• Title/Summary/Keyword: Western mathematics

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A Study of the Representation and Algorithms of Western Mathematics Reflected on the Algebra Domains of Chosun-Sanhak in the 18th Century (18세기 조선산학서의 대수 영역에 나타난 서양수학 표현 및 계산법 연구)

  • Choi, Eunah
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.25-44
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the representation and algorithms of western mathematics reflected on the algebra domains of Chosun-Sanhak in the 18th century. I also analyzed the co-occurrences and replacement phenomenon between western algorithms and traditional algorithms. For this purpose, I analyzed nine Chosun mathematics books in the 18th century, including Gusuryak and Gosasibijip. The results of this study are as follows. First, I identified the process of changing to a calculation by writing of western mathematics, from traditional four arithmetical operations using Sandae and the formalized explanation for the proportional concept and proportional expression. Second, I observed the gradual formalization of mathematical representation of the solution for a simultaneous linear equation. Lastly, I identified the change of the solution for square root from traditional Gaebangsul and Jeungseunggaebangbeop to a calculation by the writing of western mathematics.

Mathematics of Chosun Dynasty and $Sh\grave{u}\;l\breve{i}\;j\bar{i}ng\;y\grave{u}n$ (數理精蘊) (조선(朝鮮) 산학(算學)과 수리정온(數理精蘊))

  • Hong Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.25-46
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    • 2006
  • We investigate the process of western mathematics into Chosun and its influences. Its initial and middle stages are examined by Choi Suk Jung(崔錫鼎, $1645\sim1715$)'s Gu Su Ryak(九數略), Hong Jung Ha(洪正夏, $1684\sim?$)'s Gu Il Jib(九一集) and Hwang Yun Suk(黃胤錫, $1719\sim1791$)'s I Su Shin Pyun(理藪新編), Hong Dae Yong(洪大容, $1731\sim1781$)'s Ju Hae Su Yong(籌解需用), respectively. Western mathematics was transmitted for the study of the Shi xian li(時憲曆) when it was introduced in Chosun. We also analyze Su Ri Jung On Bo Hae(數理精蘊補解, 1730?) whose author studied $Sh\grave{u}\;l\breve{i}\;j\bar{i}ng\;y\grave{u}n$ most thoroughly, in particular for astronomy, and finally Lee Sang Hyuk(李尙爀, $1810\sim?$), Nam Byung Gil(南秉吉, $1820\sim1869$) who studied together structurally western mathematics.

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Lee Sang Seol's mathematics book Su Ri (이상설(李相卨)의 산서 수리(算書 數理))

  • Lee, Sang-Gu;Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2009
  • Since western mathematics and astronomy had been introduced in Chosun dynasty in the 17th century, most of Chosun mathematicians studied Shu li jing yun(數理精蘊) for the western mathematics. In the last two decades of the 19th century, Chosun scholars have studied them which were introduced by Japanese text books and western missionaries. The former dealt mostly with elementary arithmetic and the latter established schools and taught mathematics. Lee Sang Seol(1870~1917) is well known in Korea as a Confucian scholar, government official, educator and foremost Korean independence movement activist in the 20th century. He was very eager to acquire western civilizations and studied them with the minister H. B. Hulbert(1863~1949). He wrote a mathematics book Su Ri(數理, 1898-1899) which has two parts. The first one deals with the linear part(線部) and geometry in Shu li jing yun and the second part with algebra. Using Su Ri, we investigate the process of transmission of western mathematics into Chosun in the century and show that Lee Sang Seol built a firm foundation for the study of algebra in Chosun.

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Haidao Suanjing in Joseon Mathematics (해도산경(海島算經)과 조선(朝鮮) 산학(算學))

  • Hong, Sung Sa;Hong, Young Hee;Kim, Chang Il
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.259-270
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    • 2019
  • Haidao Suanjing was introduced into Joseon by discussion in Yang Hui Suanfa (楊輝算法) which was brought into Joseon in the 15th century. As is well known, the basic mathematical structure of Haidao Suanjing is perfectly illustrated in Yang Hui Suanfa. Since the 17th century, Chinese mathematicians understood the haidao problem by the Western mathematics, namely an application of similar triangles. The purpose of our paper is to investigate the history of the haidao problem in the Joseon Dynasty. The Joseon mathematicians mainly conformed to Yang Hui's verifications. As a result of the influx of the Western mathematics of the Qing dynasty for the study of astronomy in the 18th century Joseon, Joseon mathematicians also accepted the Western approach to the problem along with Yang Hui Suanfa.

Life and Thoughts of Xu Guang-qi in mathematical perspective (수학적 관점으로 본 서광계의 생애와 사상)

  • Khang, Mee Kyung
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2019
  • In the history of Chinese mathematics, Xu Guang-qi (徐光啓) is a person who translated and published Western mathematics in China and used it to reconstruct Chinese calendrical system. In this paper, we explored his thoughts on the background of his accomplishments and the circumstances under which such thoughts were made.

이조시대의 대수방정식의 해법에 관하여 -$ulcorner}$무이해${\lrcorner}$를 중심으로-

  • 최창호
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 1998
  • In the Chosun Dynasty Nam, Byung-Gil(another name is Nam, Sang-Gil alias Won-Sang; 1820-1869) made a research comparing Chinese traditional mathematics with western mathematics, which missionaries who came to China at the end of Ming Dynasty introduced. He particularly studied fundamental differences between Chinese and western methods to solve algebraic equations. He wrote an article "Moo-Ee-Hae", in which he insisted that the two methods are eventually same though they are different in the고 expressions. His article has big significance as the first mathematic paper in the history of Korean mathematics.thematics.

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Mathematics and Society in Koryo and Chosun (고려.조선시대의 수학과 사회)

  • Joung Ji-Ho
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.48-73
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    • 1986
  • Though the tradition of Korean mathematics since the ancient time up to the 'Enlightenment Period' in the late 19th century had been under the influence of the Chinese mathematics, it strove to develop its own independent of Chinese. However, the fact that it couldn't succeed to form the independent Korean mathematics in spite of many chances under the reign of Kings Sejong, Youngjo, and Joungjo was mainly due to the use of Chinese characters by Koreans. Han-gul (Korean characters) invented by King Sejong had not been used widely as it was called and despised Un-mun and Koreans still used Chinese characters as the only 'true letters' (Jin-suh). The correlation between characters and culture was such that, if Koreans used Han-gul as their official letters, we may have different picture of Korean mathematics. It is quite interesting to note that the mathematics in the 'Enlightenment Period' changed rather smoothly into the Western mathematics at the time when Han-gul was used officially with Chinese characters. In Koryo, the mathematics existed only as a part of the Confucian refinement, not as the object of sincere study. The mathematics in Koryo inherited that of the Unified Shilla without any remarkable development of its own, and the mathematicians were the Inner Officials isolated from the outside world who maintained their positions as specialists amid the turbulence of political changes. They formed a kind of Guild, their posts becoming patrimony. The mathematics in Koryo significant in that they paved the way for that of Chosun through a few books of mathematics such as 'Sanhak-Kyemong', 'Yanghwi-Sanpup' and 'Sangmyung-Sanpup'. King Sejong was quite phenomenal in his policy of promotion of mathematics. King himself was deeply interested in the study, createing an atmosphere in which all the high ranking officials and scholars highly valued mathematics. The sudden development of mathematic culture was mainly due to the personality and capacity of king who took anyone with the mathematic talent into government service regardless of his birth and against the strong opposition of the conservative officials. However, King's view of mathematics never resulted in the true development of mathematics perse and he used it only as an official technique in the tradition way. Korean mathematics in King Sejong's reign was based upon both the natural philosophy in China and the unique geo-political reality of Korean peninsula. The reason why the mathematic culture failed to develop continually against those social background was that the mathematicians were not allowed to play the vital role in that culture, they being only the instrument for the personality or politics of the king. While the learned scholar class sometimes played the important role for the development of the mathematic culture, they often as not became an adamant barrier to it. As the society in Chosun needed the function of mathematics acutely, the mathematicians formed the settled class called Jung-in (Middle-Man). Jung-in was a unique class in Chosun and we can't find its equivalent in China or Japan. These Jung-in mathematician officials lacked tendency to publish their study, since their society was strictly exclusive and their knowledge was very limited. Though they were relatively low class, these mathematicians played very important role in Chosun society. In 'Sil-Hak (the Practical Learning) period' which began in the late 16th century, especially in the reigns of Kings Youngjo and Jungjo, which was called the Renaissance of Chosun, the ambitious policy for the development of science and technology called for. the rapid increase of he number of such technocrats as mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Amid these social changes, the Jung-in mathematicians inevitably became quite ambitious and proud. They tried to explore deeply into mathematics perse beyond the narrow limit of knowledge required for their office. Thus, in this period the mathematics developed rapidly, undergoing very important changes. The characteristic features of the mathematics in this period were: Jung-in mathematicians' active study an publication, the mathematic studies by the renowned scholars of Sil-Hak, joint works by these two classes, their approach to the Western mathematics and their effort to develop Korean mathematics. Toward the 'Enlightenment Period' in the late 19th century, the Western mathematics experienced great difficulty to take its roots in the Peninsula which had been under the strong influence of Confucian ideology and traditional Korean mathematic system. However, with King Kojong's ordinance in 1895, the traditional Korean mathematics influenced by Chinese disappeared from the history of Korean mathematics, as the school system was hanged into the Western style and the Western mathematics was adopted as the only mathematics to be taught at the Schools of various levels. Thus the 'Enlightenment Period' is the period in which Korean mathematics shifted from Chinese into European.

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On the Mathematics Curriculum of Korea and Outlook on the Mathematics Education (한국의 수학 교육과정과 수학교육관)

  • 김종명
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.33-52
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    • 2004
  • The paper is analyzed the mathematics curriculum of Korea and the philosophy of the mathematics education in the history of mathematics education. We have found that the various philosophy of Western mathematics education have led us to various views of the mathematics curriculum of Korea. This change of the mathematics curriculum in Korea have important implications to the didactics of mathematics. This study tried to find out the direction of outlook on the mathematics education in the future.

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Lee Sang Hyuk's ChaGeunBangMongGu and Shu li jing yun (이상혁(李尙爀)의 차근방몽구(借根方蒙求)와 수리정온(數理精蘊))

  • Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, we investigate Lee Sang Hyuk (李尙爀, $1810{\sim}?$)'s first mathematical work ChaGeunBangMongGu(借根方蒙求, 1854) and its relation with Shu li jing yun and Chi shui yi zhen. We then study an influence of western mathematics for establishing his study on algebra.

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Mathematical Structures of Joseon mathematician Hong JeongHa (조선(朝鮮) 산학자(算學者) 홍정하(洪正夏)의 수학적(數學的) 구조(構造))

  • Hong, Sung Sa;Hong, Young Hee;Lee, Seung On
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2014
  • From the mid 17th century, Joseon mathematics had a new beginning and developed along two directions, namely the traditional mathematics and one influenced by western mathematics. A great Joseon mathematician if not the greatest, Hong JeongHa was able to complete the Song-Yuan mathematics in his book GuIlJib based on his studies of merely Suanxue Qimeng, YangHui Suanfa and Suanfa Tongzong. Although Hong JeongHa did not deal with the systems of equations of higher degrees and general systems of linear congruences, he had the more advanced theories of right triangles and equations together with the number theory. The purpose of this paper is to show that Hong was able to realize the completion through his perfect understanding of mathematical structures.