• Title/Summary/Keyword: American mathematics

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Ground of the revolutionary change in early 20C American Mathematics (20세기 초 미국수학계의 혁명적변화의 바탕)

  • Lee, Sang-Gu;Hwang, Suk-Geun;Cheon, Gi-Sang
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.127-146
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    • 2007
  • From 1876 to 1883, British mathematician James Joseph Sylvester worked as the founding head of Mathematics Department at the Johns Hopkins University which has been known as America's first school of mathematical research. Sylvester established the American Journal of Mathematics, the first sustained mathematics research journal in the United States. It is natural that we think this is the most exciting and important period in American mathematics. But we found out that the International Congress of Mathematicians held at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, August 21-26, 1893 was the real turning point in American's dedication to mathematical research. The University of Chicago was founded in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society and John D. Rockefeller. The founding head of mathematics department Eliakim Hastings Moore was the one who produced many excellent American mathematics Ph.D's in early stage. Many of Moore's students contributed to build up real American mathematics research power in early 20 century The University also has a well-deserved reputation as the "teacher of teachers". Beginning with Sylvester, we analyze what E.H. Moore had done as a teacher and a head of the new department that produced many mathematical talents such as L.E. Dickson(1896), H. Slaught(1898), O. Veblen(1903), R.L. Moore(1905), G.D. Birkhoff(1907), T.H. Hilderbrants(1910), E.W. Chittenden(1912) who made the history of American mathematics. In this article, we study how Moore's vision, new system and new way of teaching influenced American mathematical society at early stage of the top class mathematical research. and the meaning that early University of Chicago case gave.

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J. J. Sylvester, F. Klein and American Mathematics in 19th Century (실베스터와 클라인 그리고 19세기 미국 수학)

  • Lee Sang-Gu;Ham Yoon-Mee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2006
  • In 1876, America's first Jewish math professor J. J. Sylvester took a department head position at the first research university in USA at the age of 61. He launched the America's first research journal of mathematics in 1877. We study the role and meaning of J. J. Sylvester, F. Klein and E. H. Moore in late 19th century of American mathematics from Korean's perspective.

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Comparison and Analysis of Mathematics Curriculums for lower graders (한국과 미국의 초등학교 저학년 수학 교과서 및 교육과정의 비교와 분석)

  • 김연미
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 1999
  • We have compared Korean and American mathematics curriculums in 5 areas: whole number(concepts and its operations); geometry; pattern and relations; measurements; statistics and probability. We have found significant differences in geometry area. Korean curriculums contain simple planar figures (circles, triangles, rectangles, and squres) and some of the spatial figures until 3rd grades. But in America they learn various planar and spatial fugures(cone, pyramid, triangular prism, etc) since the 1st grade starts. They also start the 1st grade by dealing with topological concepts like open/closed, inside/outside, order, etc. As the grade goes on, students learn other geometrical concepts like congruence, symmetry, 3-dimensional views. We also found that American curriculum focuses on students' activities and courages communication through projects, groupwork, journal writing, etc. It's also superior in respects of motivation, and connections with real life and other subjects. Korean curriculum needs more improvements in these aspects. Furthermore for lower graders reviewing sections need to be enhanced for feedback.

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An Experienced Teacher's Representations of Beliefs and Knowledge in Mathematics Instruction (수학 수업에 표현된 수학 교사의 신념과 지식)

  • Kim, Goo-Yeon
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.335-349
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to explore how a mathematics teacher's beliefs about mathematics and teaching and learning and mathematics and how such beliefs are related to her knowledge manifested in her mathematics instruction. The study illustrates images of teaching practice of an American mathematics teacher in middle grades mathematics classrooms. Results suggest that the teacher seems consistent in teaching in terms of her beliefs about mathematics and learning and teaching mathematics in some degrees. In particular, the teacher's beliefs affected the ways in which mathematics teacher organized and structured her lessons.

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A Review on Meaning of Expression, Equation and Identity (식, 방정식, 항등식이라는 용어의 의미에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Hwan;Park, Kyo-Sik
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.27-43
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    • 2010
  • In this article the conceptual meaning of expression, equation and identity used in Korean mathematics textbooks and American mathematics textbooks is compared and discussed. For this purpose definitions and examples in several mathematics textbooks which are used in Korean elementary school, the 1st grade of middle school and American middle school are investigated. It is founded out that at first there are some parts that give rise to misunderstanding and then there are differences between the Korean terminologies and their corresponding English counterparts. The definitions of expression, equation and identity are advised to examine in the view of middle mathematics curriculum.

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A Survey of the Connected Mathematics Project (시엠피(The Connected Mathematics Project)에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hae-Gyu
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.119-145
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    • 2011
  • We study on the Connected Mathematics Project(CMP), one of the American mathematics education reform projects which have been promoted since the 1990s, so that we can provide some suggestions for the recent research of developing the 2009 Korean Mathematics Curriculum. In this paper, we examine the background of the CMP, the controversies over the textbooks [CMP1 textbooks] developed by CMP[CMP1] implemented from 1991 till 1996, and the curriculum of the CMP[CMP2] revised from CMP1 and carried from 2000 till 2006. Through the literature study, we can see that the CMP2 curriculum has reflected some of those controversies of the CMP1 textbooks by introducing procedures for students' acquiring basic skills, reducing the number of lessons and the contents supposed to be learned in each lesson, putting more stress on algebra and adding data analysis contents more.

A Comparative Analysis of Pi and the Area of a Circle in Mathematics Textbooks of Korea, Japan, Singapore and The US (한국, 일본, 싱가포르, 미국 교과서에 제시된 원주율과 원의 넓이 지도 방안의 비교·분석)

  • Choi, Eunah
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.445-467
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we analyzed the contents of pi and the area of a circle presented in Korean, Japanese, Singapore, and American mathematics textbooks, and drew implications for the teaching of pi and the area of a circle in school mathematics. We developed a textbook analysis framework by theoretical discussions on the concept of the pi based on the various properties of pi and the area of a circle based on the central ideas of measurement and the previous researches on pi and the area of a circle in elementary mathematics. We drew five suggestions for improving the teaching of pi and three suggestions for improving the teaching of the area of a circle in Korean elementary schools.

Analysis of the Quantity and Quality of the Contents of Junior High School Mathematics Curriculum and Textbooks (중학교 수학 교육과정 및 교과서 내용의 양과 난이도 수준 분석)

  • 박경미
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.35-55
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    • 2000
  • There seems to be a public consensus that the content of Korean mathematics textbooks is extensive and of a high level of difficulty. However, such judgment is the result of a generalization based on individual experience or on the results from comparisons of the international levels of achievement. Therefore, a more objective and stricter approach to the determination of the quantity and level of difficulty of mathematics content is necessary. For this purpose, this study has compared the content of Koreas 6th and 7th junior high school curriculums, and the Korean mathematics curriculum to textbooks of the United States, which has a considerable influence on the making of Korean mathematics textbooks. First of all, a comparison of Koreas 6th and 7th junior high school mathematics curriculums showed a slight reduction in the total quantity of content, as more content was deleted than was added in the 7th curriculum. However, given the fact that the number of hours of mathematics classes has been reduced, the reduction in content cannot be regarded as anything more than a simple reflection of the reduction in hours, proving that the 7th curriculum has not met its revision objective of reducing the content by 30%. Meanwhile, the comparison of the United States junior high school mathematics textbooks to Korea's 7th curriculum showed that the 7th grade content in the United States was much broader, encompassing content which in Korea ranged from the 2nd grade of elementary school to the 2nd year of junior high school. Therefore, on the surface, it may appear that the overall level of content in the American mathematics textbook is lower than that of the Korean. However, there are several cafes, such as statistics and probability, where certain content was more difficult and introduced at an earlier grade in the United States than in Korea. In fact, it can be said that Korea students tend to find content of the mathematics textbooks to be harder than they actually are because they are delivered as a mere aggregate of algorithms, with little consideration to its application in their everyday lives. In this respect, there is much room for improvement on the mathematics textbooks of Korea.

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Semiotic Analysis on A Pre-service Teacher's Thinking Process in the Analysis and the Development of Mathematics Teaching Materials (예비교사의 수학 교수 자료 분석 및 개발 사례에 대한 기호학적 분석)

  • Kim, Sun Hee;Kim, Tae Ik
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.353-367
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    • 2013
  • A mathematics pre-service teacher T analyzed American mathematics textbooks and developed his teaching material for instruction. This study analyzed his thinking processes and results in the view of semiotics. If we regard the textbook as a sign and the unitary conversion that students should learn as an object of the sign, the interpretant of the sign is the pre-service teacher's analysis, which is conducted at the aspects of a subject matter knowledge and student understanding. T interpreted the textbook versatilely in terms of his knowledges and experiences. He developed his teaching materials as diagrams, did the diagrammatic thinking and became to have the hypostatic abstraction. This study is significant because it used semiotics for explaining T's thinking process.

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Contribution of Oswald Veblen to AMS and its meaning in Korea (Oswald Veblen이 미국수학계에 미친 영향과 한국에서의 의미)

  • Lee, Sang-Gu;Ham, Yoon-Mee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.27-52
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    • 2009
  • This article discusses the contributions of the leader Oswald Veblen, who was the president of AMS during 1923-1924. In 2006, Korea ranked 12th in SCIE publications in mathematics, more than doubling its publications in less than 10 years, a successful model for a country with relatively short history of modern mathematical research. Now there are 192 four-year universities in Korea. Some 42 of these universities have Ph.D. granting graduate programs in mathematics and/or mathematical education in Korea. Rapid growth is observed over a broad spectrum including a phenomenal performance surge in International Mathematical Olympiad. Western mathematics was first introduced in Korea in the 17th century, but real significant mathematical contributions by Korean mathematicians in modern mathematics were not much known yet to the world. Surprisingly there is no Korean mathematician who could be found in MaC Tutor History Birthplace Map. We are at the time, to have a clear vision and leadership for the 21st century. Even with the above achievement, Korean mathematical community has had obstacles in funding. Many people thinks that mathematical research can be done without funding rather unlike other science subjects, even though they agree fundamental mathematical research is very important. We found that the experience of early American mathematical community can help us to give a vision and role model for Korean mathematical community. When we read the AMS Notice article 'The Vision, Insight, and Influence of Oswald Veblen' by Steve Batterson, it answers many of our questions on the development of American mathematics in early 20th century. We would like to share the story and analyze its meaning for the development of Korean Mathematics of 21st century.

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