Evaluating feed value of native Jeju bamboo (Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai) for beef cattle

  • Seul, Lee (Animal Nutrition and Physiology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Develpoment Administration) ;
  • Youl Chang, Baek (Animal Nutrition and Physiology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Develpoment Administration) ;
  • Mingyung, Lee (Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Seoyoung, Jeon (Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Han Tae, Bang (Animal Nutrition and Physiology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Develpoment Administration) ;
  • Seongwon, Seo (Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2022.04.22
  • Accepted : 2022.07.18
  • Published : 2023.02.01


Objective: Recently, indigenous Korean grass Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai (SQ) has garnered much interest as a roughage source for livestock to mitigate its adverse effects on habitat diversity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the ruminal fermentation, palatability, and nutrient digestibility of SQ for Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) using in vitro rumen fermentation, in situ rumen degradability, and in vivo feeding trials. Methods: Using in vitro tests with rumen fluid as the inoculum for 48 h, ruminal fermentation of SQ was evaluated and compared with that of other roughage sources commonly used in Korea (i.e., rice straw, Timothy hay, and Italian ryegrass [IRG]). Additionally, an in situ trial 96 h was performed using three cannulated Hanwoo steers. Further, an in vivo trial was performed using eight Hanwoo steers to compare the palatability of SQ with rice straw in total mixed ration (TMR) and forage-concentrate separate feeding conditions. Finally, an in vivo digestibility trial of SQ fed as TMR of two particle sizes was performed with four Hanwoo steers. Results: In vitro and in situ trials revealed that SQ was comparable or superior to rice straw in terms of the ruminal fermentation characteristics of pH, gas production, total volatile fatty acid content, and effective ruminal dry matter digestibility (DMD), although its fermentability was lower than that of Timothy hay and IRG. In the palatability test, steers showed a greater preference for SQ when given as TMR. The total tract DMD of SQ fed as TMR was 75.9%±1.37%, and it did not differ by particle size. Conclusion: The feed value of SQ as a roughage source for Hanwoo steers is comparable or superior to that of rice straw, particularly when provided as TMR.



This work was supported by the "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development" (Project No. PJ012754032018, Project title: The evaluation of feed value of broad-leaf bamboo (Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai) for the technique for Hanwoo) by the National Institute of Animal Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.


  1. Kang S, Shin H, Kim H, et al. Anti-obesity properties of a Sasa quelpaertensis extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2012;76:755-61.
  2. The Northeastern Asia Biodiversity Institute. Study for management system of Sasa quelpaertensis. 2018. Report No.: 796500000-000343-13.
  3. Hwang J, Choi S, Ko H, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of the hot water extract from Sasa quelpaertensis leaves. Food Sci Biotechnol 2007;16:728-33.
  4. Kim K, Kim Y, Lim JY, et al. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract by suppressing lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory mediators in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells co-cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Nutr Res Pract 2015;9:3-10.
  5. Yokoyama S, Shibata E. Characteristics of Sasa nipponica grassland as a summer forage resource for sika deer on Mt Ohdaigahara, central Japan. Ecol Res 1998;13:193-8.
  6. Shingu Y, Kondo S, Hata H. Differences in grazing behavior of horses and cattle at the feeding station scale on woodland pasture. Anim Sci J 2010;81:384-92.
  7. Lee C, Kim H, Whang K, Park N, Kim N, Oh W. The evaluation of feed value and growth characteristics of Sasa quelpaertenisis Nakai by horse grazing in the woodland of Jeju. J Kor Grassl Forage Sci 2010;30:151-8.
  8. Woo JH, Park NG, Shin SM, et al. The effect of feeding TMR with Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai on the body weight and blood composition of the horse. J Kor Soc Grassl Forage Sci 2020;40:203-8.
  9. Lima R, Lourenco M, Diaz R, Castro A, Fievez V. Effect of combined ensiling of sorghum and soybean with or without molasses and lactobacilli on silage quality and in vitro rumen fermentation. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2010;155:122-31.
  10. Erwin ES, Marco GJ, Emery EM. Volatile fatty acid analyses of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J Dairy Sci 1961;44:1768-71.
  11. Chaney AL, Marbach EP. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin Chem 1962;8:130-2.
  12. Orskov ER, McDonald I. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J Agric Sci 1979;92:499-503.
  13. Denham SC, Morantes GA, Bates DB, Moore JE. Comparison of two models used to estimate in situ nitrogen disappearance. J Dairy Sci 1989;72:708-14.
  14. Kawamoto H, Mohamed WZ, Shukur NIM, Ali MSM, Ismail Y, Oshio S. Palatability, digestibility and voluntary intake of processed oil palm fronds in cattle. Jarq-Jpn Agric Res Q 2001;35:195-200.
  15. Ali I, Fontenot JP, Allen VG. Effects of feeding corn stover treated with different nitrogen sources on palatability and dry matter intake in sheep. J Vet Anim Sci 2012;2:11-5.
  16. Heinrichs J, Kononoff P. Evaluating particle size of forages and TMRs using the Penn State Particle Separator. Pennsylvania, PA, USA: Pennsylvania State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Cooperative Extension DAS; 1996;42:1-15.
  17. Jang et al. (Please check the author' name.) Korean feeding standard for Hanwoo. National Institute of Animal Science; 2017. Report No.:11-1390906-000334-13, pp. 57-60.
  18. Horwitz W. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: The Association of Official Chemists; 2000.
  19. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97.
  20. Krishnamoorthy U, Muscato T, Sniffen C, Van Soest P. Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. J Dairy Sci 1982;65:217-25.
  21. Licitra G, Hernandez T, Van Soest P. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1996;57:347-58.
  22. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle: Seventh Revised Edition. Washington, DC, USA: The National Academies Press; 2001.
  23. Fox DG, Tedeschi L, Tylutki T, et al. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2004;112:29-78.
  24. Seo S, Jeon S, Ha JK. Guidelines for experimental design and statistical analyses in animal studies submitted for publication in the Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018;31:1381-6.
  25. Ki KS, Park SB, Lim DH, Seo S. Evaluation of the nutritional value of locally produced forage in Korea using chemical analysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017;30:355-62.
  26. Seo S, Lee SC, Lee SY, Seo JG, Ha JK. Degradation kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of ruminant feeds using automated gas production technique. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2009;22:356-64.
  27. Na Y, Lee K, Hong K, Lim J, Kim M, Lee S. Evaluations of nutrient compositions and in situ ruminal disappearance rates of roughage sources commonly used in Korea. J Kor Soc Grassl Forage Sci 2013;33:269-74.
  28. Worley JW, Cundiff JS. Comparison of harvesting and transport issues when biomass crops are handled as hay vs silage. Bioresour Technol 1996;56:69-75.
  29. Schingoethe DJ. A 100-Year Review: Total mixed ration feeding of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2017;100:10143-50.
  30. Gordon FJ, Patterson DC, Yan T, Porter MG, Mayne CS, Unsworth EF. The influence of genetic index for milk production on the response to complete diet feeding and the utilization of energy and nitrogen. Anim Sci 1995;61:199-210.
  31. Lee S, Lee SM, Lee J, Kim EJ. Feeding strategies with total mixed ration and concentrate may improve feed intake and carcass quality of Hanwoo steers. J Anim Sci Technol 2021;63:1086-97.
  32. Kononoff PJ, Heinrichs AJ, Lehman HA. The effect of corn silage particle size on eating behavior, chewing activities, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2003;86:3343-53.
  33. Hadjigeorgiou IE, Gordon IJ, Milne JA. Intake, digestion, and selection of roughage with different staple lengths by sheep and goats. Small Rumin Res 2003;47:117-32.
  34. Maulfair DD, Fustini M, Heinrichs AJ. Effect of varying total mixed ration particle size on rumen digesta and fecal particle size and digestibility in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2011;94:3527-36.
  35. Belyea RL, Martz FA, Mbagaya GA. Effect of particle size of alfalfa hay on intake, digestibility, milk yield, and ruminal cell wall of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 1989;72:958-63.
  36. Beauchemin KA, Yang WZ. Effects of physically effective fiber on intake, chewing activity, and ruminal acidosis for dairy cows fed diets based on corn silage. J Dairy Sci 2005;88:2117-29.