stein 167
Phosphorus (P) is a macro mineral needed for bone mineralization and cell membrane structure and P is also involved in several fundamental pathways of metabolism in the body. Because of the low concentration and digestibility of P in plant ingredients that are the main components of diets for poultry and pigs, feed phosphates are usually included in diets in addition to the P contributed by plant ingredients. The most widely used feed phosphates in poultry and swine diets are dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and monocalcium phosphate (MCP), but tricalcium phosphate (TCP), monosodium phosphate (MSP), and magnesium phosphate (MgP) may be used as well. Because feed phosphates are mostly produced from rock phosphate, feed phosphates have impurities that contain minerals other than P. Concentrations of P in feed phosphates range from 14.8% (MgP) to 25.7% (MSP). The standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in pigs ranges from 71% (TCP) to 95% (MSP). The STTD of Ca and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of P and Ca in feed phosphates fed to pigs and poultry have been determined only in a few experiments. Available data indicate that the STTD of Ca and SID of P in MCP are greater than in DCP in both poultry and pigs, but the SID of Ca is similar between DCP and MCP fed to broilers. Information on mineral concentrations and digestibility values in feed phosphates is needed in diet formulation for pigs and poultry, but if diets are formulated to contain equal concentrations of digestible P and Ca, it is unlikely that animal performance will be impacted by the source of feed phosphates used in the diet.
Screening and functional validation of lipid metabolism-related lncRNA-46546 based on the transcriptome analysis of early embryonic muscle tissue in chickenKai, Liao;Herong, Liao;Li, Zhang;Haixuan, Zhao;Jie, Sun;Ruonan, Chen 175
Objective: The study was conducted to screen differentially expressed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in chickens by high-throughput sequencing and explore its mechanism of action on intramuscular fat deposition. Methods: Herein, Rose crown and Cbb broiler chicken embryo breast and leg muscle lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were constructed by RNA sequencing. A total of 96 and 42 differentially expressed lncRNAs were obtained in Rose crown vs Cobb broiler chicken breast and leg muscle, respectively. lncRNA-ENSGALT00000046546, with high interspecific variability and a potential regulatory role in lipid metabolism, and its predicted downstream target gene 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2), were selected for further study on the preadipocytes. Results: lncRNA-46546 overexpression in chicken preadipocyte 2 cells significantly increased (p<0.01) the expression levels of AGPAT2 and its downstream genes diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and those of the fat metabolism-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1, and fatty acid binding protein 4. The lipid droplet concentration was higher in the overexpression group than in the control cells, and the triglyceride content in cells and medium was also significantly increased (p<0.01). Conclusion: This study preliminarily concludes that lncRNA-46546 may promote intramuscular fat deposition in chickens, laying a foundation for the study of lncRNAs in chicken early embryonic development and fat deposition.
Genome-wide association analysis of nine reproduction and morphological traits in three goat breeds from Southern ChinaXiaoyan, Sun;Jing, Jiang;Gaofu, Wang;Peng, Zhou;Jie, Li;Cancan, Chen;Liangjia, Liu;Nianfu, Li;Yuanyou, Xia;Hangxing, Ren 191
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with nine reproduction and morphological traits in three breed populations of Chinese goats. Methods: The genome-wide association of nine reproduction and morphological traits (litter size, nipple number, wattle, skin color, coat color, black dorsal line, beard, beard length, and hind leg hair) were analyzed in three Chinese native goat breeds (n = 336) using an Illumina Goat SNP50 Beadchip. Results: A total of 17 genome-wide or chromosome-wide significant SNPs associated with one reproduction trait (litter size) and six morphological traits (wattle, coat color, black dorsal line, beard, beard length, and hind leg hair) were identified in three Chinese native goat breeds, and the candidate genes were annotated. The significant SNPs and corresponding putative candidate genes for each trait are as follows: two SNPs located on chromosomes 6 (CSN3) and 24 (TCF4) for litter size trait; two SNPs located on chromosome 9 (KATNA1) and 1 (UBASH3A) for wattle trait; three SNPs located on chromosome 26 (SORCS3), 24 (DYM), and 20 (PDE4D) for coat color trait; two SNPs located on chromosome 18 (TCF25) and 15 (CLMP) for black dorsal line trait; four SNPs located on chromosome 8, 2 (PAX3), 5 (PIK3C2G), and 28 (PLA2G12B and OIT3) for beard trait; one SNP located on chromosome 18 (KCNG4) for beard length trait; three SNPs located on chromosome 17 (GLRB and GRIA2), 28 (PGBD5), and 4 for hind leg hair trait. In contrast, there were no SNPs identified for nipple number and skin color. Conclusion: The significant SNPs or genes identified in this study provided novel insights into the genetic mechanism underlying important reproduction and morphological traits of three local goat breeds in Southern China as well as further potential applications for breeding goats.
Overexpression of cholinergic receptor nicotinic gamma subunit inhibits proliferation and differentiation of bovine preadipocytesJiawei, Du;Hui, Zhao;Guibing, Song;Yuan, Pang;Lei, Jiang;Linsen, Zan;Hongbao, Wang 200
Objective: Muscle acetylcholine receptors have five alpha subunits (α, β, δ, ε, or γ), and cholinergic receptor nicotinic gamma subunit (CHRNG) is the γ subunit. It may also play an essential role in biological processes, including cell differentiation, growth, and survival, while the role of CHRNG has not been studied in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of CHRNG on the proliferation and differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. Methods: We constructed a CHRNG overexpression adenovirus vector and successfully overexpressed it on bovine preadipocytes. The effects of CHRNG on bovine preadipocyte proliferation were detected by Edu assay, cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Western blot and other techniques. We also performed oil red O, RT-qPCR, Western blot to explore its effect on the differentiation of preadipocytes. Results: The results of Edu proliferation experiments showed that the number of EDU-positive cells in the overexpression group was significantly less. CCK-8 experiments found that the optical density values of the cells in the overexpression group were lower than those of the control group, the mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin A2 (CCNA2), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cyclin D2 (CCND2) decreased significantly after CHRNG gene overexpression, the mRNA levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) increased significantly, and the protein levels of PCNA, CCNB1, CCND2 decreased significantly. Overexpression of CHRNG inhibited the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. The results of oil red O and triglyceride determination showed that the size and speed of lipid droplets accumulation in the overexpression group were significantly lower. The mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR class="checkNonKBPoint">γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPα), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN) decreased significantly. Conclusion: Overexpression of CHRNG in bovine preadipocytes inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of bovine preadipocytes.
Ragil Angga, Prastiya;Tri Wahyu, Suprayogi;Aldea Erian, Debora;Ani, Wijayanti;Anny, Amalia;Deny, Sulistyowati;Aras Prasetiyo, Nugroho 209
Objective: The conservation of Bali bulls, the Indonesian native breed of cattle, is crucial for cattle breeding in Indonesia. To guarantee the spread of Bali bulls through artificial insemination the quality of the frozen semen must be high. To this end, adding an extender material to semen that increases spermatozoa's survival during cryopreservation is important. Green tea extract (GTE) can be used as cryoprotectant because its high antioxidant activity can help avoid reactive oxygen species formation. Methods: Semen of five Bali bulls from the National Artificial Insemination Center at Singosari, Indonesia was collected routinely twice a week. First, fresh semen inspection was performed to determine the feasibility of using Bali bulls as animal samples. The extender used in this study was Tris-based egg yolk. The samples were divided into four treatments: T0, no GTE added to the extender; T1, 0.05 mg GTE plus 100 mL extender; T2, 0.10 mg GTE plus 100 mL extender; and T3, 0.15 mg GTE plus 100 mL extender. The semen freezing process was conducted according to standard procedures and sperm quality parameters, i.e., sperm motility, viability, abnormalities, and membrane integrity observed pre-freezing and post-thawing. Results: There were significant differences in total motility, progressive motility, viability, and integrity membrane of Bali bull sperm at both pre-freezing and post-thawing after adding GTE into the extender. In contrast, there were no differences in abnormalities among treatments. Conclusion: Adding GTE at a 0.15 mg into 100 mL Tris-based egg yolk extender can improve the quality of cryopreserved Bali bull sperm.
Iron sulfate and molasses treated anthocyanin-rich black cane silage improves growth performance, rumen fermentation, antioxidant status, and meat tenderness in goatsRayudika Aprilia Patindra, Purba;Ngo Thi Minh, Suong;Siwaporn, Paengkoum;Pramote, Paengkoum;Juan Boo, Liang 218
Objective: This study investigated the effects of feeding anthocyanin-rich black cane treated with ferrous sulfate and molasses on animal performance, rumen fermentation, microbial composition, blood biochemical indices, and carcass characteristics in meat goats. Methods: Thirty-two Thai-native×Anglo-Nubian crossbred male goats (14.47±2.3 kg) were divided equally into two groups (n = 16) to investigate the effect of feeding diet containing 50% untreated anthocyanin-rich black cane silage (BS) vs diet containing anthocyaninrich black cane silage treated with 0.03% ferrous sulfate and 4% molasses (TBS) on average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI). At the end of 90 d feeding trial, the goats were slaughtered to determine blood biochemical indices, rumen fermentation, microbial composition, and carcass characteristics differences between the two dietary groups. Results: Goats fed the TBS diet had greater ADG and ADG to DMI ratio (p<0.05). TBS diet did not affect rumen fluid pH; however, goats in the TBS group had lower rumen ammonia N levels (p<0.05) and higher total volatile fatty acid concentrations (p<0.05). Goats in the TBS group had a higher (p<0.05) concentration of Ruminococcus albus but a lower (p<0.05) concentration of methanogenic bacteria. The TBS diet also resulted in lower (p<0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentration but higher (p<0.05) total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase concentrations in blood plasma, while having no effect on plasma protein, glucose, lipid, immunoglobin G, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Meat from goats fed the TBS diet contained more intramuscular fat (p<0.05) and was more tender (p<0.05). Conclusion: In comparison to goats fed a diet containing 50% untreated anthocyanin-rich black cane silage, feeding a diet containing 50% anthocyanin-rich black cane silage treated with 0.03% ferrous sulfate and 4% molasses improved rumen fermentation and reduced oxidative stress, resulting in higher growth and more tender meat.
Effects of dandelion (Taraxacum sp.,) supplements on lactation performance, antioxidative activity, and plasma metabolome in primiparous dairy cowsYan, Li;Jie, Mei;Jiaqi, Wang;Hongyun, Liu 229
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of dandelion supplements on lactation performance, circulating antioxidative activity and plasma metabolomics in primiparous dairy cows. Methods: A total of 60 mid-lactation dairy cows (milk yield = 34.29±0.34 kg/d; days in milk = 151.72±2.36 days) were divided into 4 treatment groups randomly, comprising the addition of dandelion at 0, 100, 200, 400 g/d per head. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks with an extra 10 days' pre-feeding period. Milk and blood samples were collected, and plasma samples were selected to perform metabolomics analysis. Results: Supplementing 200 g/d of dandelion increased the yield of milk and lactose (p≤0.05). The milk somatic cell counts (p≤0.05) were lower in all dandelion groups than those in the control group. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (p≤0.05) and superoxide dismutase (p≤0.05) were increased and plasma malondialdehyde (p = 0.01) was decreased when cows were fed 200 g/d dandelion. Plasma metabolomics analysis showed that 23 hub differential metabolites were identified in the 200 g/d dandelion group. These metabolites such as ribose, glutamic acid, valine, and phenylalanine were enriched in D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism (p = 0.06, impact value = 1), phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis (p = 0.05, impact value = 0.5), and starch and sucrose metabolism (p = 0.21, impact value = 0.13). Moreover, correlation analysis showed that circulating ribose, mannose, and glutamic acid were positively related to milk yield. Conclusion: Dandelion supplementation could improve lactation performance and elevate the plasma carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism and antioxidative activity. Supplementation of 200 g/d dandelion is recommended for lactating dairy cows.
Seul, Lee;Youl Chang, Baek;Mingyung, Lee;Seoyoung, Jeon;Han Tae, Bang;Seongwon, Seo 238
Objective: Recently, indigenous Korean grass Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai (SQ) has garnered much interest as a roughage source for livestock to mitigate its adverse effects on habitat diversity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the ruminal fermentation, palatability, and nutrient digestibility of SQ for Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) using in vitro rumen fermentation, in situ rumen degradability, and in vivo feeding trials. Methods: Using in vitro tests with rumen fluid as the inoculum for 48 h, ruminal fermentation of SQ was evaluated and compared with that of other roughage sources commonly used in Korea (i.e., rice straw, Timothy hay, and Italian ryegrass [IRG]). Additionally, an in situ trial 96 h was performed using three cannulated Hanwoo steers. Further, an in vivo trial was performed using eight Hanwoo steers to compare the palatability of SQ with rice straw in total mixed ration (TMR) and forage-concentrate separate feeding conditions. Finally, an in vivo digestibility trial of SQ fed as TMR of two particle sizes was performed with four Hanwoo steers. Results: In vitro and in situ trials revealed that SQ was comparable or superior to rice straw in terms of the ruminal fermentation characteristics of pH, gas production, total volatile fatty acid content, and effective ruminal dry matter digestibility (DMD), although its fermentability was lower than that of Timothy hay and IRG. In the palatability test, steers showed a greater preference for SQ when given as TMR. The total tract DMD of SQ fed as TMR was 75.9%±1.37%, and it did not differ by particle size. Conclusion: The feed value of SQ as a roughage source for Hanwoo steers is comparable or superior to that of rice straw, particularly when provided as TMR.
Effects of gamma aminobutyric acid on performance, blood cell of broiler subjected to multi-stress environmentsKeun-tae, Park;Mihyang, Oh;Younghye, Joo;Jong-Kwon, Han 248
Objective: Stress factors such as high temperatures, overcrowding, and diurnal temperature range exert profound negative effects on weight gain and productivity of broiler chickens. The potential of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an excitatory neurotransmitter was evaluated under various stress conditions in this study. Methods: The experiment was conducted under four different environmental conditions: normal, high temperature, overcrowded, and in an overcrowded-diurnal temperature range. The experimental groups were divided into (-) control group without stress, (+) control group with stress, and G50 group (GABA 50 mg/kg) with stress. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were measured, and stress reduction was evaluated through hematologic analysis. Results: The effects of GABA on broilers in four experimental treatments were evaluated. GABA treated responded to environmental stress and improved productivity in all the experimental treatments. The magnitude of stress observed was highest at high temperature, followed by the overcrowded environment, and was least for the overcrowded-diurnal temperature range. Conclusion: Various stress factors in livestock rearing environment can reduce productivity and increase disease incidence and mortality rate. To address these challenges, GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, was shown to reduce stress caused due to various environmental conditions and improve productivity.
Characterization of intrinsic molecular structure spectral profiles of feedstocks and co-products from canola bio-oil processing: impacted by source originAlessandra M.R.C.B., de Oliveira;Peiqiang, Yu 256
Objective: Feed molecular structures can affect its availability to gastrointestinal enzymes which impact its digestibility and absorption. The molecular spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced technique that measures the absorbance of chemical functional groups on the infrared region so that we can identify and quantify molecules and functional groups in a feed. The program aimed to reveal the association of intrinsic molecular structure with nutrient supply to animals from canola feedstocks and co-products from bio-oil processing. The objective of this study was to characterize special intrinsic carbohydrate and protein-related molecular structure spectral profiles of feedstock and co-products (meal and pellets) from bio-oil processing from two source origins: Canada (CA) and China (CH). Methods: The samples of feedstock and co-products were obtained from five different companies in each country arranged by the Canola Council of Canada (CCC). The molecular structure spectral features were analyzed using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy-ATR-FTIR. The spectral features that accessed included: i) protein-related spectral features (Amide I, Amide II, α-helix, β-sheet, and their spectral intensity ratios), ii) carbohydrate-related spectral features (TC1, TC2, TC3, TC4, CEC, STC1, STC2, STC3, STC4, TC, and their spectral intensity ratios). Results: The results showed that significant differences were observed on all vibrationally spectral features related to total carbohydrates, structural carbohydrates, and cellulosic compounds (p<0.05), except spectral features of TC2 and STC1 (p>0.05) of co-products, where CH meals presented higher peaks of these structures than CA. Similarly, it was for the carbohydrate-related molecular structure of canola seeds where the difference between CA and CH occurred except for STC3 height, CEC and STC areas (p>0.05). The protein-related molecular structures were similar for the canola seeds from both countries. However, CH meals presented higher peaks of amide I, α-helix, and β-sheet heights, α-helix:β-sheet ratio, total amide and amide I areas (p<0.05). Conclusion: The principal component analysis was able to explain over 90% of the variabilities in the carbohydrate and protein structures although it was not able to separate the samples from the two countries, indicating feedstock and coproducts interrelationship between CH and CA.
Effects of β-glucan with vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response, litter performance, blood profiles, immune response, and milk composition of lactating sowsTae Wook, Goh;Jinsu, Hong;Hong Jun, Kim;Sun Woo, Kang;Yoo Yong, Kim 264
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of β-glucan with vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response, litter performance, blood profiles, immune response, and milk composition of lactating sows. Methods: A total of 50 multiparous F1 sows (Yorkshire×Landrace) with an average body weight (BW) of 233.6±4.30 kg and an average parity of 4.00±0.307 and their litters were used in this experiment. All sows were allotted to one of five treatments, taking into consideration BW, backfat thickness, and parity in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates. The experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet with or without 0.1% or 0.2% β-glucan and 110 IU vitamin E/kg diet. Results: All treatments added with β-glucan or vitamin E were statistically higher in the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows compared to those of the control (Diet, p<0.01). Additionally, the ADFI of lactating sows was significantly higher in the groups supplemented with 0.1% β-glucan compared to 0.2% β-glucan (BG, p<0.01). There was an increasing trend in piglet weight at weaning (BG, p = 0.07), litter weight at the 21st day of lactation (BG, p = 0.07) and litter weight gain (BG, p = 0.08) in groups supplemented with 0.1% β-glucan. The addition of 110 IU vitamin E/kg diet increased vitamin E concentration significantly in lactating sows (VE, p<0.01) and exhibited a trend for higher concentrations of vitamin E (VE, p = 0.09) in piglets. Adding 0.1% β-glucan compared to 0.2% β-glucan induced a decrease in the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α in lactating sows (BG, p = 0.06) and in piglets (BG, p = 0.09) on the 21st day of lactation. There were no significant differences in the milk composition of sows. Conclusion: Adding 0.1% β-glucan and 110 IU vitamin E/kg to a lactating sow's diet was beneficial to the growth performance of piglets by leading to an increase in the feed intake of sows and efficiently supplying vitamin E to both the sows and piglets.
Evaluation of standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in fermented soybean meal for nursery pigs using direct and difference proceduresKi Beom, Jang;Sung Woo, Kim 275
Objective: This study was to evaluate standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) for nursery pigs using both direct procedure and difference procedure when FSBM was added at 20% in diets. Methods: Forty-eight pigs at 9.2±0.9 kg body weight (BW) were individually housed and allotted to 4 treatments. Treatments included NFD (a semi-purified N free diet), FSD (a diet with 20% FSBM), CBD (corn basal diet), and CFD (corn basal diet:FSBM at 80:20). The FSD was used to measure AA digestibility in FSBM using the direct procedure, whereas CBD and CFD were used in the difference procedure. Pigs were fed for 10 days (0.09×BW0.75 kg per day) and euthanized to collect ileal digesta for TiO2 and AA. Results: Total endogenous AA loss was 12.1 g/kg of dry matter intake. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) Thr was greater (p<0.05) and AID His (p = 0.073) and Leu (p = 0.052) tended to be greater using the direct procedure compared with the difference procedure. The SID Thr were greater (p<0.05) in FSBM for nursery pigs calculated using a direct procedure compared with a difference procedure. In addition, SID Lys in FSBM was about 83% to 88% for nursery pigs higher than SID Lys described in National Research Council (2012). Conclusion: The SID of AA in FSBM when included at practical levels using the direct procedure were similar to those from the difference procedure. Considering the SID of AA obtained using both direct and difference procedures, FSBM is an effective protein supplement providing highly digestible AA to nursery pigs. The SID of AA from this study was considerably higher than those previous reported. This study also indicates the importance of including the test feedstuffs at practical levels when evaluating digestibility.
Effect of in ovo feeding of γ-aminobutyric acid combined with embryonic thermal manipulation on hatchability, growth, and hepatic gene expression in broilersChris Major, Ncho;Akshat, Goel;Vaishali, Gupta;Chae-Mi, Jeong;Yang-Ho, Choi 284
Objective: This study investigated the effects of in ovo feeding of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and embryonic thermal manipulation (ETM) on growth performance, organ indices, plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant levels, and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broilers. Methods: Two hundred and fifty eggs were assigned to one of four treatments: control eggs incubated under standard conditions (CON); eggs that received an in ovo injection of 10% GABA on day 17.5 of incubation (G10); thermally manipulated eggs between days 10 and 18 of incubation at 39.6°C for 6 h daily (TM); and eggs that received both treatments during incubation (G10+TM). After 28 days of rearing, five birds per treatment were selected for blood and organ sampling. Results: No differences were found in hatchability or growth parameters among different treatment groups. Hepatic gene expression of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) was upregulated (p = 0.046 and p = 0.006, respectively) in the G10+TM group, while that of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) was upregulated (p = 0.039) in the G10 group. In addition, the relative gene expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) was significantly lower (p = 0.007) in all treatment groups than that in the CON group. Hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) levels and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of last week showed a positive correlation (r = 0.50, p = 0.038). In contrast, the relative gene expression of the extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (EXFAB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were positively correlated (r = 0.48, p = 0.042 and r = 0.50, p = 0.031) with the overall ADFI of birds. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the combination of in ovo feeding of GABA and ETM can enhance hepatic antioxidant function in broilers.
Effect of p38 inhibitor on the proliferation of chicken muscle stem cells and differentiation into muscle and fatMinkyung, Ryu;Minsu, Kim;Hyun Young, Jung;Cho Hyun, Kim;Cheorun, Jo 295
Objective: Inhibiting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway delays differentiation and increases proliferation of muscle stem cells in most species. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of p38 inhibitor (p38i) treatment on the proliferation and differentiation of chicken muscle stem cells. Methods: Chicken muscle stem cells were collected from the muscle tissues of Hy-line Brown chicken embryos at embryonic day 18, then isolated by the preplating method. Cells were cultured for 4 days in growth medium supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide or 1, 10, 20 μM of p38i, then subcultured for up to 4 passages. Differentiation was induced for 3 days with differentiation medium. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Results: The proliferation and mRNA expression of paired box 7 gene and myogenic factor 5 gene, as well as the mRNA expression of myogenic differentiation marker gene myogenin were significantly higher in p38i-treated cultures than in control (p<0.05), but immunofluorescence staining and mRNA expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) were not significantly different between the two groups. Oil red O staining of accumulated lipid droplets in differentiated cell cultures revealed a higher lipid density in p38i-treated cultures than in control; however, the expression of the adipogenic marker gene peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: p38 inhibition in chicken muscle stem cells improves cell proliferation, but the effects on myogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation require additional analysis. Further studies are needed on the chicken p38-MAPK pathway to understand the muscle and fat development mechanism.
Ti Chun, Chang;Wei Cheng, Chen;Chao Wei, Huang;Liang Chuan, Lin;Jen Shinn, Lin;Fu Yuan, Cheng 307
Objective: Chicken essence and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation has been recognized to significantly relieve fatigue. To obtain chicken essence with high amounts of BCAA, spent hens herein was used to prepare dripped chicken essence (SCE) and compared with commercial dripped chicken essence (CCE) for in vivo anti-fatigue effect. Methods: To determine the effect on anti-fatigue by dripped chicken essence, the exhaustive swimming was performed. Thirty-two 7-week ICR mice were divided into four groups, which included the control group (CG), CCE, SCE-1X and SCE-2X. The mice were given daily oral administration (0.012 mL/g body weight/d). The fatigue index analysis was conducted weekly. Results: The results showed that SCE had a higher BCAA level as expected, and mice treated with dripped chicken essence (CCE and SCE) could significantly improve exercise performance. The lower blood lactate level, blood urea nitrogen level and creatine phosphokinase activity were found in the supplement of SCE group compared with the CCE group, which suggested that the SCE possessed strong anti-fatigue ability. This could possibly be due to the higher content of BCAA. Conclusion: In this study, SCE promoted recovery from physical fatigue in mice and elevated endurance ability. Among them, the double dose (SCE-2X) showed the strongest anti-fatigue ability. Taken together, spent chickens could be a good source of chicken essence to improve the effect of anti-fatigue.
Effect of sweet potato purple acid phosphatase on Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin-mediated inflammatory response in A549 cellsHeyeon, Baik;Jaiesoon, Cho 315
Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the dephosphorylation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin (PA FLA) by sweet potato purple acid phosphatase (PAP) and the effect of the enzyme on the flagellin-mediated inflammatory response in the A549 lung epithelial cell line. Methods: The activity of sweet potato PAP on PA FLA was assayed at different pH (4, 5.5, 7, and 7.5) and temperature (25℃, 37℃, and 55℃) conditions. The release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the activation of nuclear factor kappa- light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in A549 cells exposed to PA FLA treated with or without sweet potato PAP was measured using IL-8 and NF-κB ELISA kits, respectively. The activation of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in TLR5-overexpressing HEK-293 cells exposed to PA FLA treated with or without sweet potato PAP was determined by the secreted alkaline phosphatase-based assay. Results: The dephosphorylation of PA FLA by sweet potato PAP was favorable at pH 4 and 5.5 and highest at 55℃. PA-FLA treated with the enzyme decreased IL-8 release from A549 cells to about 3.5-fold compared to intact PA FLA at 1,000 ng/mL of substrate. Moreover, PA-FLA dephosphorylated by the enzyme repressed the activation of NF-κB in the cells compared to intact PA FLA. The activation of TLR5 by PA-FLA was highest in TLR-overexpressing HEK293 cells at a substrate concentration of 5,000 ng/mL, whereas PA FLA treated with the enzyme strongly repressed the activation of TLR5. Conclusion: Sweet potato PAP has the potential to be a new alternative agent against the increased antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa and may be a new conceptual feed additive to control unwanted inflammatory responses caused by bacterial infections in animal husbandry.
Sarah E., Mac;Sabrina, Lomax;Cameron E.F., Clark 322
Objective: We determined the impact of maintaining pasture-based dairy cows and calves together over 100 days on cow milk production, cow and calf behavior, and calf liveweight and carcass quality. Methods: Six Holstein-Friesian cows and their male calves were monitored for 106±8.6 days. Cows were temporarily separated twice a day for milking with calves remaining in the paddock. Cow and calf behaviors were recorded via scan sampling at 6 different timepoints, for the first 7 days and twice a week thereafter. Calves were weighed weekly and immediately processed for meat quality and rumen development analysis at 106±8.6 days. Daily cow milk yields were collected from enrollment until 109±8.6 days (3 days post-weaning). Results: The average daily gain of calves was 1.4±0.73 kg/d, with an average carcass dressing percentage of 59%. Calves had the greatest frequency of observed close proximity to cow and suckling in the first two weeks and decreased with experiment duration. During separation for milking, cow vocalizations and attempts to return to their calf decreased over time. Reticulorumen weight was on target for calf age, but as a proportion of total stomach weight was lower than industry averages of calves the same age due to the larger abomasum. Cows produced an average of 12±7.6 kg of milk yield per day over the 3-days before the calves were weaned and increased to mean of 31±8.3 kg/d the 3 days after weaning, indicating a consumption of close to 20 kg per calf per day. Conclusion: The impact of a pasture-based cow-calf rearing system on cow and calf behavior and the potential for high levels of calf liveweight gain when provided ad-libitum milk and feed were determined. Further research is required to determine the practicality of replicating such systems with large herds and impact on reared calves post-weaning.