• Title/Summary/Keyword: NSC

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Unconfined Compressive Strength of Soil Cement Mixed with NSC (NSC를 첨가한 소일시멘트의 일축압축강도)

  • 김병일;김영욱;이승현
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2002
  • Soil cement which is a mixture of soil, cement, and water has a broad range of applications since it is economical, ecological, and easy to use, repair, and reinforce. Its applications include pavements, stabilization of slopes, retaining walls, and improvements of soft ground to name a few. Other types of chemicals are often added to increase its strength. This study investigated unconfined compressive strength of cured soil cement mixed with New Soil Chemical(NSC). The investigation involved laboratory experiments under various conditions including soil type, cement content, and ratios of water to NSC. Results of the study show that NSC enhanced the unconfined compressive strength significantly, and the degree of enhancement was varied with test conditions.

Comparison of NSC system in the U.S., Japan, and the Republic of Korea (NSC(국가안전보장회의) 체제의 한미일 비교)

  • Kwon, Hyuck-Bin
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.37
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    • pp.29-50
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    • 2013
  • With the recent global threats of terrorism as well as religious conflicts, Northeast Asian countries including South Korea, China, and Japan are experiencing particularly serious security crises as demonstrated by North Korea's threats of nuclear weapons testings and long-range missile launching as well as military provocation toward South Korea such as sinking of ROKS Cheonan and bombardment of Yeonpyeong island and the territorial dispute between China and Japan over Senkaku Islands(Diaoyu Islands). As a result, Park Geun Hye Administration of South Korea and the 2nd Abe Shinzo Cabinet of Japan, both recently established, are making efforts to improve their national security and crisis management policies. One of the key elements of such efforts is the strengthening of National Security Council(NSC) or its equivalent organization as the control tower of national security policy, modeled after the NSC of the United States. This paper compares NSC organization of Korea, the U.S., and Japan and draws policy insights focusing on the current political and national security situation South Korea is facing. Although organizational structure, function, and history of NSC of each country differs, it can be inferred from this comparison that NSC-type of organizations can play an important role as a control tower of security and emergency management policies.

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Effects of Application of Nightsoil Sludge Compost on Dry Matter Yields and Nutritive Value of Orchardgrass(Dactylis glomerata L.) (분뇨 슬러지 퇴비 시용이 Orchardgrass의 건물 수량과 영양가에 미치는 영향)

  • 조익환;이주삼
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of application levels of nightsoil sludge compost(NSC) in 3 and 4 cuttings per annum on the dry matter yields and nutritive value of orchardgrass(Dactylis glomerata L.). Annual nightsoil sludge compost(NSC) were applied at levels of 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ton $㏊^{respectively}$ . Relative yields of each cut to annual dry matter yield were 29.9%, 46.% and 23.2% for 1st cut, 2nd cut and 3rd cut in 3 cutting system, 23.7%, 29.3%, 34.0% and 13.0% for 1st cut, 2nd cut, 3rd cut and 4th cut in 4 cutting system, respectively. Significantly higher dry matter yield of orchardgrass obtained were 8.11 ton $㏊^{-1}$ at level of 40 ton ㏊$^{-1}$ $yr^{-1}$ in 3 cutting systems, ranges of 7.50~10.71 ton $㏊^{-1}$ at level of 10~80 ton ㏊$^{-1}$ $yr^{-1}$ in 4 cutting systems than those of non application level of NSC, respectively(p〈0.05). The mean efficiency of dry matter production to application of NSC(kg DM/ton NSC) were 46 and 102 kg in 3 and 4 cutting systems, respectively. Although th contents of crude protein(CP, %) of orchardgrass were significantly higher at the application levels of 10~80 ton $㏊^{-1}$ $yr^{-1}$ -1/ by NSC than those of the application levels at the 0 ton $㏊^{-1}$ $yr^{-1}$ in 3 and 4 cutting systems(p〈0.05), the contents of neutral detergent fiber(NDF, %) and acid detergent fiber(ADF, %) were lower in NSC plots than those at the non-application plots of NSC. The contents of total digestible nutrient(TDN, %) and relative feed value(RFV) of orchardgrass were significantly increased with increase the applicaton levels of NSC(p〈0.05).

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A Study on Properties of Concrete Made of Natural and Crushed Sand in High Temperatures (자연모래와 부순모래를 사용한 콘크리트의 고온 하에서 특성연구)

  • Kim, Joo-Seok;Choi, Yeol
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2012
  • The main object of this paper is to investigate the effects of high temperatures on the physical and mechanical properties of natural sand concrete(NSC) and crushed sand concrete(CSC). Test samples were exposed to high temperature ranging from $200^{\circ}C$ to $800^{\circ}C$. After exposure, various tests were conducted. Color image analysis and weight losses were determined and compressive strength test and splitting tensile strength test were conducted. The results indicated that weight losses increased as exposure temperature increased with comparable decreasing rate. The results also showed that compressive strength and splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity decreased as exposure temperature increased. The results also showed that residual compressive strength of NSC decreased more drastically than that of CSC at $200^{\circ}C$ and $400^{\circ}C$. Residual splitting tensile strength of NSC decreased more than that of CSC at $200^{\circ}C$, while NSC and CSC showed comparable residual strength ratio at $800^{\circ}C$.

Effect of Dietary Structural to Nonstructural Carbohydrate Ratio on Rumen Degradability and Digestibility of Fiber Fractions of Wheat Straw in Sheep

  • Tan, Z.-L.;Lu, D.-X.;Hu, M.;Niu, W.-Y.;Han, C.-Y.;Ren, X.-P.;Na, R.;Lin, S.-L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1591-1598
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    • 2002
  • The effect of different dietary structural carbohydrate (SC) to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) ratios on fiber degradation, digestion, flow, apparent digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics was studied with a design using 18 wethers fitted with permanent rumen and duodenum cannulae. All sheep were divided into six groups randomly, receiving six diets with varying SC to NSC ratios. All diets contained the same proportion of wheat straw and concentrate. The dietary SC to NSC ratios were adjusted by adding cornstarch to the concentrate supplements. The duodenal and fecal flows of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose (HC) and cellulose (CEL) were estimated using chromium-mordanted wheat straw as a flow marker. The degradation parameters of wheat straw DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL were determined by incubating the ground wheat straw in nylon bags in the rumen for different periods of time. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the different dietary SC to NSC ratios on rumen pH or $NH_3$-N, but acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were significantly affected (p<0.05 or p<0.01) by dietary SC to NSC ratios in the rumen fluid. When the dietary SC to NSC ratio was 2.86, the highest rumen degradability of wheat straw DM, NDF, ADF and CEL was found, but the highest apparent rumen digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL occurred at a 2.64 SC to NSC ratio. However, because of compensatory digestion in the hindgut, the apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL were highest when the dietary SC to NSC ratio was 2.40. In conclusion, there is a optimal range of dietary SC to NSC ratios (between 2.86 and 2.40) that is beneficial to maximize wheat straw fiber degradation and apparent digestibility.

A Comparative Study on the Nominated Subcontractor (NSC) System of Building Construction Project in Asian Commonwealth of Nations - Focused on the NSC Clause Analysis of Standard Contract Forms - (아시아 지역 영연방국가의 지정하도급(NSC)제도에 관한 비교 연구 - 표준계약약관의 지정하도급자 항목분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Jaeyong;Kim, Junggon;Park, Hyeonggeun
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2014
  • In recent, many Korean contractors have tried to extend their business area into the overseas construction market, mainly as a result of a reduction in their domestic construction market. However in terms of risk, overseas construction projects are likely to face a number of unpredictable problems, many of which occur as a result of differences in contract cultures and construction environments between Korea and other countries. One key issue facing overseas construction projects in particular, is that of sub-contracting and control, and the way in which many countries of Commonwealth of Nations operate a unique subcontracting method well known as a nominated sub-contractor(NSC). This paper introduces the NSC system and differences as comparing among standard construction contract forms, such as JCT, SIA, HKIA and PAM. in UK and Asian Commonwealth of Nations. Also, we attempt to classify the type of the NSC system through the consideration of NSC clauses in accordance with the objection and termination of NSC contracting respectively.

Outdoor/Environmental Education Program Design in the Nature Study Center - The Program Diversification for the Middle School Students - (자연학습원 옥외 환경교육 프로그램 설계를 위한 연구 -중학생을 위한 프로그램 다양화를 중심으로-)

  • 이재영;안동만
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study is to search for the ways to diversify Outdoor/Environmental Education Program in the Nature Study Center(NSC), especially for the middle school students. For this study, various research methods such as literature review, questionnaire survey (448 students, 11 middle school teachers, 19 NSC staffs), interview and participant observation are used the process of this study consists of two steps. The first step is to define research questions through pilot survey and the second is to investigate the research questions, in the form of hypotheses through main survey. Nine hypotheses are formulated. Six are related with program elements (educational goals, student characteristics, staff resources, teaching methods, instructional resources, contents). three are related with program implementation process(preplan, implementation, post-evaluation). The hypotheses are tested and alternatives for program improvement are proposed. 1. Educational goals : Educational goals of NSC should be focused on Outdoor /Environmental Education and each NSC should specialize on its own theme. The objectives of every sub-program should be unified toward educational goals. 2. Student characteristics: The Outdoor/Environmental Education Program should reflect student characteristics: sex, urban/rural origins, normal/handicapped, number of visit and so on. 3. Staff resources : Provide qualified staff with professional knowledge and positive attitudes, reeducate staffs periodically, reduce management staff and increase teaching staffs. Provide permanent and well paid position, encourage and give opportunities and the middle school teachers to participate in program. 4. teaching method: Increase outdoor classes two way communication between teaching staffs and students adopt more open ended teaching method so that students can exercise coworks in small groups. 5. Instructional resources: Diversify NSC sites(mountains, coastal areas, urban areas and so on), teaching media (audio/visual equipments, graphic design of signs). Consider design for handicapped and integrate indoor and outdoor educational facilities. Plan nature trails with separate themes, allign nature trail so that it passes through diverse environments. 6. Content : Reflect characteristic site potential specialize on day or night program, on seasonal program, and on site specific social issues(such as interpreting of environmental damages around the NSCs). 7. Preplan: Get Information and know about visiting students in advance. Discuss with middle school teachers and adjust program weeks before visits if many or all of the students had already visited a NSC. arrange a visit to other NSC. Provide an introductory class for the teachers and students before they visit a NSC. 8. Implementation: During NSC visit and classes apply various and appropriate techniques to collect in formation for later evaluation. Improve NSC provided evaluation sheet so as to reflect student characteristic. Compare with formal education and investigate on effects of NSC program. 9. Post-evaluation: Formalize a post-evaluation process and organization. During the winter vacation, develop new programs based on the post-evaluationacation, for the next year. Also, have comparative evaluation meetings of staff from various NSCs during the winter vacation while there is no visitors and classes.

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Investigation of Disputes for Nominated Sub-contractor(NSC) -Focused on the Judicial Precedent of NSC issues in Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong- (아시아 건설 시장에서의 지정하도급자(NSC)문제에 관한 연구 - 싱가포르, 말레이시아 그리고 홍콩의 판례를 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Jaeyong;Kim, Junggon;Park, Hyeonggeun;Kim, Youngsuk;Lee, Boknam
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.112-123
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    • 2015
  • Many disputes are happened with various causes in overseas construction projects. One of major disputes is closely related with nominated subcontractors (NSC). This paper investigates 30 judical precedents for Singapore, Malaysia and Hongkong to analyze the detailed disputes related with the NSC, and then the judical precedents are classified into 6 categories: Delay and Defect Trouble (T1), Contract Relation (T2), Payment Trouble (T3), Set-off (T4), Liquidation (T5) and so forth (T6). According to the analytical results, the frequency of occurrence of disputes is considerably related with social and economical changes, and the dispute between NSC and employer for residential and commercial building projects is the most frequently happened case. As the results of analysis, therefore, it is concluded that the employer needs to response aggressively to the problems related with NSC, and it is also important to make the council for communication among related bodies. Furthermore, the institutional reform that make the role and the responsibility of employer consistent under considering contract terms and conditions is considered as the most important and fundamental issue.

Compression Behavior of Steel Plate-Concrete Structures for both Stiffened and Nonstiffened structures by Rib (리브 보강 유무에 따른 강판-콘크리트 구조의 압축거동)

  • Choi, Byong Jeong;Han, Hong Soo;Han, Kweon Gyu;Lee, Seung Joon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.471-481
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the compression behaviors of SSC (stiffened steel plate-concrete) and NSC (non-stiffened steel plate-concrete) structures, and to identify the effects of the increment in the structural performance of SSC structures. SCC structures are structures that integrate steel plates with line support from ribs (H-shape) and point supports from studs with concretes. On the other hand, NSC structures are structures that integrate steel plates with point supports from studs with concrete. The following results were obtained in this study. First, compared with NSC structures, it was shown that SSC structures have advantages in terms of preventing steel plate buckling and delaying quick destruction through the brittleness of concrete. In addition, the SSC structures showed a 5-28% increment in maximum compressive strength, which far surpassed that shown by the NSC structures.

Study on Mock-up test for field application of High Strength Concrete using Non-Sintered Cement (비소성시멘트를 사용한 고강도 콘크리트의 현장적용을 위한 모의부재에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Sik;Han, Da-Hee;Kim, Kwang-Ki;Paik, Min-Su;Mun, Kyoung-Ju;Jung, Sang-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.33-36
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    • 2006
  • This Study is based on manufacture non-sintering cement(NSC) by adding phosphogysum and waste lime to GBFS as sulfate and alkali activators. This study also investigates the basic physical properties and duality of NSC, and evaluates its reusing possibility as construction materials. Therefore, we design 40MPa and 60MPa for compressive strength using OPC and NSC by binder. And There is a purpose to present fundamental data, applying in field and analyzing quality control of concrete using NSC according to rate of replace between OPC and NSC.

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