• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cellular trafficking

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The blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier orchestrates immunosurveillance, immunoprotection, and immunopathology in the central nervous system

  • Ayub, Maria;Jin, Hee Kyung;Bae, Jae-sung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.196-202
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    • 2021
  • Once characterized as an immune privileged area, recent scientific advances have demonstrated that the central nervous system (CNS) is both immunologically active and a specialized site. The anatomical and cellular features of the brain barriers, the glia limitans, and other superficial coverings of the CNS endow the brain with specificity for immune cell entry and other macro- and micro-elements to the brain. Cellular trafficking via barriers comprised of tightly junctioned non-fenestrated endothelium or tightly regulated fenestrated epithelium results in different phenotypic and cellular changes in the brain, that is, inflammatory versus regulatory changes. Based on emerging evidence, we described the unique ability of the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) to recruit, skew, and suppress immune cells. Additionally, we sum up the current knowledge on both cellular and molecular mechanisms governed by the choroid plexus and the cerebrospinal fluid at the BCSFB for immunosurveillance, immunoprotection, and immunopathology.

Intracellular Trafficking of Transferrin-Conjugated Liposome/DNA Complexes by Confocal Microscopy

  • Lee Sang Mi;Kim Jin-Seok
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2005
  • Intracellular trafficking of transferrin-conjugated dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide liposome $(T_f-liposome)/DNA$ complexes in HeLa cells was studied using the double-labeled fluorescence technique and confocal microscopy. The size of the $T_f-liposome/DNA$ complex was about 367 nm in diameter and the zeta-potential of it at a 5:1 (w/w) ratio was almost neutral. The intracellular pathway of the $T_f-liposome/DNA$ complex, noted as green (FITC), red (rhodamine) or yellow (FITC + rhodamine) fluorescence, was elucidated from the plasma membrane to the endosome (or lysosome), and finally to the nucleus. The results of this study indicate that plasmid DNA enters into the nucleus not only as a free form but as an associated form complexed with $T_f-liposome$. More interestingly, the $T_f-liposome$ undergoes a nuclear location in the form of ordered structures. This could be a very useful piece of information in designing a safe and advanced gene delivery system.

Cellular Flavonoid Transport Mechanisms in Animal and Plant Cells (플라보노이드 세포 수송 기전)

  • Han, Yoo-Li;Lee, So-Young;Lee, Ji Hae;Lee, Sung-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.137-141
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    • 2013
  • Flavonoids have various biological activities; however, their cellular uptake mechanism is beginning to be understood only recently. This review focuses on cellular flavonoids transport mechanisms in both plants and animals. In plants, flavonoids exist in various cellular compartments, providing a specialized transport system. Newly synthesized flavonoids can be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuoles or extracellular space via cellular trafficking pathway. Among membrane transporters, ATP binding cassette, multidrug and toxic extrusion, bilitranslocase homologue transporters play roles in both the influx and efflux of cellular flavonoids across the cell membrane. In recent years, extensive researches have provided a better understanding on the cellular flavonoid transport in mammalian cells. Bilitranslocase transports flavonoids in various tissues, including the liver, intestine and kidneys. However, other transport mechanisms are largely unknown and thus, further investigation should provide detailed mechanisms, which can potentially lead to an improved bioavailability and cellular function of flavonoids in humans.

Nonstructural Protein 5B of Hepatitis C Virus

  • Lee, Jong-Ho;Nam, In Young;Myung, Heejoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 2006
  • Since its identification in 1989, hepatitis C virus has been the subject of extensive research. The biology of the virus and the development of antiviral drugs are closely related. The RNA polymerase activity of nonstructural protein 5B was first demonstrated in 1996. NS5B is believed to localize to the perinuclear region, forming a replicase complex with other viral proteins. It has a typical polymerase structure with thumb, palm, and finger domains encircling the active site. A de novo replication initiation mechanism has been suggested. To date, many small molecule inhibitors are known including nucleoside analogues, non-nucleoside analogues, and pyrophosphate mimics. NS5B interacts with other viral proteins such as core, NS3, 4A, 4B, and 5A. The helicase activity of NS3 seems necessary for RNA strand unwinding during replication, with other nonstructural proteins performing modulatory roles. Cellular proteins interacting with NS5B include VAMP-associated proteins, heIF4AII, hPLIC1, nucleolin, PRK2, ${\alpha}$-actinin, and p68 helicase. The interactions of NS5B with these proteins might play roles in cellular trafficking, signal transduction, and RNA polymerization, as well as the regulation of replication/translation processes.

Radioresistance of Dendritic Cells (수지상세포의 방사선 저항성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Sil;Kim, Chong-Soon;Li, Ming-Hao;Bom, Hee-Seung;Min, Jung-Joon;Jeong, Hwan-Jeong;Kim, Seong-Min;Heo, Yeong-Jun;Song, Ho-Chun;Lee, Je-Joong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.190-198
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To evaluate radiation sensitivity of dendritic cells in comparison with lymphocytes. Materials and methods: T lymphocytes captured from peripheral blood were irradiated by 0 Gy, 10 Gy, 30 Gy. Apoptosis was measured by flowcytometry for staining of Annexin V 4 hours after irradiation. Immature and mature dendritic cells processed from blood hematopoietic stem cell were irradiated by 0 Gy, 10 Gy, 30 Gy, 100 Gy respectively and apoptosis was measured by flowcytometry with time difference as 4h, 24h and 48h after irradiation. Morphometric analysis by percent nucleus was measured in three cell groups, also. Results: Lymphocytes showed radiation sensitivity by increasing apoptotic fraction according to radiation dose. However, both mature and immature dendritic cells showed consistent fraction of apoptosis in spite of increasing radiation dose. Percent nucleus ratio is significantly higher in lymphocytes than that of mature or immature dendritic cells. Stimulation of T-cell by dendritic cells was not changed after irradiation. Conclusion: Dendritic cells showed radioresistance which was associated with small size of nucleus in comparison with lymphocytes and this result would be used as a basal data of radio-labelling for the cellular trafficking studios in nuclear medicine fields.