• Title, Summary, Keyword: y\grave{u}n$

Search Result 21, Processing Time 0.033 seconds

The biblographical study on $T{\acute{o}}u\;f{\bar{e}}ng$ and Migraine -(Comparative study between Oriental and Western Medicine)- (두풍(頭風)과 편두통(Migraine)에 대(對)한 동서의학적(東西醫學的) 문헌고찰(文獻考察))

  • Oh, So-Jeo;Jeong, Ji-Cheon;Lee, Won-Chul
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.129-138
    • /
    • 1993
  • This report on the $T{\acute{o}}u\;f{\bar{e}}ng$ and Migraine comes to conclude, through the study of the Oriental- Western medical references, as follow; 1. First, $T{\acute{o}}u\;f{\bar{e}}ng$ and Migraine had some concurrencies that both the two symptoms have appeared severe and recurrent headache and more often to the female. 2 Many of them e.g. Sensory disturbance, Vertigo, Nausea, Vomiting, Tinnitus etc. in the prodrome and main symptom of $T{\acute{o}}u\;f{\bar{e}}ng$ and Migraine were identical, especially the symptom of the $f{\bar{e}}ng\;t{\acute{a}}n\;t{\acute{o}}u\;t{\grave{o}}ng$ was similar to the prodrome of the Migraine. We could find out the semilarity of the symptoms through that Migraine is proximately set in unilateral, and $Pi{\bar{a}}nT{\acute{o}}u\;f{\bar{e}}ng$ is so called alias $B{\grave{a}}n\;bi{\bar{a}}n\;t{\acute{o}}u\;t{\grave{o}}ng$. 3. The pathogeny of $T{\acute{o}}u\;f{\bar{e}}ng$ include the case of ‘$f{\bar{e}}ng\;xi{\acute{e}}\;r{\grave{u}}\;n{\bar{a}}o$’, the patient feeling weak condition, $T{\acute{a}}n,\;T{\acute{a}}nshi,\;T{\acute{a}}nhu{\breve{o}},\;Y{\grave{u}}q{\grave{i}}$, etc. and, ‘$t{\acute{a}}n\;zhu{\grave{o}}\;sh{\grave{a}}ng\;y{\acute{a}}o$’, ‘$G{\bar{a}}n\;y{\acute{a}}ng\;hu{\grave{a}}\;f{\bar{e}}ng$’. There were variable that $F{\bar{e}}ng,\;Xu{\grave{e}},\;F{\bar{e}}ngr{\grave{a}},\;F{\bar{e}}ngx{\bar{u}},\;Xu{\grave{e}}x{\bar{u}},\;Hu{\check{o}}$ in the left, and $t{\acute{a}}n,\;R{\grave{e}},\;t{\acute{a}}nr{\grave{e}},\;Qir{\acute{a}}$ in the right partial pathogeny. It was referred $Sh{\grave{a}}o\;y{\acute{a}}ng\;j{\bar{i}}ng$, $Ju{\acute{e}}\;y{\bar{i}}n\;j{\bar{i}}ng$, $Y{\acute{a}}ng\;m{\acute{i}}ng\;j{\bar{i}}ng$, $T{\grave{a}}i\;y{\acute{a}}ng\;j{\bar{i}}ng$ in connection with the Meridian system. And otherwise the primary cause of Migraine is still unknown to us. Heredity is probably important, but the mode of transmission is uncertain. Recently, the important assumption is the vasomotor change caused by vasoconstrictors like that norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin etc.

  • PDF

Development of Questionnaires for Differentiation of $q{\grave{i}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $xu{\grave{e}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $yang-x{\bar{u}}$, $y{\bar{i}}n-x{\bar{u}}$ analysis (기혈음양허손(氣血陰陽虛損) 변증(辨證) 분석을 위한 설문문항 개발)

  • Woo, Hong-Jung;Kim, Se-Hoon;Lee, Seung-Bo;Choi, Mi-Young;Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Jang-Hoon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.856-870
    • /
    • 2008
  • Objectives : Consumption is a chronic wasting disease and major portion of Oriental Medicine's therapy. However, there is no standard diagnostic method for consumption that is $q{\grave{i}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $xu{\grave{e}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $yang-x{\bar{u}}$, $y{\bar{i}}n-x{\bar{u}}$. Methods : A questionnaire which includes symptoms and signs for diagnosis of $q{\grave{i}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $xu{\grave{e}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $yang-x{\bar{u}}$, $y{\bar{i}}n-x{\bar{u}}$ was evaluated by Delphi technique. Each question was valuated by interviewing 27 oriental medicine doctors. Then. we choose questions given over 5 points and reorganized some items according to the recommendations by interviewed-doctors. We then accessed the value of re-organized questions composing of the questionnaires. Conclusion : We finally chose each 9 items of $q{\grave{i}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $xu{\grave{e}}-x{\bar{u}}$, $yang-x{\bar{u}}$, $y{\bar{i}}n-x{\bar{u}}$'s questionnaire. Further study is necessary for modification of questionnaire by statistics and certification by clinical trial.

  • PDF

Study on $Ch{\acute{e}}n$ $Xiuyu\acute{a}n$ by analysing $Y\bar{i}xues\bar{a}nz\grave{i}j\bar{i}ng$ (의학삼자경(醫學三字經)에 나타난 진수원(陳修園) 의학 사상에 대한 문헌적 연구 I)

  • Kim, Jai-Eun;Choi, Dall-Yeong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.709-717
    • /
    • 2008
  • $Ch\acute{e}n\;Xiuyu\acute{a}n$(陳修園) was a famous doctor and educator of the late Tang Dynasty. He was well known both for his books for beginners, and for his unique medical theories based on his profound research of <$Sh\bar{a}ngh\acute{a}nl\grave{u}n$(傷寒論)> and <$J\bar{i}nku\grave{i}y\grave{a}ol\ddot{u}e$>. He wrote <$Y\bar{i}xues\bar{a}nz\grave{i}j\bar{i}ng$(醫學三字經)> to establish the basic textbook for the beginners to set up right principles in pursuing their medical career. <$Y\bar{i}xues\bar{a}nz\grave{i}j\bar{i}ng$> was written in rhyme form, so that it can be easily memorized and used in future practices. There are quite many medical books in rhyme form, but this book is very unique as $Ch\acute{e}n\;Xiuyu\acute{a}n$ annotated his own notes, which is rare in this form of books. This feature makes <$Y\bar{i}xues\bar{a}nz\grave{i}j\bar{i}ng$> very outstanding, also with the fact that $Ch\acute{e}n\;Xiuyu\acute{a}n$ was the one with profound understanding and original theories based on medical bibles such as <$N\grave{e}ij\bar{i}ng$(內經)> and <$Sh\bar{a}ngh\acute{a}nl\grave{u}n$(傷寒論)>. We have translated this precious educational material into korean, hoping that this work could be of any help to students of korean medicine. And while doing this work, we have found followings: <$Y\bar{i}xues\bar{a}nz\grave{i}j\bar{i}ng$> covers the entire fields of medicine from theoretical discussions to practical clinical information. Nevertheless, as this is written in rhyme form, there are few phrases that are not easily understood for the sake of rhyme. Beginners probably may have difficulties in reading this book. To make this difficulty alleviated, and to develop our own educational material, we need to study further on the notes that $Ch\acute{e}n\;Xiuyu\acute{a}n$ annotated himself.

Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Mental Retardation;A Review Study (정신지체에 대한 한의학 치료와 연구 동향;2003-2007년 중국 임상 논문에서)

  • Im, Jeong-Gyun;Kim, Lak-Hyung
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.22 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-24
    • /
    • 2008
  • Objectives This study was designed to analyze the clinical studies on Mental retardation(MR) in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Methods For this study, we searched the clinical studies on MR, which had been published from 2003 to 2007, through web site CNKI(中國知識基礎設施工 http://www.cnki.net). There were 17 clinical studies and we focused on those studies. Results 1. In those Chinese studies, they used following words to describe Mental retardation; 小人弱智($xi\check{a}o\acute{e}rru\grave{o}zh\grave{i}$), 智能發育不全($zh\grave{i}n\acute{e}ngf\bar{a}y\grave{u}buqu\acute{a}n$), 智力低下($zh\grave{i}l\grave{i}d\bar{i}xi\grave{a}$), 精神發育遲滯($j\bar{i}ngsh\acute{e}f\bar{a}y\grave{u}ch\acute{i}zh\grave{i}$), 智能落后($zh\grave{i}n\acute{e}nglu\grave{o}h\grave{o}u$), 智能落后($zh\grave{i}n\acute{e}ngch\acute{i}hu\check{a}n$), 失天愚型患人($xi\bar{a}nti\bar{a}ny\acute{u}x\acute{i}nghu\grave{a}n'\acute{e}r$). 2. There were many kinds of TCM treatment methods for MR, such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, electroacupunture, acupoint injection, Chuna therapy, and special education. And those TCM treatments methods showed higher efficacies in the treatment of MR compared with Western medicine. 3. Mental retardation was related with the deficiency of heart, kidney, liver, spleen(心虛, 腎虛, 肝虛, 脾虛) and the pathological mechanism of Phlegm(絹) and Blood stasis(慫沂)in the studies about the Bian Zheng-the types of differential diagnosis- of MR. 4. Most of studies used Intelligence Quotient(IQ) to assess the efficacy of TCM treatment of MR. And the duration of treatment, the degree of illness, the age of patient, and the cause of illness affected the prognosis of MR. Conclusions These results suggest that traditional medicine could be one of the useful treatments on MR. And these results could be used in the clinical practices and studies on MR in Korea.

  • PDF

Research on prescription candidates for Parkinson's disease in 『Dongeuibogam』 (『동의보감(東醫寶鑑)』에 수록된 파킨슨병 치료 처방(處方) 후보군 선별 연구)

  • Hwang, Min-Seob;Park, Hye-Jin;Kim, Si-Won;Baek, Jin-Ung
    • Herbal Formula Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.65-80
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objectives : This study aims to sort out prescription candidates for four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease from Korean traditional medical publication, "Dongeuibogam". Methods : Medical terms related to four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease were primarily selected from "Dongeuibogam". Prescriptions that include at least one or more medical terms which are selected above were classified by the four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and finally analyzed to sort the most effective candidates. Results & Conclusions : 1. There are 18 medical terms in efficacy ($ch{\grave{i}}$ $z{\grave{o}}ng$, $j{\bar{u}}$ $lu{\acute{a}}n$, $j{\bar{i}}ng$${\check{u}}$ $ju{\check{a}}n$($ju{\check{a}}n$, $qu{\acute{a}}n$) $lu{\acute{a}}n$, $j{\bar{i}}ng$${\check{u}}$ $lu{\acute{a}}n$($lu{\acute{a}}n$) $t{\grave{o}}ng$, $j{\bar{i}}n$ $lu{\acute{a}}n$, $j{\bar{i}}n$ $t{\grave{i}}$, $sh{\check{o}}u$ $zh{\grave{e}}n$, $y{\acute{a}}ng$ $sh{\check{o}}u$, $lu{\acute{a}}n$ $j{\acute{i}}$, $lu{\acute{a}}n$ $b{\grave{i}}$, $r{\grave{o}}u$ $r{\acute{u}}n$, $zh{\grave{a}}n$ $di{\grave{a}}o$, $zh{\grave{a}}n$ $y{\acute{a}}o$, $zh{\grave{i}}$ $z{\acute{u}}$, $ch{\grave{e}}$ $t{\grave{o}}ng$, $ch{\bar{o}u}$ $ch{\grave{e}}$, $f{\bar{e}}ng$ $ch{\grave{u}}$, $ch{\grave{u}}$ $nu{\grave{o}}$) related to tremor, one of four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease. 2. There are 9 medical terms in efficacy ($qi{\acute{a}}ng$ $j{\acute{i}}$, $qi{\acute{a}}ng$ $zh{\acute{i}}$, $qi{\acute{a}}ng$ $t{\grave{o}}ng$, $j{\bar{u}}$ $j{\acute{i}}$, $j{\bar{i}}n$ $j{\acute{i}}$, $sh{\bar{e}}n$ $qi{\acute{a}}ng$, $lu{\acute{a}}n$ $j{\acute{i}}$, $y{\bar{a}}o$ $j{\acute{i}}$ $qi{\acute{a}}ng$, $xi{\grave{a}}ng$ $qi{\acute{a}}ng$) related to rigidity, one of four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease. 3. 38 prescription candidates (jiaweishouxingyuan, jiaweilonghusan, gehuajiexingtang, qiangfutang, qianghuoxuduantang, dawugongsan, duhuojishengtang, mahuangzuojingtang, fangfengbaizhumulitang, fangfengtongshengsan, baizhutang, buxinwan, fulingtang, binsusan, xieqingwan, sanbitang, shengdiqinliantang, shujinbaoansan, xingxiangsan, xiaotanfulingwan, shengjunwan, shenmizuojingtang, wuyaoshunqisan, yuzhenwan, wenjingyiyuantang, yiziqingjinsan, ziyinningshentang, shaoyaogancaotang, dingtongsan, zhushazhijiasan, cangzusan, chuanxiongfulingtang, tiedanyuan, choubaowan, duomingsan, xuanhusuosan, xuefengtang, huoluodan) were selected for tremor, one of the four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease. 4. 21 prescription candidates (qianghuoshengshitang, guizhiqianghuotang, guizhifuzitang, jiuweiqianghuotang(qianghuochonghetang), xiongzhixiangsusan, daqianghuotang, mahuangguizhitang, muguajian, fuzilizhongtang, shenzhusan, lianqiaobaidusan, yuzhensan, niuhuangjinhudan, renshenbaidusan, shaoyaogancaotang, jiuzhumuguazhou, cangzusan, shenxiangtianmatang, xiangjiaosan, xuefengtang, huishousan) were selected for rigidity, one of the four major symptoms of Parkinson's disease. 5. The results in this study ought to be verified by subsequent studies and clinical trials.

Mathematics of Chosun Dynasty and $Sh\grave{u}\;l\breve{i}\;j\bar{i}ng\;y\grave{u}n$ (數理精蘊) (조선(朝鮮) 산학(算學)과 수리정온(數理精蘊))

  • Hong Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.25-46
    • /
    • 2006
  • We investigate the process of western mathematics into Chosun and its influences. Its initial and middle stages are examined by Choi Suk Jung(崔錫鼎, $1645\sim1715$)'s Gu Su Ryak(九數略), Hong Jung Ha(洪正夏, $1684\sim?$)'s Gu Il Jib(九一集) and Hwang Yun Suk(黃胤錫, $1719\sim1791$)'s I Su Shin Pyun(理藪新編), Hong Dae Yong(洪大容, $1731\sim1781$)'s Ju Hae Su Yong(籌解需用), respectively. Western mathematics was transmitted for the study of the Shi xian li(時憲曆) when it was introduced in Chosun. We also analyze Su Ri Jung On Bo Hae(數理精蘊補解, 1730?) whose author studied $Sh\grave{u}\;l\breve{i}\;j\bar{i}ng\;y\grave{u}n$ most thoroughly, in particular for astronomy, and finally Lee Sang Hyuk(李尙爀, $1810\sim?$), Nam Byung Gil(南秉吉, $1820\sim1869$) who studied together structurally western mathematics.

  • PDF

A Study on the Usage of Miào(廟) and Gōng(宮) in Zhou Dynasty through the Mentions to Them in the Scripture Sentences of 『Chūn-qiū(春秋)』 - In the Process of Investigating the Existence of Zhou Dynasty's System to Regulate the Number of Zōng-miào(宗廟) 【1/2】 (『춘추』 경문에서의 묘(廟)·궁(宮) 언급을 통한 주대(周代)의 그 쓰임 사례 일고찰 - 주대의 묘수제(廟數制) 실재 여부에 대한 궁구 과정에서 【1/2】-)

  • Seo, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
    • /
    • no.57
    • /
    • pp.57-90
    • /
    • 2018
  • In this discussion, as a way to verify the existence of the system to regulate Zhou dynasty's $z{\bar{o}}ng-mi{\grave{a}}o$(宗廟) numbers, the discussion was focused on '$mi{\grave{a}}o$ (廟)' and '$g{\bar{o}}ng$(宮)' in the records of "$Ch{\bar{u}}n-qi{\bar{u}}$(春秋)". As for the parts where the contents of scripture sentences were not specific, the context of the case was investigated through the writings in "$Zu{\breve{o}}-zhu{\grave{a}}n$(左傳)" and other materials. In the cases of the usage of the letter, '$mi{\grave{a}}o$(廟 : a ruler's house, a nation's royal court)', in the scripture sentences in "$Ch{\bar{u}}n-qi{\bar{u}}$(春秋)", the followings need to be noticed. In $t{\grave{a}}i-mi{\grave{a}}o$(太廟) of State $L{\check{u}}$(魯), nationwide events and a ruler's political ancestral rite, $d{\grave{i}}$(?) ritual, were performed, and fancy tools for ancestral rites used in those rituals were equipped. As for the $z{\bar{o}}ng-mi{\grave{a}}o$(宗廟) of a ruler of those times, a ritual of royal court, $ch{\acute{a}}o$(朝) rite, was performed. The usage case of the letter, '$g{\bar{o}}ng$(宮 : house)', is as the following. In $g{\bar{o}}ng$(宮) where a ruler's personal family lived was a family ancestral rite for them carried out. The record about the ornate decorating for the $hu{\acute{a}}n-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(桓宮), which can be said to have been the political base of $s{\bar{a}}n-hu{\acute{a}}n-sh{\grave{i}}$(三桓氏), three politically noble families of State $L{\check{u}}$(魯), is outstanding. The $x{\bar{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(西宮) during $X{\bar{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 僖公)'s reign and a $x{\bar{i}}n-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(新宮 : a newly built house) destroyed by fire at the third year of $Ch{\acute{e}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 成公), are assumed to have been a ruler's another house, such as the $ch{\check{u}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(楚宮) in which $Xi{\bar{a}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 襄公) used to enjoy staying, which is different from the viewpoint that it might be a $m{\acute{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ shrine(?宮 : a house constructed as a shrine for the deceased father or the deceased grand father) that had been formed since Han dynasty. It has been discussed that, regarding the records that the '$w{\check{u}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(武宮) was built' and that the '$y{\acute{a}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(煬宮) was built', certain buildings were established with the symbols of '$w{\check{u}}$(武 : martial arts and force of arms)' and '$y{\acute{a}}ng$(煬 : to burn and get rid of everything)', and the events that a lord stood as its lord continued. Therefore, its main goal was not the performance of a dutiful ancestral rite by a ruler of those times for deceased rulers, for instance, $W{\check{u}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 武公) or $Y{\acute{a}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 煬公), but display of certain political symbolism through the ritual. This symbolism is most obvious with the $hu{\acute{a}}n-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(桓宮) and the $x{\bar{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(僖宮). As a consequence, all $mi{\grave{a}}os$(廟) and $g{\bar{o}}ngs$(宮) in scripture sentences had the functions of a shrine in some part, but it has been verified that they were not the buildings set up as a shrine to follow '$z{\bar{o}}ng-mi{\grave{a}}o$(宗廟)'s number regulation system' of '$ti{\bar{a}}nz{\check{i}}-7-mi{\grave{a}}o$(天子七廟 : an emperor owns seven $mi{\grave{a}}os$(廟))' or '$zh{\bar{u}}h{\acute{o}}u-5-mi{\grave{a}}o$(諸侯五廟 : a lord owns five $mi{\grave{a}}os$(廟))'.

A Clinical study on 80 Cases of Alopecia Patients in the Oriental Medicine Clinic (한의원에 내원한 탈모증 환자 80명의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Seung-Min;Yi, Tae-Hoo;Keum, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.141-154
    • /
    • 2005
  • Objectives : This study was planned to evaluate clinical status of the alopecia patients who had visited oriental medicine clinic. Methods : 80 patients with alopecia, who had visited oriental medicine clinic from January 2004 to August 2004, were examined. Results & Conclusions : 1. The kinds and incidences of Alopecia : androgenetic alopecia 57.5%(46/80), alopecia areatea 20.0%(16/80), telogen effluvium 16.3%(13/80), seborrheic alopecia 6.3%(5/80). 2. In distribution of sex, the rate of male to female was 1:1 and most patients belonged to 20-30 year old group. 3. The most common onset of age was adolescence(63.8%) and the most common duration of hair loss was 1 to 3 years. 4. Among the 30 male androgenetic alopecia patients, Hamilton's type 4 was most common and among the 16 female androgenetic alopecia patients, Ludwig's type II and III were most common. 5. Family history of baldness in Androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata were 56.5% and 25.0%, respectively. 6. Self-conscious causes of hair loss : stress(48.8%), irregular eating habits(21.3%), and lack of sleep(20.0%). 7. Associated diseases with alopecia patients : chronic neck pain(58.8%), temporomandibular disorders(55.0%) and seborrheic dermatitis(20.0%). 8. Associated symptoms with alopecia Patients : stress(78.8%), sleep disorders(68.8%), irregular eating habits(55.0%), Hot flush(43.8%), Stool disorders(43.8%), cold hands and feet(37.5%) and menstruation disorders(31.3%). 9. The most common scalp type was oily scalp(70.0%) and the symptoms of scalp were iching, dandruff, pain, inflammation. 10. $Bi{\grave{a}}n$ $zh{\grave{e}}ng$(辨證) of alopecia patients : $xu{\grave{e}}-r{\grave{e}}-f{\bar{e}}ng-z{\grave{a}}u$(血熱風燥) (25.0%), $g{\bar{a}}n-sh{\grave{e}}n-b{\grave{u}}-z{\acute{u}}$(肝腎不足) (23.8%), $shi-r{\grave{e}}-sh{\grave{a}}ng-zh{\bar{e}}ng$(濕熱上蒸) (16.3%), $xu{\grave{e}}-r{\grave{e}}-sh{\bar{e}}ng-f{\bar{e}}ng$(血熱生風) (13.8%), $xu{\grave{e}}-x{\bar{u}}-f{\bar{e}}ng-z{\grave{a}}u$(血熱風燥) (13.8%), $y{\bar{u}}-xu{\grave{e}}-z{\check{u}}-lu{\grave{o}}$(瘀血阻絡) (7.5%).

『Chūn-qiū』Wáng-lì(『春秋』王曆)➂ - from Zhōu-lì(周曆) to Xià-lì(夏曆), and "Xíng-xià-zhī-shí(行夏之時)" Mentioned by Confucius (『춘추』 왕력(王曆)➂ - 주력(周曆)에서 하력(夏曆)으로, 그리고 공자의 "행하지시(行夏之時)")

  • Seo, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
    • /
    • no.54
    • /
    • pp.153-184
    • /
    • 2017
  • During the Pre-Qin(秦) Dynasty era, there were the records that there had been many calendar systems, such as $g{\check{u}}-li{\grave{u}}-l{\grave{i}}$(古六曆 : six ancient calendar systems). Then, the fact that particularly $zh{\bar{o}}u-l{\grave{i}}$(周曆) and $xi{\grave{a}}-l{\grave{i}}$(夏曆) were mainly discussed among them resulted from a lot of discussions from the differences in the calendar system in "$Ch{\bar{u}}n-qi{\bar{u}}$(春秋)" known to have been written by Confucius from the calendar system in "$X{\acute{i}}ng-xi{\grave{a}}-zh{\bar{i}}-sh{\acute{i}}$(行夏之時 : implement the calendar of Ha dynasty.)" that Confucius mentioned himself to his disciple. $zh{\bar{o}}u-l{\grave{i}}$(周曆) with $d{\bar{o}}ngzh{\grave{i}}-yu{\grave{e}}$(冬至月 : the 11th month of the lunar calendar) as the first month of a year had the system of the lunar calendar, and $xi{\grave{a}}-l{\grave{i}}$(夏曆) called as the calendar of Ha(夏) dynasty had the system of $ji{\acute{e}}-q{\grave{i}}-l{\grave{i}}$(節氣曆 : a kind of the solar calendar that divides one year of 365 days into 24 solar terms) with $y{\acute{i}}n-yu{\grave{e}}$(寅月 :one month from the present Feb 5) as the first month of a year. These two calendars had definite differences in the first months of a year, names of seasons, and the lunar calendar and the solar calendar. The fundamental reason why Confucius recommended the performance of $xi{\grave{a}}-l{\grave{i}}$(夏曆) as a way to run the nation was not that it started from the philosophical view of the universe that among the 'three $zh{\bar{e}}ng$'(三正)' of $ti{\bar{a}}n-zh{\bar{e}}ng$(天正 : the first month of a year with the heaven as the standard), $d{\grave{i}}-zh{\bar{e}}ng$(地正 : the first month of a year with the earth as the standard) and $r{\acute{e}}n-zh{\bar{e}}ng$(人正 : the first month of a year with humans as the standard), but that he wanted to emphasize the importance of practical national economic policies to enhance agricultural productivity. It becomes the criterion that even though Confucius emphasized that politicians should not have moral flaws ideally, with regard to public policies, he wanted to stress politicians' duties based on the reality a lot.

Le théâtre de torture chez Chae yoon-il - à travers la rencontre avec Lee hyun-hwa- (채윤일의 고문연극 -이현화와의 만남을 중심으로-)

  • LEE, Sunhyung
    • Journal of Korean Theatre Studies Association
    • /
    • no.48
    • /
    • pp.333-368
    • /
    • 2012
  • Dans l'histoire du $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ $cor{\acute{e}}en$, la position de Chae yoon-il est $tr{\grave{e}}s$ $particuli{\grave{e}}re$. Il a $consacr{\acute{e}}$, dans ses $carri{\grave{e}}res$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$, toute son ${\acute{e}}nergie$ au $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ sans jamais $fl{\acute{e}}chir$ contre le pouvoir dictatorial. Un critique a dit que son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ est semblable au $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de la $cruaut{\acute{e}}$. Pourtant, dans la mesure $o{\grave{u}}$ il respecte le texte dramatique, et que son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ a des tendances de la politique et qu'il oriente l'engagement du spectateur, il est certain que son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ est loin du $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de la $cruaut{\acute{e}}$. Ses $proc{\acute{e}}d{\acute{e}}s$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ sont $tr{\grave{e}}s$ divers et il n'y a pas de $coh{\acute{e}}rences$ au niveau des styles dramatiques. $Malgr{\acute{e}}$ cela, nous pouvons trouver son $originalit{\acute{e}}$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ dans la rencontre avec Lee hyun-wha. Le metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ ${\acute{e}}tablit$ son $esth{\acute{e}}tique$ $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}trale$ en montant sur $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ de cinq $pi{\grave{e}}ces$ de Lee hyun-wha. Alors, en effet qu'est-ce que $l^{\prime}esth{\acute{e}}tique$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ de Chae yoon-il produite par les ${\oe}uvres$ $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}trales$ de Lee hyun-wha? Dans les $pi{\grave{e}}ces$ de Lee hyun-wha, il y a beaucoup de codes symboliques de la violence sexuelle comme le sadisme et le masochisme. L'implusion sexuelle $cach{\acute{e}}e$ dans le subconscient des personnages s'entrecroise avec le $m{\acute{e}}canisme$ du pouvoir politique. Alors, les abus sexuels et les mauvais traitements sur le corps deviennent une sorte de torture. L'expression cruelle des langages $sc{\acute{e}}niques$ n'est autre que la $r{\acute{e}}volte$ contre la $r{\acute{e}}alit{\acute{e}}$ actuelle de la politique. Son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de torture est donc une sorte de $m{\acute{e}}canisme$ de la catharsis pour dissiper le cauchemar et l'inconscient noir. La fantasie sexuelle construite par le monde inconscient de l'auteur dramatique $s^{\prime}{\acute{e}}panouit$ dans le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de Chae yoon-il qui $r{\hat{e}}ve$ toujours l'esprit de la $libert{\acute{e}}$. Une des convictions dramatiques du metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$, c'est que le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ tout d'abord doit ${\hat{e}}tre$ choquant. Il dit : "l'art doit ${\hat{e}}tre$ ${\grave{a}}$ la fois ${\acute{e}}mouvant$ et bouleversant. Cependant, dans la mesure $o{\grave{u}}$ le film ou la $t{\acute{e}}l{\acute{e}}vivion$ fait aujourd'hui une vive impression aux spectateurs, la part $donn{\acute{e}}e$ au $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ est le choc." Pour donner le choc aux spectateurs, le style de la torture est $tr{\grave{e}}s$ utile. $L^{\prime}esth{\acute{e}}tique$ $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tral$ du metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ respecte essentiellement l'intention de l'auteur. $N{\acute{e}}anmois$, le respect sur l'original ne se $d{\acute{e}}range$ pas $l^{\prime}interpr{\acute{e}}tation$ de son propre $id{\acute{e}}e$. Dans l'insistance de la torture, l'analyse rituelle sous la base du choc, il projecte le symbole $arch{\acute{e}}typal$ sur $sc{\grave{e}}ne$. Bien $s{\hat{u}}r$, il renforce le $caract{\grave{e}}re$ de la politique dans le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de torture pour inviter des spectateurs de l'engagement. D'ailleurs, il y a l'aspect d'absurde dans le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de torture qui insiste des violences ${\grave{a}}$ travers les langages $sc{\acute{e}}niques$ comme le $m{\acute{e}}tal$ froid, parce que le metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ $consid{\grave{e}}re$ que $l^{\prime}{\hat{e}}tre$ humain vit dans l'absurde.