• Title/Summary/Keyword: Decentralization

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Problems of Decentralization in Korea and Its Development Direction (한국 지방분권의 문제점과 발전방향)

  • Park, Jong Gwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.126-135
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    • 2022
  • Decentralization is a structural characteristic surrounding the allocation of power within an organization and is discussed at the organizational, national and local levels. This study examined the evaluation and decentralization direction of decentralization of public officials to derive problems and development directions of decentralization in Korea. We also derive our decentralization task. The decentralization task is, first, the expansion of autonomy in organization composition. The organization of local governments shall be determined according to the details and amount of local affairs. Second, it is to secure autonomy in personnel management. It is desirable for local governments to handle local gardens and manpower management autonomously rather than central uniform control. However, it is necessary to leave the checks and supervision to the local council, civic groups, and local residents. Third, the expansion of fiscal decentralization. First of all, the tax rate should be determined by ordinance within the scope prescribed by law to expand the autonomous financial authority. Next, it is necessary to expand local finances through the conversion of national taxes to local taxes. Next, it is necessary to expand local income taxes and local consumption taxes. Decentralization requires cooperation between the central and local governments and participation of local residents and stakeholders, breaking away from central unilateral and short-term thinking.

Fiscal Decentralization, Corruption, and Income Inequality: Evidence from Vietnam

  • NGUYEN, Hung Thanh;VO, Thuy Hoang Ngoc;LE, Duc Doan Minh;NGUYEN, Vu Thanh
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.11
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    • pp.529-540
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    • 2020
  • The objective of this research paper is to study the simultaneous relationship between fiscal decentralization, corruption, and income inequality among Vietnamese provinces. We use a balanced panel data set of 63 provinces/cities in Vietnam in the period from 2011 to 2018. The study used 3SLS-GMM (Three Stage Least Squares - Generalized Method of Moments estimator) and GMM-HAC (Generalized Method of Moments - Heteroskedastic and Autocorrelation Consistent estimator). Empirical evidence shows a strong simultaneous relationship: increased corruption will increase regional income disparities, income inequality, and increase fiscal decentralization. In addition, the results also suggest that an increase in per-capita income will reduce the level of corruption, or better control corruption of each province. The degree of increase in income inequality, which reduces fiscal decentralization, is the same for trade liberalization. All demonstrate that there is a simultaneous relationship between fiscal decentralization, corruption, and income inequality. In a region of high public governance quality, fiscal decentralization positively effects its economic growth. This issue will indirectly increase income inequality between provinces within a country. Our findings imply that a country's fiscal decentralization strategy should be linked to improving corruption control and local governance effectiveness, indirectly improving income inequality between localities or regions.

Direction and Task of the Oecentralization of Power (지방분권의 방향과 과제)

  • Park, Jong Gwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2014
  • This paper with Korean to promote decentralized countries, considered previous studies related to decentralization. Next, with target scholars and professionals looked at the evaluation of the degree of decentralization and the direction. Last deduced the task of decentralization. The decentralization task is first, expansion of organizational autonomy. The organization of local government determined based on the content of the job is desirable. Second, the personnel operating is secured autonomy. Local government officials and staff is independent and uniformly control. And it is necessary to recruit such as checks and supervision of the relevant local councils and civil society. Third, the financial decentralization is the expansion. The expansion of fiscal decentralization First, determined the expansion of municipal law prescribed by the regulations within the scope of local autonomy. Next, the local switch through national expansion of fiscal decentralization is necessary. In addition, the expansion of fiscal decentralization need the expansion of the local income tax and the expansion of local consumption tax.

A Critical Study on Welfare Decentralization of Roh Government (참여정부 복지분권화에 대한 비판적 고찰)

  • Ku, In-Hoe;Yang, Nan-Joo;Lee, Won-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.61-84
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    • 2009
  • There has been a continuous debate on decentralization of welfare. The proponents of decentralization argue that it will enhance the autonomy of local governments and the efficiency in the provision of service. However, the opponents argue that it will lead to the welfare reduction and the increased inequality among localities. This study attempts to deal with the question, focusing on the evaluation of decentralization reform of Roh Government. The main results are as follows: After the decentralization, local governments has undergone hardships in financing the welfare service, while there is no clear evidence that the local autonomy has enhanced. In respect of fiscal role-sharing, local duties has significantly increased because of the insufficient grants-in-aid for decentralization and inappropriate formula in assessing the grants. In respect of functional role-sharing, the decreased role of central government made it difficult for local governments to provide enough residential institution for the elderly and the disabled. To improve the decentralization reform, deliberate reclassification is needed to decide which item should be transferred to localities. Regarding the characteristic of the projects, social services could be transferred in the long run, while central government should take more responsibilities for the income guarantee and protection for the disadvantaged.

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The Impact of national fiscal decentralization on welfare fiscal expenditure (국가의 재정분권이 복지재정에 미치는 영향 : OECD 19개 국가를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Sheullee;Hong, Kyung-zoon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.35-60
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    • 2018
  • This paper investigates the effects of fiscal decentralization on public welfare finance, focusing that welfare status experienced a post-industrial society has proposed decentralization as a response. The decentralization includes local government responsibilities and expanded roles under the background of fiscal distress of center governments and new social risks. For the analysis, the first theory is established to find out the effect of fiscal decentralization on social expenditure. Also, the second theory is set up for the relationship between the level of fiscal decentralization and composition of social expenditure. Findings indicate that the level of social expenditure of state would decrease as the level of fiscal decentralization increases. Also, the more the level of fiscal decentralization increases, the more the in-kind benefits among total welfare expenditure increase.

The Analysis of the Effect of Fiscal Decentralization on Economic Growth: Centering The U. S. (재정분권화가 경제성장에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구: 미국의 경우를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Won Ick
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.77-97
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    • 2012
  • Estimated coefficients has serious problems including inconsistency, biasness, etc. because many researches about the effect of fiscal decentralization on a country's economic growth use the traditional OLS method. Researches use the data intactly so that so called "spurious regression" phenomenon exists. This causes fundamental fallacy. This research tries unit root test, cointegration test, and then estimates the United States' economic time series by using VECM. The analysis of the effect of the state level-fiscal decentralization on economic growth shows two long term-equilibriums. During short term-dynamic adjustment, fiscal decentralization and economic growth move the same or different directions. In case of prediction GDP increases steeply and then from 2015 gently; and fiscal decentralization index shows a general reduction trend and then decreases slowly. At local level it shows two long term-equilibriums. During short term-dynamic adjustment, fiscal decentralization and economic growth also move the same or different directions. Impulse response analysis shows the very negative effect of fiscal decentralization on economic growth.

The Effects of Port Decentralization on Port Management and Port Development : The Mediating Effect of Port Site Centrality (항만 분권이 항만경영 및 항만개발에 미치는 영향 : 항만 현장 중심성의 매개효과)

  • Yang, Hang-Jin;Jung, Doo-Sig
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2019
  • This study was intended to analyze the effect of port decentralization on port management and port development, analyze whether port site centrality has mediated effect in relation between port decentralization and port management and port development. This study surveyed public officials and researchers who plan and execute port policies, and analyzed the influence relationship of variables and the mediating effect using multiple regression analysis. Results are as follows, First, it was analyzed that the port authority decentralization and regional-centered port policy have a positive influence on the port site centrality, and the port authority decentralization has a positive influence on port management and port development. Second, the port site centrality was confirmed to have a positive influence on port management and port development. Third, port site centrality was shown to mediate the relationship between port decentralization and port management and port development. This study suggested the positive effect of port decentralization to local government on efficient port management and port development, and the need to draw up port site-oriented policies.

A Study on the independence of local government in Korea (지방의회 인사권 독립에 관한 연구: 헌재 지방자치법 제91조 제2항 위헌소원 결정을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Sanggab
    • Korea and Global Affairs
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.5-40
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    • 2018
  • The history of decentralization and autonomy is the result of the struggle for democracy against the authoritarian central government. Before the imminent law amendment, there are many tasks for decentralization and citizen autonomy. Therefore, decentralization and autonomy are not given on their own but they must be taken from authoritarian and centralist power group which possesses exclusive interests. The decentralization and autonomy now enters into the stage of development. In 1960, the April 19 Revolution opened the era of democratic local autonomy and it was abolished by the military coup of May 16, Now, the era of the reform of the decentralization are coming. Decentralization and autonomy will evolve from the stage of quantitative expansion to the stage of qualitative leap. This paper proposes that the revision of decentralization be the strategic maximum, and that the independence of the local government personnel rights be the tactical minimum. This paper insists that the independence of personnel right in the local government can be a link with law amendment for decentralization. Local autonomy and decentralization are the main subjects of the amendment. Above all, clarifying this is the subject and method of this study, and the scope of the study.

Position and Validation of Local Finance Decentralization : Focusing on Dynamics of System Thinking (지방재정분권화의 차원과 타당성 : 시스템사고의 동태적 역학관계를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Ho-Taek;Jung, Seok-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzes the interaction of variables consisting of the local finance system based on the theory of system thinking regarding how financial decentralization can be understood as the political means for local decentralization and why it is needed. The results gained from this research are as follows: first, variables consisting of the local finance system form interactional relationship in the significant level, and it has been found that rapid growth and rapid decline repeat with five positive feedback loops as the center. Second, strategic points for the validity of local finance decentralization were discovered through causal map modeling. In particular, it has been shown that the virtuous cycle structure declines the local finance system through the constant operation of variables (government subsidies, taxation for real estate transactions, central government's local finance mediation system, and local government debt, etc.) that deteriorate the vicious cycle structure. Based on this, strategic policy tasks were drawn. It is expected that this study will help the understanding of the local finance system and increase academic width for local finance from the aspects of general knowledge, not the knowledge about local finance decentralization.

Relationship between Public Health Nurse's Decentralization, Participation of Decision-making and Organizational Commitment (보건소 간호사의 분권화, 의사결정 참여 및 조직몰입의 관계)

  • Cho, Mee-Kyung;Jeong, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Tae-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between public health nurse's decentralization, participation of decision-making and organizational commitment and to provide basic data for the improvement of public health nurse's organizational effectiveness. Data were collected from Aug. 1 to Aug. 30, 1998 (collection rate-96%) through questionnaires by 163 public health nurses working in Taejon and Chungnam. The instruments were used Van de Ven and Ferry's Job Authority scale, Hage and Aiken's Hierarchy of Authority scale. Participation of Decision-making scale. and Mowday's Organizational Commitment Questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS PC+. The results were as follows 1. There were significant differences of age(P<.05), career, spending time for major study, and experience who called expert(P<.01) to decentralization. 2. There were significant differences of career (P<.05), educational level, and spending time for major study(P<'OOl) to participation of decision-making. 3. There were significant differences of career. spending time for D1ajor study, self-evaluation to specialty(P<.01) and experience who called expert (P<.001) to organizational commitment. 4. 1) A significant correlation was found between decentralization and self-evaluation to specialty (P<.05), age, career, spending time for major study, and experience who called expert (P<.01.). 2) A significant correlation was found between participation of decision-making and self-eval-uation to specialty(P<.05), age, career, spending time for major study, experience to call expert, and decentralization (P<.01). 3) A significant correlation was found between organizational commitment and age(P<.05). career. spending time for major study, self-eval-uation to specialty, experience who called expert. decentralization, and participation of decision-making (P<.01). 5. Decentralization w·as the best predictor of or ganizational commitment(17%), also experience who called expert, self-evaluation to specialty explained the organizational commitment.

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