• Title/Summary/Keyword: 발문

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Exploring Limitations in Applying Blosser's Question Category System for Science (Blosser의 과학 발문 분류 체계 적용의 제한점 탐색)

  • Chung, Heekyung;Shin, Donghee
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.221-244
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    • 2021
  • To examine the limitations of the the Blosser's (1973) 'Question Category System for Science', which is mainly applied to research in science education in Korea, we analyzed 30 hours of class conversation in a small group program (for first-year middle school students) with a researcher participating as a teacher. When classified according to Blosser's (1973) classification system, distinguishing between 'open and closed questions' was difficult. Questions with the same content were classified into different types depending on their context, whereas some questions could not be classified appropriately. Additionally, higher-level questions (open questions) were not more effective than lower-level questions (closed questions) in improving students' thinking ability or participation in class. The questionnaire's effect differed depending on the information provided by the teacher before questioning, and in many cases, previous question influenced the next questions. However, in the science education questionnaire research based on Blosser's (1973) classification, which is mainly conducted in Korea, each individual question is classified according to the cognitive level, disregarding the influence of context and prior and subsequent questions and the quality of instructions is evaluated by the frequency of higher level questioning. The results of this study indicate that the method of evaluating instruction quality based on the frequency of high-level questioning, which is currently conducted in domestic science education inquiry research, should be avoided.

A Study of the Questions Presented in Chapters of Number and Operation Area in Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks (초등수학 교과서의 수와 연산 영역 단원에 제시된 발문 특성 연구)

  • Do, Joowon
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 2022
  • In this research, in order to obtain teaching/learning implications for effective use of questions when teaching number and operation area, the types of questions presented in chapters of number and operation area of 2015 revised elementary math textbooks and the function of questions were compared and analyzed by grade cluster. As a result of this research, the types of questions presented in chapters of number and operation area showed a high percentage of occurrences in the order of reasoning questions, factual questions, and open questions not calling for reasoning in common by grade cluster. And reasoning questions were predominant in all grade clusters. In addition, in all grade clasters, the proportion of questions acting as a function to help guess, invention, and solving problems and questions acting as a function to help mathematical reasoning were relatively high. As such, it can be inferred that the types and functions of the questions presented in chapters of number and operation area are related to the characteristics of the learning content by grade cluster. This research will be able to contribute to the preparation of advanced teaching/learning plans by providing reference materials in the questions when teaching number and operation area.

An Analysis of Pre-service Chemistry Teachers' Questions in Their Teaching Practices Considering the Context of Discourse (예비화학교사의 교육실습에서 담화 맥락을 고려한 발문 분석)

  • Kim, Sunghoon;Kim, JiSoo;Noh, Taehee;Kim, Minhwan
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.383-396
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    • 2022
  • In this study, pre-service chemistry teachers' questions in their teaching practices were analyzed considering the context of discourse. Five pre-service teachers participated in the study. Their questions were analyzed by considering various data including class videos, interviews, and teaching-learning materials. Their questions were classified into relevant question, affective question, dead-end question, rhetorical question, and structuring question. Each question was also classified into appropriate question and convenient question by the aspect of proper responses of students. The analyses of the results indicate the differences in the frequencies of several types of questions depending on the content of the lessons. After using convenient questions, pre-service teachers proceeded to prepared classes as they rather than prompted students' responses. The affective questions were rarely used. The dead-end questions were found to be used for promoting interaction with students. The rhetorical questions were used for various purposes such as arousing students' attention or promoting their thinking. Practical implications were discussed based on the results.

수학교사의 발문에 대한 수업반성 사례연구

  • Kim, Won-Gyeong;Kim, Myeong-Ju
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.19 no.1 s.21
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    • pp.191-213
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    • 2005
  • 이 연구는 수학교사가 자기수업 관찰을 바탕으로 수업반성의 과정에서 발문을 어떻게 반성하는지, 반성을 통해 수업에서 발문을 어떻게 변화시키며, 교사와 학생 사이의 상호작용에 어떤 변화가 나타나는지를 분석하기 위한 것이다. 두 중학교 수학 교사를 대상으로 일주일에 1회씩 총 5회의 수업관찰과 수업반성의 순환과정을 통해 얻어진 관찰자료, 녹화자료, 면담자료로 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 교사의 수업반성 결과 학생들로 하여금 수업에 더 많이 참여하고 학생 자신의 생각을 표현할 수 있도록 유도하기위한 효과적인 발문을 고안하였고, 교사 자신의 수업을 자발적으로 평가하는 경향을 보였다. 둘째, 발문의 변화 면에서 반성 초기의 수업보다 반성 후기의 수업에서 설명을 요구하는 발문유형의 빈도가 높게 나타났으며, 판단을 요구하는 발문을 하고 나서 그 판단에 대하여 설명하도록 요구하는 발문을 함으로써 학생들로 하여금 자신의 생각과 아이디어를 표현할 수 있도록 하는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고, 문제해결과정에 학생들의 참여의 기회가 늘어나도록 발문을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 상호작용 측면에서 교사와 학생간의 상호작용이 학생과 학생들 간의 상호작용 패턴으로 변화하였고, 교사의 판서가 의사소통을 단절시키던 것에서 교사와 학생의 의사소통의 방향을 안내하는 역할을 하는 것으로 나타났다.

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An Analysis on a Teacher's Questioning in the Learner-Centered Mathematics Lessons (학습자 중심의 수학 수업에서 교사의 발문 분석)

  • Park, Man-Goo;Kim, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.425-457
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this paper was to analyze a teacher's questioning in the learner-centered mathematics lessons and investigate its effects on the construction of learner's knowledge. For this study, it is analysed that the teacher's questioning in the 3 observed learner-centered lessons concerning elementary division topic. The study results showed that the characteristics of the teacher's questioning were respecting of learner's informal mathematical thinking, open-ended questioning for divergent thinking, appropriate questioning at every group, and respecting classroom norm. Teacher's questioning affects the quality of learner's mathematical thinking and his or her attitude toward mathematics.

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The Analysis on Patterns of Questions in Elementary School Science Textbooks under the 2007 Revised Curriculum (2007년 개정교육과정에 따른 초등 과학교과서에 제시된 발문의 유형 분석)

  • Choi, Yoon-mi;Lee, Hyeong Cheol
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.120-129
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to provide informations for developing next elementary school science textbooks and educational implications for a spot of science class through analyzing patterns of questions in the elementary school science textbooks under the 2007 revised curriculum. To get a meaningful results, the 2,446 questions extracted by operation definition from 3~6 grade science text books were analyzed by modified analysis frame work based on Blosser's classified system. The findings of this study were as follows: First, among 2,446 questions, the propositional pattern element had the highest rate, 49.2%, the appreciable pattern element had the lowest rate, 1.4%, of all pattern elements. Second, from the results of comparing patterns of questions in each grade's science textbook, as the grade went higher, the rate of the applicable and the divergent pattern element tended to increase, and that of the other elements tended to decrease. Third, as the results of comparing patterns of questions of 4 each field in elementary science textbooks, the energy field questions were the largest in number, followed by the substance field. The rate of the propositional pattern element was the highest of all question elements in common in each field. In the reproductive and the propositional pattern element, the energy and the substance field had a little higher rate than the other fields. On the other hand, in the applicable and the divergent pattern element, the earth and the life field had a little higher rate than the other fields.

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An Analysis of Teacher Questioning Focused on Mathematical Creativity (수학적 창의성 관점에서 본 교사의 발문 분석)

  • Han, Jung-Min;Park, Man-Goo
    • Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.865-884
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of teachers' questionings in the geometry field and suggest the characteristics of teacher questioning to enhance students' mathematical creativity. Teacher questioning plays a role to students' mathematical achievements, mathematical thinking, and their attitudes toward mathematics. However, there has been little research on the roles of teacher questioning on students' mathematical creativity. In this research, researchers analyzed teachers' questions concerning the concepts of triangles in the geometric areas of 4th grade Korean revised 2007 mathematics textbooks. We also analyzed teachers' questionings in the three lessons provided by the Jeju Educational Internet Broadcasting System. We classified and analyzed teachers' questionings by the sub-factors of creativity. The results showed that the teachers did not use the questionings that appropriately enhances students' mathematical creativity. We suggested that teachers need to be prepared to ask questions such as stimulating students' various mathematical thinking, encouraging many possible responses, and not responding with yes/no. Instead, teachers need to encourage students to explain the reasons of their responses and to take part in learning activities with interest.

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An Analysis of a Preservice Teacher's Questioning: The Effect of Practicum Program Based on Collaborative Inquiry Community (협력적 탐구와 반성적 실천 맥락에서 예비교사 발문 사례 분석)

  • Ju, Mi-Kyung
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.515-535
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    • 2008
  • As part of developmental research of a student-teaching practicum program, this research analyzed a mathematics preservice teacher's questioning. The practicum program is based on the model of reflective practice in a collaborative inquiry community for learning-to-teach. This paper describes how a preservice teacher's questioning pattern had changed on the program participation and explain how the change in discourse can be considered as an indicator for the pre service teacher's professional development. Suggestions for the future program development are discussed.

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수학적 창의성 신장을 위한 교사의 발문 특성 연구

  • Han, Jeong-Min;Park, Man-Gu
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Elementary Mathematics Education
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    • 2010.08a
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    • pp.219-235
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    • 2010
  • 학습자들이 미래 사회에 능동적으로 대처하기 위해서는 기존의 지식을 축적, 활용하는 것뿐만 아니라, 새로운 행동 양식을 개발하고 환경의 변화에 적절히 대응해 나갈 수 있는 능동적인 자세와 상응하는 창의적인 힘을 키우기 위해 '창의성 신장'이 강조되고 있다. 선행연구에 따르면 교사의 발문이 학생의 수학 학업성취도, 수학적 사고력향상, 수학에 대한 관심과 흥미에 긍정적인 영향을 주고 있음을 시사하고 있지만, 수학교육에서 창의성 신장을 위한 교사의 발문에 관련한 구체적인 연구는 미흡한 실정이다. 따라서 2007 개정 교육과정에서 강조하는 수학적 의사소통능력과 창의성, 수학적 사고력 신장에 기여하고 학생들의 수학과 학업성취도 뿐만 아니라 정의적 영역(흥미, 태도, 호기심 등)의 향상을 도모할 수 있는 교사 발문의 특성 연구가 필요하다. 본 연구는 도형영역 수업에서 교사의 발문 특성을 분석하고, 수업에서 사용되는 자료와 수업에서 학생들의 수학적 창의성 신장을 효과적으로 도울 수 있는 교사 발문의 특성을 연구하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 본 연구를 위하여 우리나라 2007개정 교육과정 수학과 4학년 1학기 도형 영역 관련 단원인 삼각형을 주제로 교과서에서 제시한 발문 내용을 분석하고, 실제 교수-학습 과정에서의 교사 발문의 실태를 알아보고자 제주교육인터넷방송국에 탑재되어 있는 7차 교육과정 4학년 1학기, 2학기 도형 관련 3개의 수업을 관찰 및 분석하였다. 이를 통해 수학적 창의성 신장을 위한 교사 발문의 특성을 수학적 창의성의 하위요소별로 나누어 분석하였다. 학생의 창의성 신장을 위해서 교사는 학생들이 다양하게 사고할 수 있도록 자극할 수 있는 발문을 준비하고, 수업 진행시 하나의 발문에 대해 다수의 반응을 유도하고, 학생의 응답에 대해 단순한 '맞다, 틀리다'의 판단을 내리기 보다는 그 근거를 설명할 수 있는 기회를 마련해 주어 학생이 수학 수업에 흥미를 갖고 스스로 참여할 수 있도록 유도해야 함을 제안하였다.

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Study of Types of Questions Presented in Software and Robot Units of 2015 Revised Elementary School Practical Curriculum and Development of CT Trigger Questioning (2015 개정 교육과정 초등 실과 교과서 소프트웨어와 로봇 단원 발문 분석 및 CT마중발문 개발)

  • OH, Jeongcheol;Jin, Yeongji;Kim, Bongchul;Kim, Jonghoon
    • Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.215-223
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    • 2020
  • The results of the analysis of the 523 questions presented in the six textbooks and SW and robot units in the Blosser four-step classification categories are as follows. First, in the software unit, the analysis results showed that 77.1% were closed questions and 22.9% were open questions. Second, in the robot unit, the analysis results showed that 74.8% were closed questions and 25.2% were open questions. The CT Trigger Question was developed to overcome the limitations of the textbook questions, which were mainly closed questions, and to directly or indirectly induce computational thinking that teachers can utilize according to their educational content and activities.