• Title/Summary/Keyword: DNA barcode

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Food Fraud Monitoring of Commercial Sciaenidae Seafood Product Using DNA Barcode Information (DNA barcode를 이용한 민어과 수산가공품 진위판별 모니터링)

  • Park, Eun-Ji;Jo, Ah-Hyeon;Kang, Ju-Yeong;Lee, Han-Cheol;Park, Min-Ji;Yang, Ji-Young;Shin, Ji-Young;Kim, Gun-Do;Kim, Jong-Oh;Seo, Yong-Bae;Kim, Jung-Beom
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.574-580
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    • 2020
  • In this study we sought to determine the food fraud by discriminating species of commercial seafood product such as Larimichthys polyactis, Larimichthys crocea, Pennahia argentatus, and Miichthys miiuy, which are difficult to morphologically discriminate. After amplifying the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the reference fish, the DNA sequences of the amplified PCR products were analyzed. As a result, a 655 bp sequence for species identification was selected for use as DNA barcodes. To confirm the DNA data and primer set, the DNA barcode sequence of each fish was compared to that in that in the NCBI. All of the DNA barcode data were matched with the gene sequence of each fish in the NCBI. A total of 32 processed seafood products (8 L. polyactis, 12 L. crocea, 3 Pennahia argentatus, and 9 Miichthys miiuy) were investigated. Homology of 97% or more in DNA sequences was judged as the same species. As a result of the monitoring, there were no discovered cases of forgery or alteration. However, the use of a raw material name having no matching standard name in the Korea Food Code may cause consumer confusion. Therefore, it is suggested that the standard name or scientific name be co-labeled with the raw material name on seafood products to prevent consumer confusion.

An assessment of the taxonomic reliability of DNA barcode sequences in publicly available databases

  • Jin, Soyeong;Kim, Kwang Young;Kim, Min-Seok;Park, Chungoo
    • ALGAE
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.293-301
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    • 2020
  • The applications of DNA barcoding have a wide range of uses, such as in taxonomic studies to help elucidate cryptic species and phylogenetic relationships and analyzing environmental samples for biodiversity monitoring and conservation assessments of species. After obtaining the DNA barcode sequences, sequence similarity-based homology analysis is commonly used. This means that the obtained barcode sequences are compared to the DNA barcode reference databases. This bioinformatic analysis necessarily implies that the overall quantity and quality of the reference databases must be stringently monitored to not have an adverse impact on the accuracy of species identification. With the development of next-generation sequencing techniques, a noticeably large number of DNA barcode sequences have been produced and are stored in online databases, but their degree of validity, accuracy, and reliability have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the amount and types of erroneous barcode sequences were deposited in publicly accessible databases. Over 4.1 million sequences were investigated in three largescale DNA barcode databases (NCBI GenBank, Barcode of Life Data System [BOLD], and Protist Ribosomal Reference database [PR2]) for four major DNA barcodes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI], internal transcribed spacer [ITS], ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain [rbcL], and 18S ribosomal RNA [18S rRNA]); approximately 2% of erroneous barcode sequences were found and their taxonomic distributions were uneven. Consequently, our present findings provide compelling evidence of data quality problems along with insufficient and unreliable annotation of taxonomic data in DNA barcode databases. Therefore, we suggest that if ambiguous taxa are presented during barcoding analysis, further validation with other DNA barcode loci or morphological characters should be mandated.

An integrated DNA barcode assay microdevice for rapid, highly sensitive and multiplex pathogen detection at the single-cell level

  • Jung, Jae Hwan;Cho, Min Kyung;Chung, So Yi;Seo, Tae Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.276-276
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    • 2013
  • Here we report an integrated microdevice consisting of an efficient passive mixer, a magnetic separation chamber, and a capillary electrophoretic microchannel in which DNA barcode assay, target pathogen separation, and barcode DNA capillary electrophoretic analysis were performed sequentially within 30 min for multiplex pathogen detection at the single-cell level. The intestine-shaped serpentine 3D micromixer provides a high mixing rate to generate magnetic particle-pathogenic bacteria-DNA barcode labelled AuNP complexes quantitatively. After magnetic separation and purification of those complexes, the barcode DNA strands were released and analyzed by the microfluidic capillary electrophoresis within 5 min. The size of the barcode DNA strand was controlled depending on the target bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium), and the different elution time of the barcode DNA peak in the electropherogram allows us to recognize the target pathogen with ease in the monoplex as well as in the multiplex analysis. In addition, the quantity of the DNA barcode strand (~104) per AuNP is enough to be observed in the laser-induced confocal fluorescence detector, thereby making single-cell analysis possible. This novel integrated microdevice enables us to perform rapid, sensitive, and multiplex pathogen detection with sample-in-answer-out capability to be applied for biosafety testing, environmental screening, and clinical trials.

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Food Fraud Monitoring of Raw Materials for Commercial Seafood Products Using DNA Barcode Information (DNA Barcode를 이용한 수산가공품 원재료 진위판별)

  • Park, Eun-Ji;Kang, Ju-Yeong;Lee, Han-Cheol;Park, Min-Ji;Yang, Ji-Young;Shin, Ji-Young;Kim, Gun-Do;Kim, Jong-Oh;Seo, Yong-Bae;Kim, Jung-Beom
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.331-341
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    • 2021
  • DNA barcode sequences of commercial seafood products, which are difficult to morphologically discriminate, were analyzed to determine cases of food fraud. The gene sequences were analyzed by amplifying the COX I (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I) gene region of mitochondrial DNA, which is mainly used for species identification. The DNA barcode sequences were compared with the gene sequence of each fish registered in the US National Center for Biotechnology. A total of 46 processed seafood products (12 Pagrus majo, 4 Oplegnathus fasciatus, 7 Dentex tumifrons, 2 Acanthopagrus schlegelii, 7 Oreochromis niloticus, 6 Branchiostegus japonicus, 8 Branchiostegus albus) were investigated. Having DNA sequence identity of more than 97% was judged as the same species. As a result of this study, no cases of forgery and alteration were detected. However, some disparities in the commercial names used in local markets and the standard names given in the Korea Food Code were found, which may cause confusion for consumers. It is therefore suggested that the standard name or scientific name be displayed on seafood product labels.

First Genetic Data of Nebalia koreana (Malacostraca, Leptostraca) with DNA Barcode Divergence among Nebalia Species

  • Song, Ji-Hun;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.37-39
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    • 2019
  • We determined the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) sequences of Nebalia koreana Song, Moreira & Min, 2012 (Leptostraca) collected from five locations in South Korea, and this represents the first genetic data of this species. The maximum intra-species variation was 1.2% within Nebalia hessleri Martin, Vetter & Cash-Clark, 1996, while inter-species variation ranged from 9.0% (N. hessleri and Nebalia gerkenae Haney & Martin, 2000) to 34.8% (N. hessleri and Nebalia pseudotroncosoi Song, Moreira & Min, 2013). This result is well agreed with the interspecific relationships among Nebalia species based on morphological characteristics. In conclusion, this study showed the usefulness of CO1 sequences as a DNA barcode within the genus Nebalia Leach, 1814.

The First Record of the Marphysa victori (Polychaeta, Eunicida, Eunicidae) from Korea, with DNA Barcode Data

  • Kim, Hana;Kim, Keun-Yong;Phoo, War War;Kim, Chang-Hoon
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2021
  • A eunicid polychaete, Marphysa victori Lavesque, Daffe, Bonifácio & Hutchings, 2017 is described for the first time from the intertidal zones of the Korean coasts. It is characterized by having three types of pectinate chaetae (INS, isodont-narrow-slender; AWS, anodont-wide-slender; and AWT, anodont-wide-thick), appearance of pectinate chaetae from chaetiger 2, the chaetae consisted of pectinate and compound spinigers, and pygidium with one pair of pygidial cirri. In genetic analysis based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), intra-specific genetic distance between the specimens of M. victori from its type locality, France and Korea are in the range of 0.000-0.013. This paper includes the morphological description and photographs of M. victori new to Korean fauna, with partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI as DNA barcode data on this species.

Development of Molecular Markers for the authentication of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium by the analysis of rDNA-ITS DNA barcode regions (rDNA-ITS DNA 바코드 부위 분석을 통한 산초(山椒) 기원종 감별용 유전자 마커 개발)

  • Kim, Wook Jin;Ji, Yunui;Lee, Young Mi;Kang, Young Min;Choi, Goya;Moon, Byeong Cheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : Due to the morphological similarity of the pericarp and description of multi-species in National Pharmacopoeia of Korea and China, the Zanthoxylum Pericarpium is difficult to authenticate adulterant in species levels. Therefore, we introduced the sequence analysis of DNA barcode and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) to establish a reliable tool for the distinction of Zanthoxylum Pericarpium from its adulterants. Methods : To analyze DNA barcode region, genomic DNA was extracted from twenty-four specimens of authentic Zanthoxylum species and inauthentic adulterant and the individual internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA-ITS and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene were amplified using ITS1, ITS2-S2F, and ITS4 primer. For identification of species-specific sequences, a comparative analysis was performed using entire DNA barcode sequences. Results : In comparison of four Zanthoxylum ITS2 sequences, we identified 16, 4, 6, and 4 distinct species-specific nucleotides enough to distinguish Z. schinifolium, Z. bungeanum, Z. piperitum, and Z. simulans, respectively. The sequence differences were available genetic marker to discriminate four species. Futhermore, phylogenetic relationship revealed a clear classification between different Zanthoxylum species showing 4 different clusters. These results indicated that comparative analysis of ITS2 DNA barcode was an useful genetic marker to authenticate Zanthoxylum Pericarpium in species levels. Conclusions : The marker nucleotides, enough to distinguish Z. schinifolium, Z. piperitum, Z. bungeanum, and Z. simulans, were obtained at 30 SNP marker nucleotides from ITS2 sequences. These differences could be used to authenticate official Zanthoxylum Pericarpium from its adulterants as well as discriminating each four species.

Molecular Authentication and Phylogenetic Analysis of Plant Species for Breeae and Cirsii Herba based on DNA barcodes (DNA 바코드 분석을 통한 소계(小薊) 및 대계(大薊) 기원식물 감별과 종간 유연관계 분석)

  • Moon, Byeong Cheol;Lee, Young Mi;Ji, Yunui;Choi, Goya;Chun, Jin Mi;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The origin of Breeae Herba (So-gye) and Cirsii Herba (Dae-gye) is differently prescribed in Korean and Chinese modern pharmacopoeia. Since the similar morphological characteristics and chaotic plant names, moreover, the aerial part of Carduus crispus have been used as the Cirsii Herba. To develop a reliable method for correct identification of these herbal medicines and to evaluate the genetic relationship of these closely related plant species, we analyzed sequences of DNA barcode regions. Methods : Thirty-one samples of 6 medicinal plants (B. segeta, B. setosa, C. japonicum var. maackii, C. setidens, C. chanroenicum, and C. crispus) were collected from different habitate and nucleotide sequences of DNA barcode regions (rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL) were analyzed after amplification using appropriate primers reported in previous studies. The nucleotides of species-specific authentic marker and phylogenetic relations were estimated based on the entire sequences of DNA barcodes by the analysis of ClastalW and UPGMA, respectively. Results : In comparative analysis of DNA barcode sequences, we obtained specific nucleotides to discriminate the medicinal plant of Breeae/Cirsii Herba in species level and evaluated the phylogenetic relationship of these species. Futhermore, we identified distinct marker nucleotides enough to authenticate respective species. These sequence differences at corresponding positions were avaliable genetic markers to determine the botanical origins of Breeae Herbal as well as Cirsii Herba. Conclusions : These marker nucleotides would be useful to identify the official herbal medicines by providing of definitive information that can identify each plant species and distinguish from unauthentic adulterants and substitutes.

Molecular Authentication of Pinelliae Tuber from its adulterants by the analysis of DNA barcodes, matK and rbcL genes (matK와 rbcL DNA 바코드 분석을 통한 반하(半夏) 및 반하(半夏) 유사 한약재 유전자 감별)

  • Lee, Young Mi;Moon, Byeong Cheol;Ji, Yunui;Kim, Wook Jin;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : Pinelliae Tuber has been used as a typical unauthentic herbal medicines. Due to the morphological similarity between Pinelliae Tuber and adulterants, the correct authentication is very difficult. Therefore, we introduced DNA barcode to establish a powerful tool for the authentication of Pinelliae Tuner from adulterants. Methods : To obtain DNA barcode regions, genomic DNA was extracted from nineteen specimens of Pinellia ternata, Pinellia pedatisecta, Pinellia tripartita, and Typhonium flagelliforme, and matK and rbcL genes were amplified. For identification of species specific sequences and analysis phylogenetic relationship, a comparative analysis were performed by the ClastalW and UPGMA based on entire sequences of matK and rbcL genes, respectively. Results : In comparison of two DNA barcode sequences, we elucidated the phylogenetic relationship showing distinct four groups depending on species and identified 40 and 20 species specific nucleotides enough to distinguish each species from matK and rbcL gene, respectively. The sequence differences at the corresponding positions were avaliable genetic marker nulceotides to discriminate the correct species among analyzed four species. These results indicated that phylogentic and comparative analysis of matK and rbcL genes are useful genetic markers to authenticate Pinelliae Tubers. Conclusions : The marker nucleotides enough to distinguish P. ternata, P. tripatrita, P. peditisecta, and T. flagelliform, were observed at 40 positions in matK gene and 20 positions in rbcL gene sequence, respectively. These differences can be used to authenticate Pinelliae Tuber from adulterants as well as discriminate each four species.

DNA barcoding of Schisandraceae in Korea (한국산 오미자과의 DNA 바코드)

  • Youm, Jung Won;Han, Sang-Wook;Seo, Seon Won;Lim, Chae Un;Oh, Sang-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2016
  • The establishment of a DNA barcode database at the regional scale and assessments of the utility of DNA barcodes are crucial for conservation biology and for the sustainable utilization of biological resources. Schisandraceae is a small family consisting of ca. 45 species. It contains many economically important species, such as Schisandra chinensis, which is widely used as a source in tonic beverages and in oriental medicine. In Korea, three species, S. chinensis, S. repanda, and Kadsura japonica, are distributed. We evaluated the level of variation of the DNA sequences of rbcL, matK, and the ITS regions from 13 accessions representing the distributional range of the three species. The three DNA barcode regions were easily amplified and sequenced. The minimum values of the interspecific genetic distances among S. chinensis, S. repanda, and K. japonica either separately or in combination are 4- to 23-fold higher than the maximum value of the intraspecific distance, showing that there is a clear DNA barcoding gap in the regions for Korean Schisandraceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the three DNA barcode regions, separately and simultaneously, indicate that all of the DNA barcode regions are useful for identifying a species of Schisandraceae in Korea. The distinctiveness of the three species of Schisandraceae was also supported at the species level when Chinese and Japanese populations were added. The results of this study indicate that three concatenated regions constitute the best option for DNA barcoding in Schisandraceae in Korea.