• Title/Summary/Keyword: growth environment characteristics

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Development of Auto-aging System Built in Kimchi Refrigerator for Optimal Fermentation and Storage of Korean Cabbage Kimchi (배추김치의 최적발효 및 저장을 위한 김치냉장고의 자동숙성 시스템 개발)

  • Noh, Jeong-Sook;Seo, Hyun-Ju;Oh, Jung-Hwan;Lee, Myung-Ju;Kim, Myung-Hee;Cheigh, Hong-Sik;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.432-437
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we examined the conditions for an auto-aging system placed within a kimchi refrigerator for optimal fermentation, and to prolong the storage time of kimchi. Various characteristics of kimchi fermented at different temperatures ($5-23^{\circ}C$) were compared. We observed that the higher the fermentation temperature, the less desirable the overall acceptability of the product. To establish the time point in which to convert the fermentation mode to the storage mode, kimchi was stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ for 1 week once it reached the designated acidity (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%). The results indicated that the lower the kimchi acidity, the higher the sensory score. The storage temperature of $-1^{\circ}C$ was not low enough to retard microorganism growth completely; however, the kimchi stored at $-2{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ became frozen. Accordingly, $15^{\circ}C$ and $-2{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ are suggested as the fermentation and storage temperatures for the kimchi refrigerator, respectively. A kimchi acidity of 0.4% can be used as an index for the time point to convert fermentation to storage. Subsequently, the time required for the fermentation course can be calculated based on this.

Weed Control Method of Cereals Crops Using Weeder Machine for Environment-friendly Control Practice (수수 이식 및 직파재배시 중경제초에 의한 잡초방제 효과)

  • Hwang, Jae-Bok;Jung, Ki-Yeol;Park, Tae-Seon;Yun, Jong-Tak;Kim, Hak-Sin;Choi, In-Bae;Koo, Bon-Il;Bae, Hee-Soo
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.230-235
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    • 2015
  • The experiment was conducted to elucidate the growth characteristics of sorghum in the different planting methods: direct sowing and transplanting (20 days after sowing, DAS). Weed weight was taken from three randomly chosen-2 plots 60 DAS (DAT). One time (20, 30 days after transplanting, DAT) and two times (10/20, 10/30, 20/30, 20/40 DAS) application of weeder machine (FRT 80E) were conducted for direct sowing and transplanting, respectively. In transplanting, the weed control efficacy of weeder machine at 90 DAT was about 67% (DAT 20), 57% (DAT 30) at one time and 87% at two times. The most effective application number was two times (20/40 DAT) followed by one time (20 DAT). However, when reviewing yield and economy, the frequency and times of using weeder machine were preferably one time and 20 DAT. Results with mechanical weed control have been particularly good in transplanted row crops such as sorghum. In direct sowing, the weed control efficacy of weeder machine 60 DAS was about 87% (10/20 DAS), 88% (10/30 DAS) and 82% (20/30 DAS) at two times, respectively. When reviewing yield and economy, the times and frequency of weeder machine were preferably two times, 10 and 30 DAS.

Analysis on the Labor Market Performance of Local University Graduates and Regional Education Gap (지방대학 졸업자의 노동시장 성과와 지역별 교육격차)

  • Kim, Hisam
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.55-92
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    • 2010
  • In terms of labor market accomplishments, such as income, size of the company, and the matching quality between one's job and college major (specialization), a very large discrepancy is observed between the graduates from colleges located in Seoul and those outside Seoul. But, when the department average score of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) at the time of college entrance is controlled for, the discrepancy is found to be reduced to a considerable degree. In the case of wage gap, at least two third can be explained by the SAT score gap. The remaining wage gap seems to reflect the characteristics of workplace. In other words, graduates with high SAT scores enter colleges located in Seoul and thus tend to find better jobs leading to earning differences. This result that confirms the importance of aptitude test scores suggests that in the labor market, one of the major reasons behind a lower accomplishment of the graduate from local colleges is due to a lower competitiveness of local colleges in attracting the brightest students. But, this should not be viewed as only an internal problem of local colleges. This is because the growth of local economies tends to haul the advancement of local colleges in that area rather than being the other way around. The agglomeration effect in Seoul where headquarters of large corporations and financial institutions gather is the factor that has elevated the status of colleges located in Seoul since this provides highly preferred job choices of graduates. When the competitiveness of college is significantly influenced by exogenous factors, such as the vicinity to Seoul, the effort being made by colleges alone would not be enough to improve the situation. However, the central government, too, is not in the position to carry out countermeasure policies for such problems. The regional development strategy boosted through supportive policies for local colleges, such as financial support, is not based on the persuasive and empirical grounds. It is true that college education is universal and that the government''s intervention in assisting local colleges to secure basic conditions, such as tenure faculty and adequate facilities is necessary. However, the way of intervention should not be a support-only type. In order to improve the efficiency and effect of financial support, restructuring programs, including the merger and integration of insolvent colleges, should be underway prior to providing support. In addition, when the policy is focused on education recipients-local college students, and not on education providers-local colleges, the importance of regional gap in compulsory education (elementary and junior high schools) turns out to be much important as the gap between metropolitan area colleges and local colleges. Considering the educational gap before college entrance shown from the discrepancies of aptitude test scores among different regions, the imbalance between regions in terms of human resources is apparently derived from compulsory education, and not from college education. Therefore, there is a need to double the policy efforts to reduce the educational gap among different regions. In addition, given the current situation where it is difficult to find appropriate ex post facto policy measures to solve the problem of income gap between the graduates from metropolitan colleges and local colleges, it can be said that improving the environment for compulsory education in local areas is a growing necessity for bridging the educational gap among different regions.

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Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Carbon Uptake of Yellow Poplar Seedlings (대기 이산화탄소 증가와 질소 시비가 백합나무 유묘의 생장과 탄소 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Mi-Sook;Han, Sim-Hee;Kim, Du-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Cheon;Kim, Pan-Gi
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.108-118
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the responses of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedlings to the interactive effects of the elevated atmospheric $CO_2$ level and nitrogen addition, we measured biomass, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis, and the contents of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) from the seedlings after 16 weeks of the treatments. Yellow poplar seedlings were grown under the ambient ($400{\mu}mol\;mol^{-1}$) and the elevated (560 and $720{\mu}mol\;mol^{-1}$) CO2 concentratoins with three different N addition levels (1.2, 2.4, and $3.6g\;kg^{-1}$) in the Open Top Chambers (OTC). The dry weight of the seedlings enhanced with the increased N levels under the elevated $CO_2$ concentrations and the increment of the dry weight differed among the different N levels. Photosynthetic pigment content of the yellow poplar leaves also increased with the increase of the $CO_2$ concentration levels. The effects of the N levels on the photosynthetic pigment content, however, were significantly different among the $CO_2$ levels. Photosynthetic rates were affected by the levels of $CO_2$ and N concentrations. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rates increased with increasing $CO_2$ concentration. The carboxylation efficiency of the seedlings without N addition increased under the higher $CO_2$ concentrations whereas that with N addition decreased under the elevated $CO_2$ concentrations. Nitrogen and carbon uptake in leaf, stem, and root increased with the elevated $CO_2$ concentration level and N addition. In conclusion, under the elevated $CO_2$ concentrations, physiological characteristics and carbon uptake of the yellow poplar seedling were improved and increased with N addition.

Improvement of Meju Preparation Method for the Production of Korean Traditional kanjang (Soy Sauce) (한국 재래식 간장의 품질 향상을 위한 메주 제조법 개선)

  • Im, Moo-Hyeog;Choi, Jong-Dong;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Lee, Seon-Ho;Lee, Coon-Woo;Choi, Cheong;Choi, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.608-614
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    • 1998
  • In order to establish the scientific foundations for the production of Korean traditional kanjang (soy sauce) in a semi-pilot scale, meju preparation and kanjang mashing methods were investigated. Two types of meju, one that was prepared by conventional method (CM-meju) and the other that prepared by modified conventional method (MCM-meju), were made and compared their characteristics. The former made of cooked and crushed soybean with a brick shape was fermented at $15{\sim}20^{\circ}C\;and\;40{\sim}50%$ relative humidity (RH) for 30 days in koji room and the latter was fermented at $25{\sim}30^{\circ}C\;and\;80{\sim}90%$ RH seemingly being optimum for the growth of meju-organisms for the same period. The quality of MCM-meju as a raw material for the kanjang preparation was considered to be superior to that of CM-meju as the higher soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids content, the major factor for the evaluation of the quality of meju, were found in the former although the higher total nitrogen content and lower % weight loss were observed in the latter during meju preparation process. The quality of MCM-kanjang with higher total nitrogen, free amino acids, free sugars and the lower residual nitrogen content in cake after separation of kanjang was also found to be superior to that of CM-kanjang in sensory evaluation results.

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Growth of CdSe thin films using Hot Wall Epitaxy method and their photoelectrical characteristics (HWE방법에 의한 CdSe 박막 성장과 광전기적 특성)

  • Hong, K.J.;Lee, K.K.;Lee, S.Y.;You, S.H.;Shin, Y.J.;Suh, S.S.;Jeong, J.W.;Jeong, K.A.;Shin, Y.J.;Jeong, T.S.;Kim, T.S.;Moon, J.D.;Kim, H.S.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.328-336
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    • 1997
  • The CdSe thin films were grown on the Si(100) wafers by a hot wall epitaxy method (HWE). The source and substrate temperature are $600^{\circ}C$ and $430^{\circ}C$ respectively. The crystalline structure of epilayers was investigated by double crystal X-ray diffraction(DCXD). Hall effect on the sample was measured by the van der Pauw method and studied on the carrier density and mobility dependence on temperature. From Hall data, the mobility was increased in the temperature range 30K to 150K by impurity scattering and decreased in the temperature range 150k to 293k by the lattice scattering. In order to explore the applicability as a photoconductive cell, we measured the sensitivity(${\gamma}$), the ratio of photocurrent to darkcurrent(pc/dc), maximum allowable power dissipation(MAPD), spectral response and response time. The results indicated that the photoconductive characteristic were the best for the samples annealed in Cu vapor compare with in Cd, Se, air and vacuum vapour. Then we obtained the sensitivity of 0.99, the value of pc/dc of $1.39{\times}10^{7}$, the MAPD of 335mW, and the rise and decay time of 10ms and 9.5ms, respectively.

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Examination of Urban Gardening as an Everydayness in Urban Residential Area, Haebangchon (도심주거지에 나타나는 일상문화로서의 도시정원가꾸기에 대한 고찰 - 용산구 용산동2가 해방촌을 중심으로 -)

  • Sim, Joo-Young;Zoh, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2015
  • This study explores urban gardening and garden culture in residential area as an everydayness that has been overlooked during the modern period urbanization and investigates the meaning and value of urban gardening from the perspective of urban formations and growth in spontaneous urban residential area, Haebangchon. The result identified that urban gardening as a meaning of contemporary culture is a new clue to improving the urban physical environment and changing the lives and community network of residents. Haebangchon is one of the few remaining spontaneous habitations in Seoul, and was created as a temporary unlicensed shantytown in 1940s. It became the representative habitation for common people in downtown Seoul through the revitalization of the 60s and the local reform through self-sustaining redevelopment projects during the 70s through the 90s. This area still contains the image of times during the 50s to the 60s, the 70s to the 80s and present, with the percentage of long-term stay residents high. Within this context, the site is divided into third quarters, and the research undertaken by observation and investigation to determine characteristics of urban gardening as an everydayness. It can be said that urban gardening and garden culture in Haebangchon is a unique location culture that has accumulated in the crevices of the physical condition and culture of life. These places are an expression of resident's desires that seeking out nature and gardening as revealed in densely-populated areas and the grounds of practical acting and participating in care and cultivation. It forms a unique, indigenous local landscape as an accumulation of everyday life of residents. Urban gardens in detached home has retained the original function of the dwelling and the garden, or 'madang', and takes on the characteristic of public space through the sharing of a public nature as well as semi-private spatial characteristic. Also, urban gardens including small kitchen garden and flowerpots that appear in the narrow streets provide pleasure as a part of nature that blossoms in narrow alley and functions as a public garden for exchanging with neighbors by sharing produce. This paper provides the concept of redefining the relationship between the private-public area that occurs between outside spaces that are cut off in a modern city.

Management Guidelines and the Structure of Vegetation in Natural Monuments Koelreuteria Paniculata Community (천연기념물 모감주나무군락의 식생구조와 관리제언)

  • Shin, Byung Chul;Lee, Won Ho;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Hong, Jeum Kyu
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.100-117
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    • 2010
  • This study analyzed vegetation structure of natural monuments Koelreuteria paniculata community in search of a conservation and management plan. Plant sociological analysis of Koelreuteria paniculata community indicates that it can be classified into Achyranthes japonica subcommunity and Rhodotypos scandens subcommunity and Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium subcommunity. While Koelreuteria paniculata community of Ahnmyeondo is composed of sub tree layer and herb layer, those of Pohang and Wando are composed of tree layer, Sub tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer. The results of tree vitality analysis showed that those in Ahnmyeondo appeared to be relatively low when compared to those in Pohang and Wando-gun. This can be understood in two different aspects: disease and insects vulnerability due to a relatively simple structure and lack of competitive species, and decreased vitality / natural branch losses due to crown competition arising from high density. The result of soil characteristics analysis showed that soil texture, soil pH, organic matter, $p_2O_5$, exchange positive ion were sufficient for tree growth while total nitrogen was not, so that discretion would be needed for fertilizer application. As there were damages of disease and inscet, but only for 10~15% of the entire area; it still requires consistent preconsideration. The study suggests the management methods for preservation of Koelreuteria paniculata community. First, securing designated areas is necessary in order to minimize environment deterioration due to surrounding development. Especially, for sections with decreased areas, expansion of designated areas through land purchase should also be considered. Second, artificial interference may affect the livestock. Therefore, monitoring of artificial interference is necessary, based on which protection projects must be conducted. Third, from analysis of young plants which influence the maintenance mechanisms of Koelreuteria paniculata community, a decrease compared to the prior year was observed; investigation is needed. Therefore, an active management policy through status examination of livestock such as germination and young plants is necessary.

Development Process for User Needs-based Chatbot: Focusing on Design Thinking Methodology (사용자 니즈 기반의 챗봇 개발 프로세스: 디자인 사고방법론을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Museong;Seo, Bong-Goon;Park, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.221-238
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    • 2019
  • Recently, companies and public institutions have been actively introducing chatbot services in the field of customer counseling and response. The introduction of the chatbot service not only brings labor cost savings to companies and organizations, but also enables rapid communication with customers. Advances in data analytics and artificial intelligence are driving the growth of these chatbot services. The current chatbot can understand users' questions and offer the most appropriate answers to questions through machine learning and deep learning. The advancement of chatbot core technologies such as NLP, NLU, and NLG has made it possible to understand words, understand paragraphs, understand meanings, and understand emotions. For this reason, the value of chatbots continues to rise. However, technology-oriented chatbots can be inconsistent with what users want inherently, so chatbots need to be addressed in the area of the user experience, not just in the area of technology. The Fourth Industrial Revolution represents the importance of the User Experience as well as the advancement of artificial intelligence, big data, cloud, and IoT technologies. The development of IT technology and the importance of user experience have provided people with a variety of environments and changed lifestyles. This means that experiences in interactions with people, services(products) and the environment become very important. Therefore, it is time to develop a user needs-based services(products) that can provide new experiences and values to people. This study proposes a chatbot development process based on user needs by applying the design thinking approach, a representative methodology in the field of user experience, to chatbot development. The process proposed in this study consists of four steps. The first step is 'setting up knowledge domain' to set up the chatbot's expertise. Accumulating the information corresponding to the configured domain and deriving the insight is the second step, 'Knowledge accumulation and Insight identification'. The third step is 'Opportunity Development and Prototyping'. It is going to start full-scale development at this stage. Finally, the 'User Feedback' step is to receive feedback from users on the developed prototype. This creates a "user needs-based service (product)" that meets the process's objectives. Beginning with the fact gathering through user observation, Perform the process of abstraction to derive insights and explore opportunities. Next, it is expected to develop a chatbot that meets the user's needs through the process of materializing to structure the desired information and providing the function that fits the user's mental model. In this study, we present the actual construction examples for the domestic cosmetics market to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed process. The reason why it chose the domestic cosmetics market as its case is because it shows strong characteristics of users' experiences, so it can quickly understand responses from users. This study has a theoretical implication in that it proposed a new chatbot development process by incorporating the design thinking methodology into the chatbot development process. This research is different from the existing chatbot development research in that it focuses on user experience, not technology. It also has practical implications in that companies or institutions propose realistic methods that can be applied immediately. In particular, the process proposed in this study can be accessed and utilized by anyone, since 'user needs-based chatbots' can be developed even if they are not experts. This study suggests that further studies are needed because only one field of study was conducted. In addition to the cosmetics market, additional research should be conducted in various fields in which the user experience appears, such as the smart phone and the automotive market. Through this, it will be able to be reborn as a general process necessary for 'development of chatbots centered on user experience, not technology centered'.

A study on mandatory insurance for aircraft operators (항공보험 가입의무에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Chang-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.169-197
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to present a reasonable and concrete standard for the Korean aviation insurance compulsory subscription system. Through this, we aim to improve the current revision of laws and regulations, and ultimately create an environment in which the safety and property of the Korean people who use aircraft with appropriate aviation insurance can be secured. In particular, by reviewing the aviation business law and its new laws and regulations enacted in 2017, the legislative improvement direction of aviation insurance will be proposed. In order to maintain the continuous growth of the air transportation industry and to make amicable compensation for the victims, considering the characteristics of the total accident, instantness, and giganticness of air accidents in which a lot of people and property are lost in the event of an accident, adequate insurance coverage is essential. In this respect, the compulsory insurance to amend the principle of freedom of contract, which is the great principle of the modern judicial system, will be persuasive. However, in comparison with foreign legislation, the legal provisions on Korea's obligation to comply with aviation insurance need to be revised around the following issues: First, it is reasonable to enforce the regulation of the mandatory aviation insurance by legislation from the Congress not by administrative regulations. Because it will force the monetary obligations of the individual such as common air carriers. Second, our law regulations respond to various kinds of air damages by using the phrase "limit of liability stipulated in international conventions". However, as we have seen in the text, the range of compensation are various according to the use of legal instruments in international conventions such as the Montreal Convention, which governs the compensation of passengers for damages to passengers today. Third, in countries with narrow territories, such as Korea, there are big differences in flying time and insurable risk between domestic and international transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to divide domestic transportation and international transportation even in the obligation to join the insurance. This dual discipline has the advantage for rookies in air carrier market who mainly start their business from domestic service. Fourth, according to Korean law, the regulations of automobile loss insurance is applicable to the aviation mandatory insurance of unmanned aerial vehicle accident which is lack of persuasion. In the future, it will be appropriate to discipline insurance for unmanned aerial vehicles with unlimited potential for development from a long-term perspective.