• Title/Summary/Keyword: feather

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Effect of Poor Feather Cover on Feed Intake and Production of Aged Laying Hens

  • Glatz, P.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.553-558
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    • 2001
  • The effect of poor feather cover on feed intake and production was examined in two commercial strains of layers (tinted and brown egg) over 91-98 weeks of age. Hens were housed at four per cage ($600cm^2/bird$) in a commercial layer shed which ranged in temperature from 13.2 to $16.8^{\circ}C$. At the start of the experiment 50% of the birds were classified as having poor feather cover. Feather score was highly correlated with feed intake. Poor feather cover on the neck and the back were the best indicators of hens with high feed intake. Feed intake of hens with poor feather cover was 16% higher (p<0.05) than hens with good feather cover. Hens with good feather cover produced more eggs (p<0.05) early in the trial and had a higher (p<0.05) liveweight, but there was no significant differences in egg weight. Feed per dozen eggs was superior (p<0.05) in hens with good feather cover. Feather cover on the back and vent were the best indicators of overall feather score, while the tail, base of tail and vent were the body parts most affected in birds with poor feather cover.

Characterization of Embryonic Feather Follicle Development in the Chinese Indigenous Jilin White Goose

  • Wu, W.;Xu, R.F.;Li, C.H.;Wu, C.X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.346-352
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    • 2008
  • To investigate goose feather follicle development and difference among the dorsal, ventral, and thoracal tracts during embryonic stage, the present study was conducted on 180 embryos at different ages obtained from the Jilin White goose, a Chinese indigenous breed. The study indicated that the epidermis and dermis of goose embryo formed between embryonic day 10 (E10) and 12 (E12). The thickness of the epidermis remained unchanged until hatching; while the thickness of the dermis increased throughout embryonic development. The primary feather follicles formed around E13-E14 and there were no new primary feather follicles forming after E18. The secondary feather follicles formed coincidently at E18. The density of primary and secondary feather follicles on the ventral and thoracal tracts were significantly higher than those on the dorsal tract (p<0.05). For primary and secondary follicles, the diameter of the feather bulbs and the depth of the feather follicles on the dorsal tract were much greater than those on the thoracal and ventral tracts (p<0.01), respectively; while the difference between the ventral and thoracal tracts was not significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that the Jilin White goose is of a single-follicle group structure, differing from mammals which are of multiple-follicle group structure.

Biosynthesis and Control of Keratinase in Recalcitrant Feather-Degrading Bacillus megaterium F7-1

  • Jeong, Jin-Ha;Lee, Na-Ri;Jeon, Young-Dong;Kim, Jeong-Do;Park, Ki-Hyun;Park, Geun-Tae;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1077-1082
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to investigate the nutritional conditions controlling keratinase activity in Bacillus megaterium F7-1. B. megaterium F7-1 produced keratinase using chicken feather as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. Addition of the feather medium with glucose enhanced keratinase production (68.9 U/ml), compared to control without glucose (63.2 U/ml). The synthesis of keratinase was repressed by addition of $NH_4Cl$ in B. megaterium F7-1. The highest keratinase production (70.9 U/ml) was obtained with the feather medium containing glucose and $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$. Keratinase was produced in the absence of feather (4.9 U/ml), indicating its constitutive synthesis. Feather degradation resulted in free SH group formation. B. megaterium F7-1 effectively degraded chicken feather meal (86%), whereas duck feather, human nail, human hair and sheep wool displayed relatively low degradation rates (8-34%).

Effects of feather processing methods on quantity of extracted corticosterone in broiler chickens

  • Ataallahi, Mohammad;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Song, Jun-Ik;Kim, Jin-Soo;Park, Kyu-Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.6
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    • pp.884-892
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    • 2020
  • Corticosterone is known as a biological stress index in many species including birds. Feather corticosterone concentration (FCC) has increasingly been used as a measure for chronic stress status in broiler chickens. As sample preparation is the first step of analytical process, different techniques of feather matrix disruption need to be validated for obtaining better result in analysing corticosterone extraction. The current study was a validation of pulverizing the feather by bead beater (BB) and surgical scissors (SS) processing prior to corticosterone extraction in feather of broiler chickens. The type of feather processing prior to the hormone extraction may alter the final output. Thereby, finding a standard method according to laboratory facilities is pivotal. This study carried out to determine the effects of feather pulverization methods on the extraction amount of corticosterone in broiler chickens. Feathers were sampled from four weeks old Ross 308 broiler chickens (n = 12 birds). All broiler chickens were kept under the same environmental condition and had access to feed and water. Feather samples were assigned to one of the following processing methods 1) using a BB for pulverizing and 2) using a SS for chopping into tiny pieces. Each sample was duplicated into two wells during enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis to improve the accuracy of the obtained data. The results showed lower standard errors and constant output of FCC by using the BB method compared with the SS method. Overall comparison of FCC showed a significantly higher (p < 0.001) amount of the FCC in the BB compared with the SS. Overall, using the BB method is recommended over the SS method for feather processing due to the ability to homogenize a large number of samples simultaneously, ease of use and greater extraction of feather corticosterone.

Isolation and Application of Feather-Degrading Bacteria for Development of Environment-Friendly Biofertilizer (환경친화적 미생물 비료 개발을 위한 우모분해 세균의 분리 및 응용)

  • Woo, Eun-Ok;Kim, Min-Ju;Ryu, Eun-Youn;Park, Geun-Tae;Lee, Chung-Yeol;Son, Hong-Joo;Lee, Sang-Joon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1103-1109
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to isolate mesophilic chicken feather-degrading bacteria and to evaluate feather hydrolysate as alternative biofertilizer. Isolate RS7 was isolated from compost and identified as Bacillus pumilus according to API analysis and l6S rDNA sequencing analysis. Chicken feathers were completely degraded after 5 days of cultivation at $30^{\circ}C$. Feather hydrolysate treated by B. pumilius RS7 positively influenced Helianthus sannuus L. (sunflower) growth (e.g. growth rate, number and dry weight of leave, and flowering rate). These results suggest that feather hydrolysate prepared using B. pumilius RS7 could successfully be used as alternative biofertilizer, thereby reducing the environmental impact of feather waste from the poultry industry.

Preparation of Feather Digests as Fertilizer with Bacillus pumilis KHS-1

  • Kim, Jin-Man;Choi, Yang-Mun;Suh, Hyung-Joo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.472-476
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    • 2005
  • The present study was untaken to assess the capacity of Bacillus pumilis KHS-1 to grow on chicken flour and to prepare feather digest as fertilizer. To increase keratinolytic activity, the addition of cysteine (5.0 mM) showed the highest keratinolytic activity (245 unit) among the reducing agents tested. The production of soluble protein (feather digests) paralleled the tendency to the production of keratinolytic protease. In the growth curve of B. pumilis KHS-1 at $30^{\circ}C$ in the feather medium with 5 mM cysteine, the maximum keratinolytic activity of B. pumilis was about 161 units/ml after 84 h of incubation. The maximum enzyme activities were observed at the late logarithmic growth phase, and remained thereafter with little changes. Using 27-day plant growth assays on carrot and Chinese cabbage, feather digests and reference fertilizer were compared. In terms of the length and the weight of the above-ground vegetations, feather digests showed the same effect as that of the fertilizer. Therefore, our investigation shows that the feather digests can be used in agriculture.

Effect of Dietary Protease(bromelain) Treated Feather Meal on the Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Broilers (단백질분해효소(bromelain) 처리 우모분이 Broiler의 생산성과 영양소 이용율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.H.;Ko, Y.D.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.221-232
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of replacing fish meal or soybean meal with feather meal or bromelain treated feather meal in broiler diets on the performances and nutrient utilization. Two hundred and twenty-five broilers were randomly allotted to five dietary treatrnents((1) control, basal diet; (2) PFM 50, 50 % of the fish meal replaced with bromelain treated feather meal; (3) PFM 100, 100% of the fish meal replaced with bromelain treated feather meal; (4) PSM 20, 20 % of the soybean meal replaced with bromelain treated feather meal; and (5) PSM 40, 40% of the soybean meal replaced with bromelain treated feather meal) in a 5-week feeding trial. In the overall period, body weight gain of the PFM 50(1,807 g), PSM 20(1,816 g) and PSM 40(1,823 g) were the highest and that of the PFM 100 was 1,744 g. The body weight gain of the control(1,698 g) was the lowest(p < 0.05) among treatments. Feed conversion was significantly(p< 0.05) improved when bromelain treated feather meal replaced 20% of the fish meal in the basal diet. Digestibilities of dry matter, ether extract, organic matter and phosphorus were not different among the treatments. Digestibility of crude protein of PFM 50(65.87 %), PSM 20(67.18 %) and PSM 40(67.56%) were the highest, and that of the control(54.49%) was the lowest(p < 0.05) among treatments. Arrunonia and hydrogen sulfide gases from the feces were significantly(p < 0.05) decreased in chicks fed the PFM 50, PSM 20 and GFM 40 diets, when observed after 3 weeks of feeding trials. Feed costs of the control and PFM 50 were 604 and 629 won, respectively but that of PSM 50 was 820 won. Therefore, replacement of fish meal with bromelain treated feather meal in the diets for chicks could be useful for economic production.

Three Feather Mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) Isolated from Black-Tailed Godwit, Limosa limosa in Korea

  • Han, Yeong-Deok;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2019
  • Feather mites comprise two superfamilies(Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) and are highly specialized ectosymbionts of birds. To date, this group contains more than 2,500 species worldwide. Fifty-five feather mite species have been reported in Korea, and only one species of genus Alloptes has been recorded from black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa. Three new records of feather mites from the L. limosa in Korea are added in this study: Avenzoaria punctata Gaud, 1972, Bregetovia limosae (Buchholz, 1869), and Montchadskiana buchholzi (Canestrini, 1878). The genus Bregetovia Dubinin, 1951 is also new report for this country. In this paper, we provide the morphological descriptions and illustrations based on the present specimens. Additionally, we determined partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I(COI) from three feather mites as DNA barcodes.

Availability of Chicken Feather for Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and Oil (6가 크롬 및 유류 제거를 위한 우모 폐기물의 이용가능성)

  • Jeong, Jin-Ha;Lee, Na-Ri;Park, Sung-Bo;Jeong, Seong-Yun;Park, Geun-Tae;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2012
  • We investigated usefulness of chicken feather as bioadsorbent for removal of hexavalent chromium[Cr(VI)] and oil from aqueous solution. Chicken feather was chemically treated with DTPA, EDTA, NaOH and SDS, respectively. Among them, EDTA was the most effective in adsorbing Cr(VI). Cr(VI) uptake by chicken feather was increased with decreasing pH; the highest Cr(VI) uptake was observed at pH 2.0. By increasing Cr(VI) concentration, Cr(VI) uptake was increased, and maximum Cr(VI) uptake was 0.34 mmol/g. Cr(VI) adsorption by chicken feather was well described by Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich constant(1/n) was 0.476. As the concentration of chicken feather was increased, Cr (VI) removal efficiency was increased but Cr(VI) uptake was decreased. Most of Cr(VI) was adsorbed at early reaction stage(1 h) and adsorption equilibrium was established at 5 h. On the other hand, chicken feather adsorbed effectively oils including bunker-A and bunker-C. In conclusion, our results suggest that chicken feather waste could be used to remove heavy metal and oil; it is a potential candidate for biosorption material.

Isolation and Characterization of Feather Keratin-Degrading Bacteria and Plant Growth-Promoting Activity of Feather Hydrolysate (우모 케라틴 분해세균의 분리, 특성 및 우모 분해산물의 식물 생육촉진 효과)

  • Jeong, Jin-Ha;Lee, Na-Ri;Kim, Jeong-Do;Jeon, Young-Dong;Park, Ki-Hyun;Oh, Dong-Joo;Lee, Chung-Yeol;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1307-1314
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to isolate and characterize a novel feather-degrading bacterium producing keratinase activity. A strain K9 was isolated from soil at poultry farm and identified as Xanthomonas sp. K9 by phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The cultural conditions for the keratinase production were 0.3% fructose, 0.1% gelatin, 0.04% $K_2HPO_4$, 0.06% $KH_2PO_4$, 0.05% NaCl and 0.01% $FeSO_4$ with an initial pH 8.0 at $30^{\circ}C$ and 200 rpm. In an optimized medium containing 0.1% chicken feather, production yield of keratinase was approximately 8-fold higher than the yield in basal medium. The strain K9 effectively degraded chicken feather meal (67%) and duck feather (54%), whereas human nail and human hair showed relatively low degradation rates (13-22%). Total free amino acid concentration in the cell-free supernatant was about 25.799 mg/l. Feather hydrolysate produced by the strain K9 stimulated growth of red pepper, indicating Xanthomonas sp. K9 could be not only used to increase the nutritional value of chicken feather but also a potential candidate for the development of natural fertilizer applicable to crop plant soil.