• Title/Summary/Keyword: commensurable

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A Study on the Visual Properties of Spatial Structure in Architecture - With Special Reference to Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier's Houses - (건축 공간구조의 시각적 특성에 관한 연구 - 아돌프 로스와 르 꼬르뷔제의 주택을 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Yoon-Kyung
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2006
  • This study intends to understand the visual experience of architectural space generated by users' movement based on the interpretation of visual properties. An analytic theory of Isovist is suggested for the objective and comparable measurement for such visual experience, and a computer program for the analysis has been proposed as well. By using the analytical theory and computer program, eight houses designed by Adolf Loos and Le Corbusler are analyzed for the purpose of understanding the visual characteristics of the Modern Architecture and the contemporaries. The result shows that, while the architectural space of Loos emphasizes personal privacy as for being livable spaces, the architectural space of Corbusier emphasizes users' movement as for including diverse visual arrays. These commensurable results exhibit that the analytical tool and research frame suggested in this study can be a competitive tool for such analysis.

The Selection of a Material Handling Systems using Multi-Attribute Decision Making (물류관리 시스템 선정을 위한 다기준 의사결정)

  • 정상윤;하승철;황문영
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.18 no.33
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 1995
  • The Purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate a quantitative procedure for evaluating alternative material handling systems that are being considered for possible purchase. The procedure considers both quantitative factors(i.e. costs) and qualitative factors(i.e. equipment productivity) that should be considered in the evaluation process. Since these factors are not always quantifiable it is necessary that the procedure be able to quantify all factors in commensurable units. This is accomplished via a modification of the Brown and Gibson model for facility site location and selection. The model was demonstrated via a case example that encompassed the derivation of performance measures for three material handling systems.

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Fracture Mechanics Study on Wear Mechanism of Ceramics -Discussions on Experimental Results of Wear Test- (세라믹의 마멸기구에 관한 파괴역학적 연구 -마멸실험 결과의 고찰-)

  • 김석삼;김재호
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.636-645
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    • 1990
  • Analytically induced wear mechanism of elastic body under Hertzian contact is applied in acutual wear test of ceramics. There are two types of wear in ceramics, a large scale wear and a small scale wear. The large scale wear is commensurable with Hertzian contact area and the small scale wear with real contact area. Nondimensional parameter, S$_{c}$, is introduced and fully examined to estimate or predict wear rate of ceramics. Ceramic wear for S$_{c}$.leq.0.8 is in small scale wear and for S$_{c}$;geq.1.6 in large scale wear. wear.

Inducing Irrational Numbers in Junior High School (중학교에서의 무리수 지도에 관하여)

  • Kim, Boo-Yoon;Chung, Young-Woo
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.139-156
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    • 2008
  • We investigate the inducing method of irrational numbers in junior high school, under algebraic as well as geometric point of view. Also we study the treatment of irrational numbers in the 7th national curriculum. In fact, we discover that i) incommensurability as essential factor of concept of irrational numbers is not treated, and ii) the concept of irrational numbers is not smoothly interconnected to that of rational numbers. In order to understand relationally the incommensurability, we suggest the method for inducing irrational numbers using construction in junior high school.

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The self induced secular evolution of gravitating systems.

  • Pichon, Christophe
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.37.1-37.1
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    • 2017
  • Since the seminal work of Perrin, physicists have understood in the context of kinetic theory how ink slowly diffuses in a glass of water. The fluctuations of the stochastic forces acting on water molecules drive the diffusion of the ink in the fluid. This is the archetype of a process described by the so-called fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which universally relates the rate of diffusion to the power spectrum of the fluctuating forces. For stars in galaxies, a similar process occurs but with two significant differences, due to the long-range nature of the gravitational interaction: (i) for the diffusion to be effective, stars need to resonate, i.e. present commensurable frequencies, otherwise they only follow the orbit imposed by their mean field; (ii) the amplitudes of the induced fluctuating forces are significantly boosted by collective effects, i.e. by the fact that, because of self-gravity, each star generates a wake in its neighbours. In the expanding universe, an overdense perturbation passing a critical threshold will collapse onto itself and, through violent relaxation and mergers, rapidly converge towards a stationary, phase-mixed and highly symmetric state, with a partially frozen orbital structure. The object is then locked in a quasi-stationary state imposed by its mean gravitational field. Of particular interests are strongly responsive colder systems which, given time and kicks, find the opportunity to significantly reshuffle their orbital structure towards more likely configurations. This presentation aims to explain this long-term reshuffling called gravity-driven secular evolution on cosmic timescales, described by extended kinetic theory. I will illustrate this with radial migration, disc thickening and the stellar cluster in the galactic centre.

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An Integrated AHP-VIKOR Methodology for Facility Layout Design

  • Shokri, Hamidreza;Ashjari, Behzad;Saberi, Morteza;Yoon, Jin Hee
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.389-405
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    • 2013
  • A facility layout design (FLD) problem can be generally introduced as assignment of facilities (departments) to a site such that a set of criteria are satisfied or some objectives are minimized (maximized). Hence, it can be considered as a multi-criteria problem due to the presence of qualitative criteria such as maintenance or flexibility and quantitative criteria such as the total cost of handling material. The VIKOR method was developed to solve multiple criteria decision making problems with conflicting and non-commensurable (different units) criteria, assuming that compromising is acceptable for conflict resolution, the decision maker wants a solution that is the closest to the ideal, and the alternatives are evaluated according to all established criteria. This paper proposes a hierarchical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and VIKOR approach to solve the FLD problem. A computer-aided layout-planning tool is adopted to generate the facility layout problems, as well as their quantitative data. The qualitative performance measures are weighted by AHP. VIKOR is then used to solve the FLD problem. Finally, the proposed integrated procedure is applied to three real-time examples.

Robust multi-objective optimization of STMD device to mitigate buildings vibrations

  • Pourzeynali, Saeid;Salimi, Shide;Yousefisefat, Meysam;Kalesar, Houshyar Eimani
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.347-369
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    • 2016
  • The main objective of this paper is the robust multi-objective optimization design of semi-active tuned mass damper (STMD) system using genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic. For optimal design of this system, it is required that the uncertainties which may exist in the system be taken into account. This consideration is performed through the robust design optimization (RDO) procedure. To evaluate the optimal values of the design parameters, three non-commensurable objective functions namely: normalized values of the maximum displacement, velocity, and acceleration of each story level are considered to minimize simultaneously. For this purpose, a fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) approach is used to find a set of Pareto-optimal solutions. The torsional effects due to irregularities of the building and/or unsymmetrical placements of the dampers are taken into account through the 3-D modeling of the building. Finally, the comparison of the results shows that the probabilistic robust STMD system is capable of providing a reduction of about 52%, 42.5%, and 37.24% on the maximum displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the building top story, respectively.

A Study on the Characteristics of furniture design of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe의 가구 디자인 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Ran-Pyo
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2005
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, one of the influential modernist architects in early 20th century, had an great effort to found the modern architecture through various kinds of works. Conceptually he tried to develop the trans-temporal architecture language by involving a reintegration of countermanding principles in both ideas and practices for designing buildings. The model for his striving to find such a synthesis or a dynamic form was the neo-classicism of K. F Schinkel, inasmuch as Schinkel endeavored to combine the classical rationalistic order with the creative act of construction and to make these two melt into his age. In the same horizon with that Mies van der Rohe attempted to express the industrialized civilization of his time as a given fact, though this phenomenal substance was the only authentic form that has been conceivable to the people. For him the modern technology was regarded as the manifestation of rationalistic transcendency, which can be interpreted always consequentially. Here In this context this study is purposed to consider through the analysis of the ground ideas of architecture and the designed chairs, how commensurable the tectonic value (in the architecture) that is constantly evident in his works and the various autonomous drives toward deformalization (in the furniture design) that is concerned with his interest for cultural situation and materiality of form are with each other. And then it will be tried to prove, that on the ground of the trans-temporal achitecture language the furniture design of Mies van der Rohe, which emphasizes curves as individual forms, could correspond to his architecture that lays priority to space and construction

Challenge of Arbitrators (중재인에 대한 기피)

  • Jeong, Sun-Ju
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.33-55
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    • 2007
  • Parties to national or international disputes use arbitration because they think it is faster than litigation or affords privacy. But it is very important for the parties that the decision of arbitrators is made impartially and independently. For the parties to accept the outcome of an arbitration, it is essential that the final outcome be the result of an impartial process, especially because arbitration is a form of adjudication, albeit a private one. The success of arbitration resides in the conduct of arbitrators. The more independent and impartial arbitrators are, the more trustworthy arbitration will be. Just as court procedures allow for the recusal of judges under certain circumstances, the arbitral process provides means to remove arbitrators from a tribunal if arbitrator can no longer be considered impartial or independent. This is blown as the disqualification or challenge of arbitrators. An arbitrator can also be challenged when he or she does not fulfill the contactually agreed and stipulated qualifications required by the arbitral agreement. An arbitrator's inability to act impartially could give rise to a challenge to the arbitrator, and even to the award. However, deciding whether an interest or relationship could give rise to an apprehension of bias is a difficult issue for every arbitrator. The standard of arbitrator's impartiality and independence is not commensurable to that of judge, because the parties are permitted considerable autonomy in selecting arbitrators. Particularly it may be expected for the party-appointed arbitrator to act as the advocate of the party in the deliberations of the tribunal. Doubts that could give rise to a challenge to the arbitrator should be justifiable. That is the case if a reasonable, informed third party would conclude that the arbitrator's decision making might be influenced by factors other than evidence presented by the parties. Consequently, for example, the mere fact that an arbitrator was to work in the same firm as one of the parties' counsel, this could not automatically be considered as grounds for challenge for lack of impartiality.

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