- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Aim & Scope
Animal Bioscience (AB) aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry. Animal Bioscience will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems. Animal Bioscience is subdivided into 10 sections. Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming systemhttps://submit.animbiosci.org/ KCI SCIE
Volume 34 Issue 10
Vinod, Sivadasan Pathiyil;Vignesh, Rajamani;Priyanka, Mani;Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy Gopalan;Sivaselvam, Salem Nagalingam;Raj, Gopal Dhinakar 1579
Objective: This study was conducted to generate single stranded DNA oligonucleotides with selective affinity to bovine spermatozoa, assess its binding potential and explore its potential utility in trapping spermatozoa from suspensions. Methods: A combinatorial library of 94 mer long oligonucleotide was used for systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) with bovine spermatozoa. The amplicons from sixth and seventh rounds of SELEX were sequenced, and the reads were clustered employing cluster database at high identity with tolerance (CD-HIT) and FASTAptamer. The enriched nucleotides were predicted for secondary structures by Mfold, motifs by Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation and 5' labelled with biotin/6-FAM to determine the binding potential and binding pattern. Results: We generated 14.1 and 17.7 million reads from sixth and seventh rounds of SELEX respectively to bovine spermatozoa. The CD-HIT clustered 78,098 and 21,196 reads in the top ten clusters and FASTAptamer identified 2,195 and 4,405 unique sequences in the top three clusters from the sixth and seventh rounds, respectively. The identified oligonucleotides formed secondary structures with delta G values between -1.17 to -26.18 kcal/mol indicating varied stability. Confocal imaging with the oligonucleotides from the seventh round revealed different patterns of binding to bovine spermatozoa (fluorescence of the whole head, spot of fluorescence in head and mid- piece and tail). Use of a 5'-biotin tagged oligonucleotide from the sixth round at 100 pmol with 4×106 spermatozoa could trap almost 80% from the suspension. Conclusion: The binding patterns and ability of the identified oligonucleotides confirms successful optimization of the SELEX process and generation of aptamers to bovine spermatozoa. These oligonucleotides provide a quick approach for selective capture of spermatozoa from complex samples. Future SELEX rounds with X- or Y- enriched sperm suspension will be used to generate oligonucleotides that bind to spermatozoa of a specific sex type.
Park, Jeong-Woong;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Choi, Joong-Kook;Park, Tae Sub;Song, Ki-Duk;Cho, Byung-Wook 1590
Objective: This study investigates the expression patterns of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular mediators in horse muscle cells after exercise, and the relationship between TLRS expression in stressed horse muscle cells and immune cell migration toward them. Methods: The expression patterns of the TLRs (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR8) and downstream signaling pathway-related genes (myeloid differentiation primary response 88 [MYD88]; activating transcription factor 3 [ATF3]) are examined in horse tissues, and horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and muscles in response to exercise, using the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Expressions of chemokine receptor genes, i.e., C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), are studied in PBMCs and PMNs. A horse muscle cell line is developed by transfecting SV-T antigen into fetal muscle cells, followed by examination of muscle-specific genes. Horse muscle cells are treated with stressors, i.e., cortisol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and heat, to mimic stress conditions in vitro, and the expression of TLR4 and TLR8 are examined in stressed muscle cells, in addition to migration activity of PBMCs toward stressed muscle cells. Results: The qPCR revealed that TLR4 message was expressed in cerebrum, cerebellum, thymus, lung, liver, kidney, and muscle, whereas TLR8 expressed in thymus, lung, and kidney, while TLR2 expressed in thymus, lung, and kidney. Expressions of TLRs, i.e., TLR4 and TLR8, and mediators, i.e., MYD88 and ATF3, were upregulated in muscle, PBMCs and PMNs in response to exercise. Expressions of CXCR2 and CCR5 were also upregulated in PBMCs and PMNs after exercise. In the muscle cell line, TLR4 and TLR8 expressions were upregulated when cells were treated with stressors such as cortisol, H2O2, and heat. Migration of PBMCs toward stressed muscle cells was increased by exercise and oxidative stresses, and combinations of these. Treatment with methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), an antioxidant on stressed muscle cells, reduced migration of PBMCs toward stressed muscle cells. Conclusion: In this study, we have successfully cultured horse skeletal muscle cells, isolated horse PBMCs, and established an in vitro system for studying stress-related gene expressions and function. Expression of TLR4, TLR8, CXCR2, and CCR5 in horse muscle cells was higher in response to stressors such as cortisol, H2O2, and heat, or combinations of these. In addition, migration of PBMCs toward muscle cells was increased when muscle cells were under stress, but inhibition of reactive oxygen species by MSM modulated migratory activity of PBMCs to stressed muscle cells. Further study is necessary to investigate the biological function(s) of the TLR gene family in horse muscle cells.
Nitrogen metabolism and mammary gland amino acid utilization in lactating dairy cows with different residual feed intakeObjective: This study was conducted to enhance our understanding of nitrogen (N) metabolism and mammary amino acid (AA) utilization in lactating cows with divergent phenotypes of residual feed intake (RFI). Methods: Fifty-three multiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were selected for RFI measurements over a 50-d experimental period. The 26 cows with the most extreme RFI values were classified into the high RFI (n = 13) and low RFI (n = 13) groups, respectively, for analysis of N metabolism and AA utilization. Results: Compared with the high RFI cows, the low RFI animals had lower dry matter intake (p<0.01) with no difference observed in milk yield between the two groups (p>0.10). However, higher ratios of milk yield to dry matter intake (p<0.01) were found in the low RFI cows than in the high RFI cows. The low RFI cows had significant greater ratios of milk protein to metabolizable protein (p = 0.02) and milk protein to crude protein intake than the high RFI cows (p = 0.01). The arterial concentration and mammary uptake of essential AA (p<0.10), branched-chain AA (p<0.10), and total AA (p<0.10) tended to be lower in the low RFI cows. Additionally, the low RFI cows tended to have a lower ratio of AA uptake to milk output for essential AA (p = 0.08), branched-chain AA (p = 0.07) and total AA (p = 0.09) than the high RFI cows. Conclusion: In summary, both utilization of metabolizable protein for milk protein and mammary AA utilization are more efficient in cows with lower RFI than in the high RFI cows. Our results provide new insight into the protein metabolic processes (related to N and AA) involved in feed efficiency.
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf pellet can manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradabilityTotakul, Pajaree;Matra, Maharach;Sommai, Sukruthai;Wanapat, Metha 1607
Objective: Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf has been found to be an important source of protein, vitamins, minerals, as well as phytonutrients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Chaya leaf pellet (CHYP) with various level of crude protein (CP) in the concentrate on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability in in vitro gas production technique. Methods: In an in vitro rumen fermentation study the dietary treatments were arranged according to a 3×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design, consisting of Factor A: three levels of CP of concentrate mixtures (14%, 16%, and 18% CP, respectively) and Factor B: five levels of CHYP supplementation (at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% of dry matter substrates). Results: The gas production kinetics, fraction (a) and fraction (b) were lower (p<0.05) with an increasing CHYP addition. Additionally, the fraction (a+b) was found to yield a significant interaction (p<0.05) while the fraction (c) was not impacted by CHYP addition. However, in vitro DM degradability was enhanced and interactive (p<0.05), using 16% CP of concentrate with 6% and 8% CHYP, when compared with 18% CP in the non-addition. Additionally, the treatment with higher CP of the concentrate was higher in NH3-N concentration (p<0.001) and by CHYP supplementation group (p<0.05). Nevertheless, protozoal counts in the rumen were remarkably decreased (p<0.05) with increasing level of CHYP supplementation. Furthermore, rumen C2 concentration was lower (p<0.05) in the treatments with CHYP supplementation, while C3 was significantly increased and interactive (p<0.05) between levels of CP and CHYP supplementation especially at 8% CHYP supplementation. Conclusion: Based on this study, the results revealed CHYP as a promising feed supplement to enhance rumen fermentation and to mitigate methane production. However, in vivo feeding experiments should be subsequently conducted to elucidate the effect of CHYP supplementation on rumen fermentation, as well as ruminant production efficiency.
Lv, Renlong;Elsabagh, Mabrouk;Obitsu, Taketo;Sugino, Toshihisa;Kurokawa, Yuzo 1616
Objective: Bioactive compounds in ruminant products are related to functional compounds in their diets. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of forage sources, Italian ryegrass (IR) silage vs corn silage (CS) in the total mixed ration (TMR), on milk production, milk composition, and phytanic acid content in milk, as well as on the extent of conversion of dietary phytol to milk phytanic acid. Methods: Phytanic acid content in milk was investigated for cows fed a TMR containing either IR silage or CS using 17 cows over three periods of 21 days each. In periods 1 and 3, cows were fed CS-based TMR (30% CS), while in period 2, cows were fed IR silage-based TMR (20% IR silage and10% CS). Results: The results showed that there were no differences in fat, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat, somatic cell count, and fatty acid composition of milk among the three experimental periods. There were no differences in the plasma concentration of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acids among the three experimental periods, while the blood urea nitrogen was higher (p<0.05) in period 2. The milk phytanic acid content was higher (p<0.05) in period 2 (13.9 mg/kg) compared with periods 1 (9.30 mg/kg) and 3 (8.80 mg/kg). Also, the phytanic acid content in the feces was higher (p<0.05) in period 2 (1.65 mg/kg dry matter [DM]) compared with period 1 (1.15 mg/kg DM), and 3 (1.17 mg/kg DM). Although the phytol contents in feces did not differ among the three feeding periods, the conversion ratio from dietary phytol to milk phytanic acid was estimated to be only 2.6%. Conclusion: Phytanic acid content in cow's milk increases with increasing phytol content in diets. However, phytol might not be completely metabolized in the rumen and phytanic acid, in turn, might not be completely recovered into cow's milk. The change of phytanic acid content in milk may be positively correlated with the change of phytol in the diet within a short time.
Evaluation of the equation for predicting dry matter intake of lactating dairy cows in the Korean feeding standards for dairy cattleLee, Mingyung;Lee, Junsung;Jeon, Seoyoung;Park, Seong-Min;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Seo, Seongwon 1623
Objective: This study aimed to validate and evaluate the dry matter (DM) intake prediction model of the Korean feeding standards for dairy cattle (KFSD). Methods: The KFSD DM intake (DMI) model was developed using a database containing the data from the Journal of Dairy Science from 2006 to 2011 (1,065 observations 287 studies). The development (458 observations from 103 studies) and evaluation databases (168 observations from 74 studies) were constructed from the database. The body weight (kg; BW), metabolic BW (BW0.75, MBW), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM), forage as a percentage of dietary DM, and the dietary content of nutrients (% DM) were chosen as possible explanatory variables. A random coefficient model with the study as a random variable and a linear model without the random effect was used to select model variables and estimate parameters, respectively, during the model development. The best-fit equation was compared to published equations, and sensitivity analysis of the prediction equation was conducted. The KFSD model was also evaluated using in vivo feeding trial data. Results: The KFSD DMI equation is 4.103 (±2.994)+0.112 (±0.022)×MBW+0.284 (±0.020)×FCM-0.119 (±0.028)×neutral detergent fiber (NDF), explaining 47% of the variation in the evaluation dataset with no mean nor slope bias (p>0.05). The root mean square prediction error was 2.70 kg/d, best among the tested equations. The sensitivity analysis showed that the model is the most sensitive to FCM, followed by MBW and NDF. With the in vivo data, the KFSD equation showed slightly higher precision (R2 = 0.39) than the NRC equation (R2 = 0.37), with a mean bias of 1.19 kg and no slope bias (p>0.05). Conclusion: The KFSD DMI model is suitable for predicting the DMI of lactating dairy cows in practical situations in Korea.
Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigsLee, Su A;Blavi, Laia;Navarro, Diego M.D.L.;Stein, Hans H. 1632
Objective: The hypothesis was that apparent ileal digestibility (AID), basal endogenous losses, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) are not affected by adding acid to collection containers or bags used to collect ileal digesta from pigs. Methods: Twenty-four growing barrows (initial body weight: 77.8±4.5 kg) that were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were fed diets for three 7-d periods. An N-free diet and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings as the sole source of AA were used. Within each period, each of the 4 diets were fed to 6 pigs. Among the 6 pigs, digesta from 3 pigs were collected in bags containing no HCl, whereas 40 mL of 3 N HCl was included in the bags used to collect digesta from the remaining 3 pigs. Every other bag collected from each pig was emptied into a container without adding HCl, whereas the remaining bags were added to a container along with 40 mL of 3 N HCl for each bag. All digesta were stored at -20℃ immediately after collection. Data were analyzed using a model that included feed ingredient, HCl in bags, HCl in containers, and all 2-way and 3-way interactions as fixed effects. No 3-way interactions were significant, and data were, therefore, reanalyzed independently for each diet as a 2×2 factorial. Results: There were no interactions between adding HCl to collection bags and to containers, and no effects of adding HCl to collection bags or containers for AID, basal endogenous losses, or SID of most AA were observed. Conclusion: It is not necessary to add acid to digesta collection bags or collection containers if ileal digesta are stored at -20℃ immediately after collection.
A regression for estimating metabolizable glucose in diets of weaned piglets for optimal growth performanceLv, Liangkang;Feng, Zhi;Zhang, Dandan;Lei, Long;Zhang, Hui;Liu, Zhengya;Ren, Ying;Zhao, Shengjun 1643
Objective: Two experiments were conducted to provide a new approach for evaluating feed nutritional value by metabolizable glucose (MG) in piglet diets with different levels of starch and crude fiber. In Exp 1, a regression equation for MG was generated. In Exp 2, the equation was verified, and the optimal growth performance of piglets under appropriate MG levels was tested. Methods: In Exp 1, 20 weaned piglets (7.74±0.81 kg body weight [BW]) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, including the basal diet containing different levels of MG (starch, 25.80%, 31.67%, 45.71%, 49.36%; crude fiber, 1.23%, 1.35%, 1.80%, 1.51%). The piglets were implanted with an ileal fistula, cannulation of the carotid artery, portal vein, and mesenteric artery. The chyme from the ileum fistula and blood samples were collected. In Exp 2, 30 weaned piglets (8.96±0.50 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including the experimental diets with different levels of MG (37.6, 132.5, 300.0, 354.3, and 412.5 g/kg). The piglets' BW, and feed consumption were recorded to calculate growth performance during the 28-d experiment. Results: In Exp 1, the MG levels in 4 diets were 239.62, 280.68, 400.79, and 454.35 g/kg. The regression equation for the MG levels and dietary nutrients was: Y (MG) = 12.13×X1 (starch)+23.18×X2 (crude fiber)-196.44 (R2 = 0.9989, p = 0.033). In Exp 2, treatments with 132.5 and 300.0 g/kg MG significantly (p<0.05) increased average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency of weaned piglets, increased digestibility of crude fat, and had no effect on digestibility of crude protein compared to 300.0 to 412.5 g/kg MG. Conclusion: The pig model combining the ileum fistula and cannulation of blood vessels was successfully used to determine the dietary MG levels. The recommended MG level in weaned pig diets is 132.5 to 300.0 g/kg.
Growth and gut performance of young pigs in response to different dietary cellulose concentration and rearing conditionCho, Hyun Min;Kim, Eunjoo;Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka;Shin, Taeg Kyun;Heo, Jung Min 1653
Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of insoluble cellulose supplementation to diets on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, the incidence of diarrhea, nutrients digestibility, and inflammatory responses in altering environmental conditions of animals housing. Methods: A total of 108 male pigs (Duroc×[Yorkshire×Landrace]) were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (cellulose 0%, 1%, 2%) and two environmental conditions (good sanitary condition vs. poor sanitary condition) to give 6 replicate pens per treatment with three pigs per each pen at 14 days post-weaning. Results: Pigs were in good sanitary condition had higher average daily gain (p<0.01) and improved feed efficiency (p<0.05) from day 1 to 14 after weaning compared to their counterparts. The interactions were found between environmental conditions and dietary treatments (day 7: crypt depth [p<0.01], villous height to crypt depth [p<0.001]; day 14: crypt depth [p<0.001], villous to crypt ratio [p<0.01]) in ileum morphology. Crypt depth was decreased (p<0.05), and villous to crypt ratio was increased (p<0.05) only in poor sanitary conditions. Pigs exposed to the good sanitary condition had higher (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7, gross energy; day 14, dry matter), apparent total tract digestibility (day 14, dry matter and crude protein) compared to pigs housed in the poor sanitary condition. Meanwhile, pigs fed a diet supplemented with 2% cellulose had decreased (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7, dry matter; day 14, crude protein), apparent total tract digestibility (day 7, dry matter; day 14, crude protein, gross energy) compared to pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0% or 1% cellulose. Conclusion: Our results indicated that a diet supplemented with 1% cellulose increased villous to crypt ratio, however feeding a diet containing cellulose (1% or 2%) impaired nutrient digestibility for 14 day after weaning in both good sanitary and poor sanitary conditions.
Hoa, Van-Ba;Seol, Kuk-Hwan;Seo, Hyun-Woo;Seong, Pil-Nam;Kang, Sun-Moon;Kim, Yun-Seok;Moon, Sung-Sil;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Cho, Soo-Hyun 1663
Objective: Pork belly is considered as the most commercially important and preferable primal cut by consumers worldwide. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the effects of fat levels on the meat quality characteristics of pork bellies. Methods: Seventy-eight growing-finishing pigs collected from different commercial pig farms were slaughtered and used in the present study. After slaughter 24 h, bellies were fabricated according to the Korean Pork Cutting Specification, and immediately sampled for analysis of their fat content. Based on the fat levels, the bellies were segregated into three different groups: low fat (LF, fat ≤20%, n = 15), medium fat (MF, fat 21% to 30%, n = 30), and high fat (HF, fat ≥31%, n = 33). The bellies were then analyzed for meat quality traits, fatty acids, flavor compounds and eating quality properties. Results: The HF group had lower moisture and cooking loss levels compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The LF group presented higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The LF group showed higher amounts of the Maillard reaction-derived flavor compounds (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl, and 4-methylthiazole) associated with meaty and roasty flavors whereas, the HF group showed higher amounts of oleic acid- derived compounds (e.g., nonanal and octanal) associated with the fatty and oily flavors. Interestingly, significantly higher scores for all the eating quality attributes (flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptance) were found in the HF group compared to those in the LF or MF group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The high-fat bellies (fat ≥31%) had a better technological quality and eating quality compared to the low-fat bellies (fat ≤20%). Thus, increasing the fat content may improve the technological quality and eating quality traits of pork bellies, however, this increase may also result in more trimmed loss due to excessively deposited body fat.
Fat replacement by pecan nut and oregano oil and their impact on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability of frankfurtersOrozco, Daniela;Alarcon-Rojo, Alma Delia;Chavez-Mendoza, Celia;Luna, Lorena;Carrillo-Lopez, Luis Manuel;Ronquillo, Oswaldo 1674
Objective: A study was conducted to determine the physicochemical quality and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurter-type sausages formulated with pecan nut paste and Mexican oregano oil (MO) of two varieties, Poliomintha longiflora Gray (Mexican oregano Poliomintha, MOP) or Lippia berlandieri (Mexican oregano Lippia, MOL). Methods: Frankfurters were processed under six treatment conditions: control (10.67% pork fat), MOP (control + 0.01% MOP), MOL (control + 0.01% MOL), MOP-N (control + 0.01% MOP + 6% pecan nut paste), MOL-N (control + 0.01% MOL + 6% pecan nut paste), and C-N (control + 6% pecan nut paste). The physicochemical properties and the consumer acceptability were determined. Results: The addition of MO and nut did not influence the water holding capacity, drip loss, and luminosity of frankfurters, but those ingredients increased pH and shear force (p<0.05) and decreased redness (p<0.05) of frankfurters. Frankfurters were generally well accepted by consumers. However, general acceptability of sausages decreased with the addition of MO. Control sausages showed the highest acceptability. Conclusion: The MO and pecan nut paste do not affect drastically the quality of frankfurters. These results provide evidence that partial replacement of pork fat by pecan nut in frankfurters maintain a consistent physicochemical quality and its commercialization looks promising given consumers' acceptance.
The significant influence of residual feed intake on flavor precursors and biomolecules in slow-growing Korat chicken meatPoompramun, Chotima;Molee, Wittawat;Thumanu, Kanjana;Molee, Amonrat 1684
Objective: This study investigated the association between feed efficiency, physicochemical properties, flavor precursors and biomolecules in the thigh meat of Korat (KR) chickens. Methods: The feed intake and body weight of individual male KR chickens were recorded from 1 to 10 weeks old to calculate the individual residual feed intake (RFI) of 75 birds. At 10 weeks of age, chickens with the 10 highest (HRFI) and lowest RFI (LRFI) were slaughtered to provide thigh meat samples. The physicochemical properties (ultimate pH, water holding capacity [WHC], drip loss) and flavor precursors (guanosine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate (IMP), adenosine monophosphate and inosine) were analyzed conventionally, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the composition of biomolecules (lipids, ester lipids, amide I, amide II, amide III, and carbohydrates) and the secondary structure of the proteins. A group t-test was used to determine significant differences between mean values and principal component analysis to classify thigh meat samples into LRFI and HRFI KR chickens. Results: The physicochemical properties of thigh meat samples from LRFI and HRFI KR chickens were not significantly different but the IMP content, ratios of lipid, lipid ester, protein (amide I, amide II) were significantly different (p<0.05). The correlation loading results showed that the LRFI group was correlated with high ratios of lipids, lipid esters, collagen content (amide III) and beta sheet protein (rg loading >0.5) while the HRFI group was positively correlated with protein (amide I, amide II), alpha helix protein, IMP content, carbohydrate, ultimate pH and WHC (rg loading >0.5). Conclusion: The thigh meat from chickens with different RFI differed in physiochemical properties affecting meat texture, and in the contents of flavor precursors and biomolecules affecting the nutritional value of meat. This information can help animal breeders to make genetic improvements by taking more account of traits related to RFI.
Effects of ergothioneine-enriched mushroom extract on oxidative stability, volatile compounds and sensory quality of emulsified sausageObjective: The aim of this work was to assess the effect of ergothioneine (ESH)-enriched mushroom extract on oxidative stability, volatile compounds, and sensory quality of emulsified sausage. Methods: The ESH content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipes) extract was determined through radical-scavenging activity of 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and hydroxyl radicals. Four different groups of emulsified sausage were manufactured: control, no antioxidants; BHA, 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisole; EEME, 0.8% ESH-enriched mushroom (F. velutipes) extract; AE, 0.012% authentic ESH, after storage for 14 days (at 4℃), the quality of sausage including oxidative stability (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls content), volatile compounds and sensory quality were studied. Results: It was demonstrated that adding ESH-enriched F. velutipes extract to sausage could effectively prevent lipid and protein oxidation, and its efficacy was equivalent with 0.01% BHA. During meat processing, the ESH mainly contributed to the antioxidative activity of F. velutipes extract. The flavor and sensory attributes of emulsified sausage were improved through adding ESH-enriched F. velutipes extract. Conclusion: Accordingly, the extract of F. velutipes contained high-level of ESH and could be a good antioxidant candidate for processed meat production.
Effects of cooking conditions on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of dry- and wet-aged beefLee, Dongheon;Lee, Hyun Jung;Yoon, Ji Won;Ryu, Minkyung;Jo, Cheorun 1705
Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the effects of cooking conditions on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of dry- and wet-aged beef strip loins. Methods: Dry- and wet-aged beef aged for 28 days were cooked using different cooking methods (grilling or oven roasting)×cooking temperatures (150℃ or 230℃), and their pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile compounds, and color were measured. Results: Cooking conditions did not affect pH; however, grilling resulted in lower TBARS but higher cooking doneness at the dry-aged beef surface compared to oven roasting (p<0.05). In descriptive sensory analysis, the roasted flavor of dry-aged beef was significantly stronger when grill-cooked compared to oven roasting. Dry-aged beef grill-cooked at 150℃ presented a higher intensity of cheesy flavor, and that grilled at 230℃ showed a greater intensity of roasted flavor compared to wet-aged beef at the same condition, respectively. Conclusion: Grilling may be effective for enhancing the unique flavor in dry-aged beef.
The effect of daily calf stroking frequency during the postnatal period on the establishment of the human-calf relationshipWada, Satoko;Fukasawa, Michiru;Chiba, Takashi;Shishido, Tetsuro;Tozawa, Akitsu;Ogura, Shin-ichiro 1717
Objective: Stroking calves during the postnatal period could effectively improve human-calf relationships. The objective of this study is to examine how daily calf stroking frequency during the postnatal period affects the establishment of human-calf relationships. Methods: Six calves were stroked by a trainer for 6 minutes once daily for 5 days after birth (D1). Six calves were stroked by a trainer for 3 minutes twice daily for 5 days after birth (D2). A further four calves were stared at but not stroked as the control group. The overall stroking or staring duration was the same for all groups, at 6 min/d and 30 min over 5 days. The tests for reactions to the stationary trainer in an unfamiliar environment and avoidance distance measurements for an approaching trainer were conducted at 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: Calves in both stroking groups approached significantly closer to the stationary trainer, vocalized less, and looked at the trainer shorter than the control group at 1 month. However, at 3 months, there was no significant difference between the D1 and the control group, whereas the D2 approached significantly closer to the trainer and vocalized less, and looked at the trainer for a shorter time than the control group. For the avoidance distance, the trainer could approach closer to both stroking groups than the control at 1 month, however, there was no difference among groups at 3 months. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the difference in the calf stroking procedure affected the established human-calf relationships, even though the total stroking duration was the same for all stroked calves. It is likely to be more effective to stroke more frequently than intensively when the aim is to establish better human-calf relationships within limited labor time.