• Title/Summary/Keyword: Income

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The Trend in Fishery Household Income Inequality and Its Gini Factor Decomposition (어가소득 불평등도의 변화추이와 지니요인 분해)

  • Kim, Sang-Kwon
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.17-31
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    • 2014
  • This study examines trends in the overall income inequality of fishery household from 2003 to 2012 with the panel data of the Fishery Household Economy Survey. To investigate the potential determinants of income inequality, we decomposes the Gini coefficients into five income sources, fishery income, non-fishery income(non-fishery business income, non-business income), transfer income, irregular income and calculate the impact of each income sources on total income inequality. An evident trend toward increasing inequality of household income was found. Also, we find rising fishery income and non-fishery income play important role in the rapid increase of income inequality. Only transfer income appear to reduce total income inequality.

Income elasticity of household health expenditures and differences by income level (가계 의료비지출의 소득탄력성과 소득수준에 따른 차이 분석)

  • Huh, Soon-Im;Choi, Sook-Ja;Kim, Chang-Yup
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.50-67
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated income elasticity of household health expenditures and differences by income level from 1998 through 2003. Data from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study was used for empirical analyses. To estimate the income effects on health expenditure, the two-part model was employed: a logistic regression for any health expenditure-first part-and a Ordinary Least Square regression for health expenditure conditional on any spending-second part. To estimate income elasticity, both health expenditure and income were log transformed in the second part. In addition, the random effects(RE) model was used for a longitudinal panel which was continuously followed from 1998 through 2003 to estimate income effects on health expenditures controlling for within and between unobservable household characteristics. Furthermore, difference in income effects on health expenditure across income level was investigated. Although income slightly increased odds of any health expenditure, there was not no table differences across income level. Income significantly increased health expenditures during study period(overall income elasticity: about 0.2) and the highest 20% income group presented higher income elasticity than the lowest 20% income group.

Growth and Impact Analysis of Nonemployment Income as an Urban Economic Base -The case study of U.S. Arizona State- (도시경제기반으로서의 비고용소득 성장과 영향분석 - 미국 아리조나주의 경우 -)

  • 김학훈
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.27-40
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    • 1993
  • Most studies on regional economic impact have utilized employment or employment income data. Recently, a few scholars have noticed the importance of nonemployment income sources in urban economies. Using decennial census data on Arizona towns from 1970 to 1990, this paper first examines the increasing importance of nonempolyment income sources in urban economies and the associations of nonemployment income sources with elderly population and metropolitan location. Then, this paper investigates the impact of nonemployment income on urban growth in the framework of economic base model. The regression results show that the impact of nonemployment income is significant in the increase of nonbasic income and becomes greater over time, and that the impact of transfer over time, and that the impact of transfer income on nonbasic income of transfer income on nonbasic income is stronger in smaller towns and the impact of investment income is stronger in larger towns.

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Impact on Income Inequality of Income Sources in the Elderly (노인소득원이 소득불평등에 미치는 효과분석)

  • Lee, Yong-Jae
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.591-600
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    • 2016
  • This paper, in the situation of deepening poverty and worsening income inequality, aims to find the impact on income inequality of main income sources such as public income, market income and family income in the elderly and propose polices for weakening the income inequality in the elderly. Main results are as follows. First, Gini coefficients of each income sources in the elderly are total income's 0.4801, public income's 0.4071, market income's 0.6736 and family income's 0.1855. Income inequality in the elderly population is serious in the total income, public income and market income areas. Second, after excepting for public income in total income, Gini coefficient is 0.4864. after excepting for market income in total income, Gini coefficient is 0.3609. And after excepting for family income in total income, Gini coefficient is 0.5784. When market and public income are excepted from total income, Gini coefficient alleviate. Therefore, market income and public income are the major causes of income inequality in the elderly. But, family income alleviate the income inequality in the elderly. In order to alleviating the income inequality of the elderly, we must try to increasing the market income. For example, government must to supply job opportunities for the elderly of low-income.

Determinants of Entirely Retired Men's Main Income Source and the Amount of Income (완전은퇴 남성의 주된 소득원천 및 소득액 결정요인)

  • Kim, Ji-Kyung;Kim, Ha-Nui
    • Journal of Family Resource Management and Policy Review
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.57-89
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    • 2008
  • Using the data of 'middle-and old-aged people' in the 6th year(2003) of KLIPS(Korea Labor and Income Panel Study), this study compared entirely retired men's income source and amount of income divided by the time of retirement and analyzed the determinants of main income source and amount of income level using Multinomial Logit Analysis and Tobit Analysis. The results of these were as following; First, Entirely retired men has average 1.27 income source and the amount of income from main income source is positioned at 85% of total income. This result indicates the lack of variety to get opportunities of income sources for the living and also means high risk associated with the entirely retired men if he looses the main income source. Second, most of income source of entirely retired men is spouse's earned income or private income transfers, however, if we divide those as timing of retirement and characters of each individual, it is represented that the most of income source is differentiated by the position at labor market during work life and the opportunity for building the wealth, and the possibility of obtaining public pension and public support. Third, the income level depends on what sort of income source the retired men has, this shows that there is not a strong relationship between obtaining a Income source and gaining above the certain level of income.

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Effects of Safety Income System (안심소득제의 효과)

  • Park, Ki Seong;Byu, Yanggyu
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.57-77
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    • 2017
  • To prevent the disincentive of labor supply under the current welfare system, we suggest the safety income system, a Korean version of negative income tax. Under the proposed system, for example, a household with four members whose annual income is less than 50 million wons will get financial support from the government. Under the safety income system, labor supply increases and so does the gross domestic product. The disposable income of low-income households increases, which alleviates the income gap among households. Analyzing the Household Income and Expenditure Survey data, we show that under the safety income system the disposable income differentials among households are reduced much more than under the current welfare system or under the universal basic income system.

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Relations between The Elderly's Transfer Incomes and Life Satisfaction

  • Lee, Hyoung-Ha
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between life satisfaction of the elderly and their transfer income (public transfer and private transfer income) using the 11th data of the Korea welfare panel study. In the analysis results, the public transfer income was analyzed to have a significantly positive (+) effect on the life satisfaction in the case of the elderly in general households while in the case of the elderly in low income households, private transfer income was analyzed to have a significantly positive (+) effect on life satisfaction. These results suggest that the public transfer income is 1,019,200 won (monthly average 849,000 won) in the case of the elderly in general households, and the public transfer income is found to have an effect to stabilize the income, which can be expected to increase the life satisfaction. However, in the case of the elderly in low income households, it was found to be 5,080,500 won (monthly average 424,000 won), half of the public transfer income of the elderly in general households. In the case of the elderly of low income households, it can be assumed that the private transfer income, which is the "uncomfortable" income source, fills up the unstable income stabilization gap and raises the life satisfaction. As a policy suggestion, first, by supplementing the basic pension system, which is an irrational part of public transfer income for the elderly with low income, it is necessary to design policy alternatives to enable economic stabilization of the elderly in low income households. Second, it is also necessary to actively review the introduction of income deduction plans for the transfer income of family members for the low income elderly households.

An Analysis of the Contribution of the Elderly to Income Inequality (노인의 소득구조 불평등 기여도 분석)

  • Shin, Gyu-Cheol;Lee, Yong-Jae
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.478-488
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    • 2021
  • This study analyzes the change in the contribution of the elderly to income inequality by using the Gini coefficient and the decile distribution ratio from the data of the Korea Welfare Panel Survey from 2007 to 2018 on economic inequality in old age. According to the study, the Gini coefficient of total income gradually decreased from 0.430 in 2007 to 0.383 in 2018. As a result, inequality decreased. Also, the higher the income quintile, the higher the income growth rate. Market income inequality has increased and inequality between public and private transfer income has decreased. Analysis of the contribution of income inequality to total income confirmed that public transfer income has replaced the role of private transfer income in reducing inequality over time. The expansion of public transfer income for the maintenance of basic living of the elderly is an important source of income for the elderly despite the crowding-out effect of private transfer income, market income, public and private transfer income, which are components of the income structure of the elderly, mutually complement total income. Therefore, it is important to identify income sources that contribute to alleviating income inequality among the elderly and reflect them in policy-making process.

Forest income and inequality in Kampong Thom province, Cambodia: Gini decomposition analysis

  • Nhem, Sareth;Lee, Young Jin;Phin, Sopheap
    • Forest Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.192-203
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the distribution of forest income and other variable sources of rural household income and considered their importance for the reduction of income inequality and poverty. We employed Gini decomposition to measure the contribution of forest income and other sources of income to income equality and assess whether they were inequality-increasing or inequality-decreasing in the 14 villages. The forest income Gini correlation with total income was very high, $R_k=0.6960$, and the forest income share of total rural household income was 35% ($S_k=0.3570$). If the income earned from forest activities was removed, the Gini index would increase by 10.3%. Thus, if people could not access forest resources because of vast deforestation, perhaps from the limitations of government-managed forestry, unplanned clearing of forest land for agriculture or the granting of ELCs, there would be an increase in income inequality and poverty among rural households. The findings suggest that policy makers should look beyond agriculture for rural development, as forest resources provide meaningful subsistence income and perhaps contribute to both preventing and reducing poverty and inequality in rural communities. The study found that non-farm activities were inequality-increasing sources of income. The share of non-farm income to the total rural household income was $S_k=0.1290$ and the Gini index of non-farm income was very high, $G_k=0.8780$, compared with forest and farm income. This disagrees with other studies which have reported that non-farm income was inequality-decreasing for the rural poor.

Analysis for Division of State, Market and Family in Income Sources of the Elderly (한국 노인소득보장의 국가-시장-가족분담구조 분석)

  • Lee, Yong-Jae;Um, So-Young
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2015
  • This paper studies the composition of income sources of the elderly and the difference of sources of income by the elderly characteristics. First, the results of analysis on the structure of sources of income show the average income of the elderly appears 7.7million won the consists of 3.0million won from market, 2.5million won from nation, 2.2million won from family. Income sources of the elderly are dependent on business income, property income, earned income in the market. Second, the results of differences analysis in demographic characteristics, men get a lot of income through the market and nation, while women get through families. Market income is high younger and family income is the more older. Depending on where you live, family income and national income is higher relatively urbanized. Third, the results of analysis by depending on the income, level of national income and market income is higher, while family income is high-income the case less income. Fourth, differences in health status by analysis of the sources of income have higher levels of health status and market high and lower income families rely heavily on the private sector, such as can be seen. Therefore, market and family income is higher than another countries. and the complement of public income support system is required for vulnerable people.