- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Aim & Scope
Animal Bioscience (AB) aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry. Animal Bioscience will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems. Animal Bioscience is subdivided into 10 sections. Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming systemhttps://submit.animbiosci.org/ KCI SCIE
Volume 34 Issue 8
Semen evaluation: methodological advancements in sperm quality-specific fertility assessment - A reviewTanga, Bereket Molla;Qamar, Ahmad Yar;Raza, Sanan;Bang, Seonggyu;Fang, Xun;Yoon, Kiyoung;Cho, Jongki 1253
Assessment of male fertility is based on the evaluation of sperm. Semen evaluation measures various sperm quality parameters as fertility indicators. However, semen evaluation has limitations, and it requires the advancement and application of strict quality control methods to interpret the results. This article reviews the recent advances in evaluating various sperm-specific quality characteristics and methodologies, with the help of different assays to assess sperm-fertility status. Sperm evaluation methods that include conventional microscopic methods, computer-assisted sperm analyzers (CASA), and flow cytometric analysis, provide precise information related to sperm morphology and function. Moreover, profiling fertility-related biomarkers in sperm or seminal plasma can be helpful in predicting fertility. Identification of different sperm proteins and diagnosis of DNA damage has positively contributed to the existing pool of knowledge about sperm physiology and molecular anomalies associated with different infertility issues in males. Advances in methods and sperm-specific evaluation has subsequently resulted in a better understanding of sperm biology that has improved the diagnosis and clinical management of male factor infertility. Accurate sperm evaluation is of paramount importance in the application of artificial insemination and assisted reproductive technology. However, no single test can precisely determine fertility; the selection of an appropriate test or a set of tests and parameters is required to accurately determine the fertility of specific animal species. Therefore, a need to further calibrate the CASA and advance the gene expression tests is recommended for faster and field-level applications.
Genome-wide studies provide considerable insights into the genetic background of animals; however, the inheritance of several heritable factors cannot be elucidated. Epigenetics explains these heritabilities, including those of genes influenced by environmental factors. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying epigenetics enables understanding the processes of gene regulation through interactions with the environment. Recently developed next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies help understand the interactional changes in epigenetic mechanisms. There are large sets of NGS data available; however, the integrative data analysis approaches still have limitations with regard to reliably interpreting the epigenetic changes. This review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms and profiling methods and multi-omics integration methods that can provide comprehensive biological insights in animal genetic studies.
Composite genotypes of progestogen-associated endometrial protein gene and their association with composition and quality of dairy cattle milkKolenda, Magdalena;Sitkowska, Beata;Kamola, Dariusz;Lambert, Barry D. 1283
Objective: The progestogen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) gene encodes the main whey protein in milk, β-lactoglobulin. The aim of the study was to investigate polymorphism in the PAEP gene and its association with milk yield, composition, and quality. Methods: Test-day records for 782 dairy cows were analysed. A total of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the PAEP gene were investigated. The following parameters were recorded: milk yield (MY, kg/d), percent milk fat (%), protein (PP, %), dry matter (DMP, %) and lactose (LP, %), urea content (UC, mg/L) as well as natural logarithm for somatic cell count (LnSCC, ln). Effect on genomic estimated breeding values accuracy was evaluated with pedigree and single step model. Results: Results show that only three SNPs were polymorphic, creating 5 composite genotypes: P1 to P5. Differences in MY between composite genotypes were noted in the two tested herds. Cows with P5 composite genotypes were characterised by the highest PP and LnSCC and the lowest LP and UC (p<0.05). P4 was linked to an increased DMP and UC, while P3 to an increase in LP and decrease in PP and LnSCC. Both factors are important markers in herd management and have high influences on the herds economics. For 5 out of 7 traits the accuracy of prediction was improved by including the haplotype as a fixed effect. Conclusion: Presented results may suggest a new way to optimise breeding programmes and demonstrate the impact of using genomic data during that process.
Integrated transcriptomic analysis on small yellow follicles reveals that sosondowah ankyrin repeat domain family member A inhibits chicken follicle selectionZhong, Conghao;Liu, Zemin;Qiao, Xibo;Kang, Li;Sun, Yi;Jiang, Yunliang 1290
Objective: Follicle selection is an important process in chicken egg laying. Among several small yellow (SY) follicles, the one exhibiting the highest expression of follicle stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR) will be selected to become a hierarchal follicle. The role of lncRNA, miRNA and other non-coding RNA in chicken follicle selection is unclear. Methods: In this study, the whole transcriptome sequencing of SY follicles with different expression levels of FSHR in Jining Bairi hens was performed, and the expression of 30 randomly selected mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Preliminary studies and bioinformatics analysis were performed on the selected mRNA, lncRNA, miRNA and their target genes. The effect of identified gene was examined in the granulosa cells of chicken follicles. Results: Integrated transcriptomic analysis on chicken SY follicles differing in FSHR expression revealed 467 differentially expressed mRNA genes, 134 differentially expressed lncRNA genes and 34 differentially expressed miRNA genes, and sosondowah ankyrin repeat domain family member A (SOWAHA) was the common target gene of three miRNAs and one lncRNA. SOWAHA was mainly expressed in small white (SW) and SY follicles and was affected by follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) treatment in the granulosa cells. Knockdown of SOWAHA inhibited the expression of Wnt family member 4 (Wnt4) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the granulosa cells of prehierarchal follicles, while stimulated Wnt4 in hierarchal follicles. Overexpression of SOWAHA increased the expression of Wnt4 in the granulosa cells of prehierarchal follicles, decreased that of StAR and cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 in the granulosa cells of hierarchal follicles and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells. Conclusion: Integrated analysis of chicken SY follicle transcriptomes identified SOWAHA as a network gene that is affected by FSH in granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. SOWAHA affected the expression of genes involved in chicken follicle selection and inhibited the proliferation of granulosa cells, suggesting an inhibitory role in chicken follicle selection.
Ghiasi, Heydar;Piwczynski, Dariusz;Sitkowska, Beata;Gonzalez-Recio, Oscar 1303
Objective: The objective of this study was to define a new composite trait for Holstein dairy cows and evaluate the possibility of joint improvement in milk and fertility traits. Methods: A data set consisting 35,882 fertility related records (days open [DO], calving interval [CI], and number of services per conception [NSC], and total milk yield in each lactation [TMY]) was collected from 1998 to 2016 in Polish Holstein-Friesian breed herds. In this study TMY, DO, CI, and lactation length of each cow was used to obtain composite milk and fertility traits (CMF). Results: Moderate heritability (0.15) was estimated for composite trait that was higher than heritability of female fertility related traits: DO 0.047, CI 0.042, and NSC 0.014, and slightly lower than heritability of TMY 0.19. Favourable genetic correlations (-0.87) were estimated between CMF with TMY. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between breeding value of CMF with DO, CI, and TMY were high (>0.94) but with NSC were moderate (0.64). Selection on CMF caused favourable correlated genetic gains for DO, CI, and TMY. Different selection indices with different emphasis on fertility and milk production were constructed. The amount of correlated genetic gains obtained for DO and total milk production according to selection in CMF were higher than of genetic gains obtained for DO and TMY in selection indices with different emphasis on milk and fertility. Conclusion: The animal selection only based on a composite trait - CMF proposed in current study would simultaneously lead to favourable genetic gains for both milk and fertility related traits. In this situation CMF introduced in current study can be used to overcome to limitations of selection index and CMF could be useful for countries that have problems in recording traits, especially functional traits.
Profiling of skeletal muscle tissue for long non-coding RNAs related to muscle metabolism in the QingYu pig at the growth inflection pointLuo, Jia;Shen, Linyuan;Gan, Mailin;Jiang, Anan;Chen, Lei;Ma, Jideng;Jin, Long;Liu, Yihui;Tang, Guoqing;Jiang, Yanzhi;Li, Mingzhou;Li, Xuewei;Zhang, Shunhua;Zhu, Li 1309
Objective: Investigation of muscle growth at different developmental stages is an appropriate strategy for studying the mechanisms underlying muscle development and differences in phenotypes. In particular, the muscle development mechanisms and the difference between the fastest and slowest growth rates. Methods: In this study, we used a growth curve model to fit the growth inflection point (IP) of QingYu pigs and compared differences in the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome of muscle both at the growth IP and plateau phase (PP). Results: The growth curve of the QingYu pig had a good fit (R2 = 0.974) relative to a typical S-curve and reached the IP at day 177.96. At the PP, marbling, intramuscular fat, and monounsaturated fatty acids had increased significantly and the percentage of lean muscle and polyunsaturated fatty acids had decreased. A total of 1,199 mRNAs and 62 lncRNAs were differentially expressed at the IP compared with the PP. Additional to gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analyses, these differentially expressed protein coding genes were principally related to muscle growth and lipid metabolism. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the identified differentially expressed lncRNAs, could play roles in muscle growth, fat deposition and regulation of fatty acid composition at the IP and PP.
Isolation and characterization of cultured chicken oviduct epithelial cells and in vitro validation of constructed ovalbumin promoter in these cellsYang, Hyeon;Lee, Bo Ram;Lee, Hwi-Cheul;Jung, Sun Keun;Kim, Ji-Youn;No, Jingu;Shanmugam, Sureshkumar;Jo, Yong Jin;Lee, Haesun;Hwang, Seongsoo;Byun, Sung June 1321
Objective: Transgenic hens hold a great promise to produce various valuable proteins. Through virus transduction into stage X embryo, the transgene expression under the control of constructed chicken ovalbumin promoters has been successfully achieved. However, a validation system that can evaluate differently developed ovalbumin promoters in in vitro, remains to be developed. Methods: In the present study, chicken oviduct epithelial cells (cOECs) were isolated from oviduct tissue and shortly cultured with keratinocyte complete medium supplemented with chicken serum. The isolated cells were characterized with immunofluorescence, western blot, and flow cytometry using oviduct-specific marker. Chicken mutated ovalbumin promoter (Mut-4.4-kb-pOV) was validated in these cells using luciferase reporter analysis. Results: The isolated cOECs revealed that the oviduct-specific marker, ovalbumin protein, was clearly detected by immunofluorescence, western blot, and flow cytometry analysis revealed that approximately 79.40% of the cells contained this protein. Also, luciferase reporter analysis showed that the constructed Mut-4.4-kb-pOV exhibited 7.1-fold (p<0.001) higher activity in the cOECs. Conclusion: Collectively, these results demonstrate the efficient isolation and characterization of cOECs and validate the activity of the constructed ovalbumin promoter in the cultured cOECs. The in vitro validation of the recombinant promoter activity in cOECs can facilitate the production of efficient transgenic chickens for potential use as bioreactors.
Broken rice in a fermented total mixed ration improves carcass and marbling quality in fattened beef cattleObjective: This study aimed to determine the effects of replacing cassava chips with broken rice in a fermented total mixed ration diet on silage quality, feed intake, ruminal fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics in the final phase of fattening beef cattle. Methods: Eighteen Charolais-Thai native crossbred steers (average initial body weight: 609.4±46 kg; average age 31.6 mo) were subjected to three ad libitum dietary regimes and were maintained in individual pens for 90 d before slaughter. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design by initial age and body weight with six replicates. The dietary regimens used different proportions of broken rice (0%, 16%, and 32% [w/w] of dry matter [DM]) instead of cassava chips in a fermented total mixed ration. All dietary treatments were evaluated for in vitro gas production and tested in in vivo feeding trials. Results: The in vitro experiments indicated that organic matter from broken rice was significantly more digestible than that from a cassava-based diet (p<0.05). Silage quality, nutrient intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, carcass fat thickness, and marbling score substantially differed among treatments. The ruminal total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration, dietary protein intake, and digestibility increased linearly (p<0.05) with broken rice, whereas acetate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased linearly (p<0.05) with broken rice (added up to 32 g/kg DM). Broken rice did not influence plasma metabolite levels or growth performance (p>0.05). However, the marbling score increased, and the carcass characteristics improved with broken rice. Conclusion: Substitution of cassava chips with broken rice in beef cattle diets may improve fattened beef carcass quality because broken rice increases rumen fermentation, fatty acid biosynthesis, and metabolic energy supply.
Effect of dietary supplementation of β-mannanase on growth performance, carcass characteristics, excreta microflora, blood constituents, and nutrient ileal digestibility in broiler chickensMohammadigheisar, Mohsen;Shouldice, Victoria L.;Balasubramanian, Balamuralikrishnan;Kim, In Ho 1342
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of β-mannanase on growth performance, carcass characteristics, excreta microflora, blood constituents, and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 680 one-d-old Ross 308 (as hatched) broiler chickens were used in a 35-d growth assay. Chicks were sorted into pens with 17 birds/pen and 10 pens/treatment. Treatment diets were contained either 44% or 48% crude protein (CP) soybean meal (SBM) with or without β-mannanase. Results: Using SBM containing 48% CP led to an improvement (p<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) from d 1 to 14. Addition of β-mannanase to the diets significantly improved body weight gain (BWG) and FCR from d 1 to 14. During overall experimental period, BWG was affected (p<0.05) by CP level of SBM and inclusion of β-mannanase, but FCR and feed intake were not affected. Carcass characteristics were not influenced by treatment diets. The results showed that digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), and energy was not affected by CP level of SBM and/or inclusion of β-mannanase. Among essential amino acids (EAA) apparent digestibility of valine, methionine, and leucine improved (p<0.05) by the addition of β-mannanase to the diets. The results demonstrated that ileal digestibility of DM, N, and energy was not affected by treatment diets. Among EAA, the ileal digestibility of valine and arginine was higher (p<0.05) in the diets containing 48% CP SBM and/or β-mannanase. Excreta Lactobacillus count increased (p<0.05) by the addition of β-mannanase to the diets. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total protein level were not affected by treatments. Conclusion: Feeding chickens with diets containing 44% CP SBM resulted in detrimental effects on growth performance and digestibility of nutrients, but addition of β-mannanase to the 44% CP diet improved the growth performance of chickens without any effects on carcass characteristics.
The strategies for the supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals in pig production: surveying major producers in ChinaObjective: Adequate vitamin and trace mineral intake for pigs are important to achieve satisfactory growth performance. There are no data available on the vitamin and trace mineral intake across pig producers in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the amount of vitamin and trace minerals used in Chinese pig diets. Methods: A 1-year survey of supplemented vitamin and trace minerals in pig diets was organized in China. A total of 69 producers were invited for the survey, which represents approximately 90% of the pig herd in China. Data were compiled by bodyweight stages to determine descriptive statistics. Nutrients were evaluated for vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, niacin, folic acid, biotin, choline, copper, iron, manganese, zinc, selenium, and iodine. Data were statistically analyzed by functions in Excel. Results: The results indicated variation for supplemented vitamin (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, niacin, and choline) and trace minerals (copper, manganese, zinc, and iodine) in pig diets, but most vitamins and trace minerals were included at concentrations far above the total dietary requirement estimates reported by the National Research Council and the China's Feeding Standard of Swine. Conclusion: The levels of vitamin and trace mineral used in China's pig industry vary widely. Adding a high concentration for vitamin and trace mineral appears to be common practice in pig diets. This investigation provides a reference for supplementation rates of the vitamins and trace minerals in the China's pig industry.
Synergistic effect of exogenous multi-enzyme and phytase on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood metabolites, intestinal microflora and morphology in broilers fed corn-wheat-soybean meal dietsKim, MinJu;Ingale, Santosh Laxman;Hosseindoust, Abdolreza;Choi, YoHan;Kim, KwangYeol;Chae, ByungJo 1365
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the synergistic effect of exogenous multienzyme and phytase on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood metabolites, intestinal microflora, and morphology in broilers fed corn-wheat-soybean meal diets. Methods: A 2×2 factorial design was used in this study. Four dietary treatments consisted of i) basal diets (corn-wheat-soybean meal based diets without multi-enzyme and phytase), ii) basal diets with phytase (0.05%), iii) basal diets with exogenous multi-enzyme (0.05%), and iv) basal diets with exogenous multi-enzyme including phytase (0.05%). A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308 - one day old) were weighed and allotted to thirty-two cages (15 birds per cage), and chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Results: The body weight gain and feed conversion rate were improved by supplementation of exogenous multi-enzyme containing phytase during the finisher period (p<0.05). The birds fed diets with exogenous multi-enzyme containing phytase had a significantly greater digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus compared with birds fed non-supplemented diets (p<0.05). The chickens fed diets with exogenous multi-enzyme containing phytase showed a higher concentration of Ca and P in the serum (p<0.05). The population of Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia coli, and Clostridium were not affected in the ileum and cecum of chickens fed enzyme-supplemented diets. The dietary supplemental exogenous multi-enzyme containing phytase showed a significant improvement in villus height, crypt depth, and villus height and crypt depth ratio, compared to basal diets or dietary supplemental phytase (p<0.05). Conclusion: The supplementation of the exogenous multi-enzyme containing phytase synergistically improved the growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and villus height of the small intestine of broiler chickens fed a corn-wheat-soybean meal based diets.
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of freeze-thawed cycles (Fresh meat, F-T 1 cycle and F-T 2 cycles) on the quality characteristics of porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. Methods: A total of 20 three-crossbred pigs (Duroc×[Large White×Landrace]) were randomly obtained from a commercial slaughterhouse in Thailand. Muscle samples were immediately taken from 10 to 11th of the longissimus dorsi for histochemical analysis. The muscles were cut into 2.54 cm-thick chops. A minimum of 20 chops were used for each treatment (fresh meat, freeze-thawed 1 and 2 cycles). Individually chops were packaged in polyethylene bags and frozen at -20℃ for 6 months followed by thawing in refrigerator at 4℃ for 24 h (the 1st freeze-thawed cycle). The freeze-thawed procedure was repeated for two cycles (the 2nd freeze-thawed cycle). Thawing loss, shear force value, citrate synthase activity and muscle fiber characteristics were determined on the muscles. Results: Results showed that increasing of freeze-thawed cycle increased the thawing loss (p<0.01) and citrate synthase activity (p<0.001). Shear force value of fresh meat was higher than freeze-thawed 1 and 2 cycles (F-T 1 cycle and F-T 2 cycles). Freeze-thawed cycles affected muscle characteristics. Muscle fiber area and muscle fiber diameter decreased with an increasing number of freeze-thawed cycles (p<0.001), while the thickness of endomysium and perimysium were increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Repeated freeze-thawed cycles degraded muscle fiber structure and deteriorated pork quality.
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the impact of different forms of iron including myoglobin, hemin, and ferric chloride on the quality of chicken breast meat. Methods: Chicken breast muscles were subjected to 1, 2, 3 mg/mL of FeCl3, myoglobin and hemin treatment respectively, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, meat color, tenderness, water holding capacity and morphology of meat was evaluated. Results: Hemin was found to produce more ROS and induce greater extent of lipid oxidation than myoglobin and ferric chloride. However, it showed that hemin could significantly increase the redness and decrease the lightness of the muscle. Hemin was also shown to be prominent in improving water holding capacity of meat, maintaining a relatively higher level of the immobilized water from low-field nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Morphology observation by hematoxylin-eosin staining further confirmed the results that hemin preserved the integrity of the muscle. Conclusion: The results indicated that hemin may have economic benefit for the industry based on its advantage in improving water holding capacity and quality of meat.
Growth factors improve the proliferation of Jeju black pig muscle cells by regulating myogenic differentiation 1 and growth-related genesPark, Jinryong;Lee, Jeongeun;Song, Ki-Duk;Kim, Sung-Jo;Kim, Dae Cheol;Lee, Sang Cheol;Son, Young June;Choi, Hyun Woo;Shim, Kwanseob 1392
Objective: The growth rate of pigs is related to differentiation and proliferation of muscle cells, which are regulated by growth factors and expression of growth-related genes. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish optimal culture conditions for Jeju black pig (JBP) muscle cells and determine the relationship of various factors involved in muscle growth with the proliferation of JBP muscle cells. Methods: Muscles were taken from the femur skeletal muscle of JBP embryos. After isolation of the muscle cells, cells were cultured in a 6-well plate under four different culture conditions to optimize culture conditions for JBP muscle cells. To analyze proliferation rate of JBP muscle cells, these muscle cells were seeded into 6-well plates at a density of 1.5×105 cells per well and cultured for 3 days. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were applied to verify the myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) expression and growth-related gene expression in JBP muscle cells, respectively. Results: We established a muscle cell line from JBP embryos and optimized its culture conditions. These muscle cells were positive for MyoD, but not for paired box 7. The proliferation rate of these muscle cells was significantly higher in a culture medium containing bFGF and epidermal growth factor + basic fibroblast growth factor (EGF+bFGF) than that without a growth factor or containing EGF alone. Treatment with EGF and bFGF significantly induced the expression of MyoD protein, an important transcription factor in muscle cells. Moreover, we checked the changes of expression of growth-related genes in JBP muscle cells by presence or absence of growth factors. Expression level of collagen type XXI alpha 1 gene was changed only when EGF and bFGF were added together to culture media for JBP muscle cells. Conclusion: Concurrent use of EGF and bFGF increased the expression of MyoD protein, thus regulating the proliferation of JBP muscle cells and the expression of growth-related genes.
Zearalenone regulates key factors of the Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling pathway in duodenum of post-weaning giltsCheng, Qun;Jiang, Shu zhen;Huang, Li bo;Yang, Wei ren;Yang, Zai bin 1403
Objective: This study explored the mechanism of the Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway under conditions of zearalenone (ZEA)-induced oxidative stress in the duodenum of post-weaning gilts. Methods: Forty post-weaning gilts were randomly allocated to four groups and fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/kg ZEA. Results: The results showed significant reductions in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and increases the malondialdehyde content with increasing concentrations of dietary ZEA. Immunohistochemical analysis supported these findings by showing a significantly increased expression of Nrf2 and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) with increasing concentrations of ZEA. The relative mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2, GPX1 increased linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05), which was consistent with the immunohistochemical results. The relative mRNA expression of Keap1 decreased linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) in the duodenum as the ZEA concentration increased in the diet. The relative mRNA expression of modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM) increased quadratically (p<0.05) in all ZEA treatment groups and the relative mRNA expression of quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase decreased linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) in the ZEA1.0 group and ZEA1.5 group. The relative protein expression of Keap1 and GCLM decreased quadratically (p<0.05) in the duodenum as the ZEA concentration increased in the diet, respectively. The relative protein expression of NQO1 increased linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) in all ZEA treatment groups in the duodenum. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ZEA regulates the expression of key factors of the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway in the duodenum, which enables resistance to ZEA-induced oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of ZEA induced oxidative stress on other tissues and organs in post-weaning gilts.
Kobayashi, Nobuyuki;Hou, Fujiang;Tsunekawa, Atsushi;Yan, Tianhai;Tegegne, Firew;Tassew, Asaminew;Mekuriaw, Yeshambel;Mekuriaw, Shigdaf;Hunegnaw, Beyadglign;Mekonnen, Wondimeneh;Ichinohe, Toshiyoshi 1415
Objective: Portable laser methane detectors (LMDs) may be an economical means of estimating CH4 emissions from ruminants. We validated an LMD-based approach and then used that approach to evaluate CH4 emissions from indigenous dairy cows in a dryland area of Ethiopia. Methods: First, we validated our LMD-based approach in Simmental crossbred beef cattle (n = 2) housed in respiration chambers and fed either a high- or low-concentrate diet. From the results of the validation, we constructed an estimation equation to determine CH4 emissions from LMD CH4 concentrations. Next, we used our validated LMD approach to examine CH4 emissions in Fogera dairy cows grazed for 8 h/d (GG, n = 4), fed indoors on natural-grassland hay (CG1, n = 4), or fed indoors on Napier-grass (Pennisetum purpureum) hay (CG2, n = 4). All the cows were supplemented with concentrate feed. Results: The exhaled CH4 concentrations measured by LMD were linearly correlated with the CH4 emissions determined by infrared-absorption-based gas analyzer (r2 = 0.55). The estimation equation used to determine CH4 emissions (y, mg/min) from LMD CH4 concentrations (x, ppm m) was y = 0.4259x+38.61. Daily CH4 emissions of Fogera cows estimated by using the equation did not differ among the three groups; however, a numerically greater milk yield was obtained from the CG2 cows than from the GG cows, suggesting that Napier-grass hay might be better than natural-grassland hay for indoor feeding. The CG1 cows had higher CH4 emissions per feed intake than the other groups, without significant increases in milk yield and body-weight gain, suggesting that natural-grassland hay cannot be recommended for indoor-fed cows. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the potential of using LMDs to valuate feeding regimens rapidly and economically for dairy cows in areas under financial constraint, while taking CH4 emissions into consideration.