• Title/Summary/Keyword: RUNNING SHOES

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Kinetic Differences between Normal-design Running Shoes and Spring-loaded Running Shoes (기능성 스프링신발과 일반운동화의 운동역학적 비교분석)

  • Lee, Chong-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.581-592
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the functional shoes through the kinetic comparison of normal-design running shoes and spring-loaded running shoes. For this, 12 healthy females from the age from 30 to 40 years participated in the EMG and ground reaction force experiment with testing kinetic variables. 12 subjects walked at the velocity of 1.7m/s. After analyzing variables in the spring-loaded running shoes and normal-design running shoes, the following conclusions were obtained; For the ground reaction force, spring-loaded running shoes have larger antero-posterior GRF than normal-design running shoes in the first and second apexes of antero-posterior ground reaction force. For the analysis of EMG, spring-loaded running shoes showed the higher muscle activation of rectus femoris muscle than norma-design running shoes. So the spring-loaded running shoes help improvement muscle strength of knee extensor.

The Influence of Rearfoot Motion Control through Marathon Shoes On and Off (마라톤화 착용 시 후족제어에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Jae;Jang, Sung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-81
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    • 2005
  • In this study using two-dimensional system of the analysis of image, when normal males in their twenties who have normal foot and step with heel first are walking and running, they who are wearing running shoes or barefoot are testing and comparing the exchange factors of heel control. There are following results of this test by verifying them with T-Test. 1) When they are running, there are two big different gap which is $6.05^{\circ}$ between barefoot and wearing the running shoes. The former is $174.79^{\circ}{\pm}6.31$ and the latter is $180.84^{\circ}{\pm}4.69$. But it is not statistically significant. The angle of first step with heel is $100.42^{\circ}{\pm}3.95$ with barefoot and $93.97^{\circ}{\pm}094$ with wearing the running shoes. In this case, it is statistically significant(p<.01) 2) When they are running, the angle of the Achilles' tendon has different gap which is $5.24^{\circ}$ between barefoot and wearing the running shoes. The former is $179.70^{\circ}{\pm}4.23$ and the latter is $184.94^{\circ}{\pm}4.09$. It is not statistically significant. The angle of minimal step with heel is $96.30^{\circ}{\pm}3.07$ with barefoot and $90.84^{\circ}{\pm}0.44$ with wearing the running shoes. In this case, it is statistically significant(p<.01). 3) In the angle of the Achilles' tendon and the angle of first step with heel, when they are walking, the angle of the Achilles' tendon has different gap which is $1.81^{\circ}$ between barefoot and wearing the running shoes. The former is $6.39^{\circ}{\pm}0.83$ and the latter is $8.20^{\circ}{\pm}1.85$. It is not statistically significant. The angle of first step with heel is $2.32^{\circ}{\pm}0.51$ with barefoot and $3.22^{\circ}{\pm}1.44$ with wearing the running shoes. It is not statistically significant. 4) In the angle of the take-off of Achilles' tendon, when they are walking, the angle of the take-off of Achilles' tendon has different gap which is $3.88^{\circ}$ between barefoot and wearing the running shoes. The former is $177.62^{\circ}{\pm}8.78$ and the latter is $173.74^{\circ}{\pm}16.31$. It is statistically significant(p<.05). Therefore, they are running, the angle of the take-off of Achilles' tendon is $178.37^{\circ}{\pm}19.28$ with barefoot and $171.26^{\circ}{\pm}12.18$ with wearing the running shoes. It is statistically significant(p<.05).

The Differences of the Normalized Jerk According to Shoes, Velocity and Slope During Walking (보행시 신발, 속도, 그리고 경사도에 따른 정규 저크의 차이)

  • Han, Young-Min;Choi, Jin-Seung;Kim, Hyung-Sik;Lim, Young-Tae;Yi, Jeong-Han;Tack, Gye-Rae;Yi, Kyung-Ok;Park, Seung-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate normalized jerk according to shoes, slope, and velocity during walking. Eleven different test subjects used three different types of shoes (running shoes, mountain climbing boots, and elevated forefoot walking shoes) at various walking speeds(1.19, 1.25, 1.33, 1.56, 1.78, 1.9, 2, 2.11, 2.33m/sec) and gradients(0, 3, 6, 10 degrees) on a treadmill. Since there were concerns about using the elevated forefoot shoes on an incline, these shoes were not used on a gradient. Motion Analysis (Motion Analysis Corp. Santa Rosa, CA USA) was conducted with four Falcon high speed digital motion capture cameras. Utilizing the maximum smoothness theory, it was hypothesized that there would be differences in jerk according to shoe type, velocity, and slope. Furthermore, it was assumed that running shoes would have the lowest values for normalized jerk because subjects were most accustomed to wearing these shoes. The results demonstrated that elevated forefoot walking shoes had lowest value for normalized jerk at heel. In contrast, elevated forefoot walking shoes had greater normalized jerk at the center of mass at most walking speeds. For most gradients and walking speeds, hiking boots had smaller medio-lateral directional normalized jerk at ankle than running shoes. These results alluded to an inverse ratio for jerk at the heel and at the COM for all types of shoes. Furthermore, as velocity increased, medio-lateral jerk was reduced for all gradients in both hiking boots and running shoes. Due to the fragility of the ankle joint, elevated forefoot walking shoes could be recommended for walking on flat surfaces because they minimize instability at the heel. Although the elevated forefoot walking shoes have the highest levels of jerk at the COM, the structure of the pelvis and spine allows for greater compensatory movement than the ankle. This movement at the COM might even have a beneficial effect of activating the muscles in the back and abdomen more than other shoes. On inclines hiking boots would be recommended over running shoes because hiking boots demonstrated more medio-lateral stability on a gradient than running shoes. These results also demonstrate the usefulness of normalized jerk theory in analyzing the relationship between the body and shoes, walking velocity, and movement up a slope.

Effects for Running Shoes with Resilience of Midsole on Biomechanical Properties (미드솔의 반발탄성이 러닝화의 생체역학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Chan-Il;Won, Yonggwan;Kim, Jung-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2015
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect for running shoes with resilience of midsole on biomechanical properties. Methods : 10 healthy males who had no history of injury in the lower extremity with an average age of 26.5 year(SD=1.84), height of 172.22 cm(SD=4.44) and weight of 67.51 kg(SD=6.17) participated in this study. All subjects ran on the treadmill wearing three different running shoes. Foot pressure data was collected using Pedar-X system(Novel Gmbh, Germany) operating at 100 Hz. Surface EMG signals for biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial lateralis, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, soleus and peroneus longus were acquired at 1000 Hz using Bignoli 8 System(Delsys Inc., USA). To normalize the difference of the magnitude of muscle contractions, it was expressed as a percentage relative to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The impact resilience of the midsole data was collected using Fastcam SA5 system(Photron Inc., USA). Collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA in order to investigate the effects of each running shoes. Results : TPU midsole was significantly wider in contact area than EVA, TPE midsole in midfoot and higher in EMG activity than EVA midsole at biceps femoris. TPE midsole was significantly wider in contact area than EVA midsole in rearfoot and higher in peak pressure than EVA midsole in forefoot. EVA midsole was significantly higher in EMG activity than TPU midsole at tibia anterior. In medial resilience of midsoles, TPE midsole was significantly higher than EVA, TPU midsole. Conclusion : TPU midsole can reduce the load on the midfoot effectively and activate tibialis anterior, biceps femoris to give help to running.

A Biomechanical Comparison of Cushioning and Motion Control Shoes During Running (달리기시 쿠션형과 모션컨트롤형 런닝화 착용에 따른 생체역학적 비교)

  • Lee, Ki-Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2005
  • Excessive pronation and impact force during running are related to various running injuries. To prevent these injuries, three type of running shoes are used, such as cushioning, stability, and motion control. Although there were may studies about the effect of midsole hardness on impact force, no study to investigate biomechanical effect of motion control running shoes. The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical difference between cushioning and motion control shoes during treadmill running. Specifically, plantar and rearfoot motion, impact force and loading rate, and insole pressure distribution were quantified and compared. Twenty male healthy runners experienced at treadmill running participated in this study. When they ran on treadmill at 3.83 m/s. Kinematic data were collected using a Motion Analysis eight video camera system at 240 Hz. Impact force and pressure distribution data under the heel of right foot were collected with a Pedar pressure insole system with 26 sensors at 360 Hz. Mean value of ten consecutive steps was calculated for kinematics and kinetics. A dependent paired t-test was used to compare the running shoes effect (p=0.05). For most kinematics, motion control running shoes reduced the range of rearfoot motion compared to cushioning shoes. Runners wearing motion control shoe showed less eversion angle during standing less inversion angle at heel strike, and slower eversion velocity. For kinetics, cushioning shoes has the effect to reduce impact on foot obviously. Runners wearing cushioning shoes showed less impact force and loading rate, and less peak insole pressure. For both shoes, there was greater load on the medial part of heel compared to lateral part. For pressure distribution, runners with cushioning shoes showed lower, especially on the medial heel.

Effect of High Elastic Running Shoes on Biomechanical Factors (고탄성 런닝화가 생체역학적 요소에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jungho
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Shoes midsole are crucial for reducing impact forces on the lower extremity when someone is running. Previous studies report that the cushioning of running shoes make it possible to use less muscular energies. However, the well cushioned shoes result in energy loss as the shoe midsole is compressed. Cushioning reduces the load on the body, it also results in the use of more muscle energy to create propulsion force. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the difference of shoe hardness & resilience on the running. Method: Shoes midsole are crucial for reducing impact forces on the lower extremity when someone is running. Previous studies report that the cushioning of running shoes make it possible to use less muscular energies. However, the well cushioned shoes result in energy loss as the shoe midsole is compressed. Cushioning reduces the load on the body, it also results in the use of more muscle energy to create propulsion force. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the difference of shoe hardness & resilience on the running. Results: In vastus lateralis muscle Activation, Type 55 were significantly higher for Type 50 and X (p=0.019, p=0.045). In Gluteus Maximus muscle activation, Type 55 was significantly lower for type 50 (p=0.005). In loading late, Type 55 and X were significantly higher for type 45 (p=0.008, p=0.006). Conclusion: The components of a shoe are very complex, and there can be many differences in manufacturing as well. Although some differences can be found in the biomechanical variables of the high elastic midsole, it is difficult to interpret the performance enhancement and injury prevention.

The Biomechanical Comparison of Running Shoes According to the Difference of Insole (인솔 차이에 따른 런닝화의 운동역학적 비교)

  • Jin, Young-Wan;Shin, Sung-Hwon
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2007
  • These studies show that I applied to functional insole (a specific A company) for minimizing shocks and sprain people's ankle arising from running. How to an effect on human body which studied a kinematics and kinetics from 10 college students during experiments. This study imposes several conditions by barefoot, normal running shoes and put functional insole shoes ran under average $2.0{\pm}0.24\;m$/sec by motion analysis and ground reaction force that used to specific A company. First of all, motion analysis was caused by achilles tendon angle, angle of the lower leg, angle of the knee, initial sole angle and barefoot angle. The result of comparative analysis can be summarized as below. Motion analysis showed that statically approximates other results from achilles tendon angle (p<.01), initial ankle angle(p<.05), initial sole angle(p<.001) and barefoot angle(p<.001). Ground reaction force also showed that statically approximates other results from impact peak timing (p<.001), Maximum loading rate(p<.001), Maximum loading rate timing (p<.001) and impulse of first 20 percent (p<.001). Above experiment values known that there was statically difference between Motion analysis and Ground reaction force under absorbing of the functional insole shoes which was not have an effect on our body for kinetics and kinematics.

The Effect of Differential Medial and Lateral Midsole Hardness on Rearfoot Movement (운동화 후족의 내외측 경도차에 따른 후족 제어의 효과)

  • Bu, Jin-Hu;Lee, Dong-Chun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2001
  • Rearfoot control can be defined as the relative ability of a shoe to limit the amount of subtalar joint pronation immediately following footstrike. A normal amount of pronation provides a means of decreasing peak forces experienced by the leg, but excessive pronation of the foot can be arised its injures. The purpose of this study is to compare amount of pronation according to a difference between medial and later hardness of shoe midsole for better design of running shops. The experiment is examined for 7 running shoes. 8 males. to measure the Achilles tendon angle and rearfoot angle using high speed camera. The results is conducted that the changes of Achilles tendon angle significantly differ at each test shoe with increased running speed. And, a difference between medial and lateral hardness of midsole affects rearfoot motion of runner. The displacements of maximal Achilles tendon angle described a amount of pronation motion is decreased when medial hardness of midsole is large more than lateral.

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Biomechanical Analysis of Trail Running Shoes Applied to Korean Shoe-Lasts (한국인 족형을 적용한 트레일 러닝화의 생체역학적 분석)

  • Park, Seung-Bum;Lee, Kyung-Deuk;Kim, Dae-Woong;Yoo, Jung-Hyeon;Kim, Kyung-Hun;An, Chang-Shin;Lee, Tae-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.221-230
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze biomechanical factors of trail running shoes applied to korean shoe-lasts. 10 healthy male subjects with an average age of 37.2 years(SD=8.28), weight of 69.6 kg(SD=10.56) and a height of 171 cm(SD=4.93) were recruited for this study. Ten males walked on a treadmill wearing four different shoes. Foot pressure data was collected using a Pedar-X mobile system(Novel Gmbh., Germany) operating at the 1000 Hz. Surface EMG signals for tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris were acquired at 1000 Hz using Noraxon TeleMyo DTS system(Noraxon Inc., USA). Foot pressure and leg muscle fatigue were measured and calculated during walking. The results are as follows: After walking 60 minutes, Type A showed a lower MPF. MPF values were significantly different from each muscle(p<.05). Therefore, Type A shoe might decrease muscle fatigue in the legs while walking. In addition, Type It showed that Type A shoe has the highest contact area and the lowest maximum pressure. As a result of the analysis, Trail running shoes will use a new design to reduce muscle fatigue and are expected to increase comfort and fitting.

The Desired Self-Images and the Fashion Product Unities of Male College Students according to Situation (남자대학생의 의복 착용상황별 추구이미지와 패션상품통일체)

  • Bae Hye-Jin;Chung Ihn-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1135-1145
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the desired seIf-images of male college students according to situations, and to construct fashion product unities bought by male college students for different situations. Empirical data were collected by self-administered questionnaires distributed to male students at 4 universities and 2 colleges in Daegu and Gyeongbuk area during June 2005, and 346 were analyzed, eliminating incomplete ones. Subjects were required to respond to 32 desired image words in 4 different situations respectively: school, meeting girlfriends, ceremonies, and exercises. As a result of factor analysis on desired self-image words, 5 factors were determined: refined image, sporty image, classic image, natural image and simple image. Based on the desired self-image factors, male college students were classified into 3 groups: selective image management group, passive image management group, and active Image management group. Fashion product unity of male college students for the school setting was consisted of round shirts, jeans, running shoes, bags and watches. Aloha shirts/knitted shirts/V-neck shirts, cotton pants/jeans/semi -formal pants, formal shoes/running shoes and watches were the fashion product unity for the setting of meeting girlfriends. For the setting of ceremonies, the fashion product unity included Y-shirts, formal dress, formal shoes, neckties and watches. And for the setting of exercises, the fashion product unity included cotton shirts, training suits, running shoes/jogging shoes/basketball shoes, armguard and caps.