Characterization of intrinsic molecular structure spectral profiles of feedstocks and co-products from canola bio-oil processing: impacted by source origin

  • Alessandra M.R.C.B., de Oliveira (Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan) ;
  • Peiqiang, Yu (Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan)
  • Received : 2022.03.01
  • Accepted : 2022.06.17
  • Published : 2023.02.01


Objective: Feed molecular structures can affect its availability to gastrointestinal enzymes which impact its digestibility and absorption. The molecular spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced technique that measures the absorbance of chemical functional groups on the infrared region so that we can identify and quantify molecules and functional groups in a feed. The program aimed to reveal the association of intrinsic molecular structure with nutrient supply to animals from canola feedstocks and co-products from bio-oil processing. The objective of this study was to characterize special intrinsic carbohydrate and protein-related molecular structure spectral profiles of feedstock and co-products (meal and pellets) from bio-oil processing from two source origins: Canada (CA) and China (CH). Methods: The samples of feedstock and co-products were obtained from five different companies in each country arranged by the Canola Council of Canada (CCC). The molecular structure spectral features were analyzed using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy-ATR-FTIR. The spectral features that accessed included: i) protein-related spectral features (Amide I, Amide II, α-helix, β-sheet, and their spectral intensity ratios), ii) carbohydrate-related spectral features (TC1, TC2, TC3, TC4, CEC, STC1, STC2, STC3, STC4, TC, and their spectral intensity ratios). Results: The results showed that significant differences were observed on all vibrationally spectral features related to total carbohydrates, structural carbohydrates, and cellulosic compounds (p<0.05), except spectral features of TC2 and STC1 (p>0.05) of co-products, where CH meals presented higher peaks of these structures than CA. Similarly, it was for the carbohydrate-related molecular structure of canola seeds where the difference between CA and CH occurred except for STC3 height, CEC and STC areas (p>0.05). The protein-related molecular structures were similar for the canola seeds from both countries. However, CH meals presented higher peaks of amide I, α-helix, and β-sheet heights, α-helix:β-sheet ratio, total amide and amide I areas (p<0.05). Conclusion: The principal component analysis was able to explain over 90% of the variabilities in the carbohydrate and protein structures although it was not able to separate the samples from the two countries, indicating feedstock and coproducts interrelationship between CH and CA.



This work is part of the first author's thesis and modified and edited for the journal [12]. The authors would like to thank B. Dyck and G. Qin (Canola Council of Canada) and X. Zhang (Tianjing Agricultural University) for help in sampling canola seed and canola meal in various crushers in Canada and China, D. Beaulieu and R. Newkirk for being in advisory committee, and Z. Niu (Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan) for technical assistance. The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Saskatchewan, the Rainer Dairy Teaching and Research Facility, and Alexander Malcolm Shaw Memorial Graduate Scholarship (to AO).


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