• Title, Summary, Keyword: Li Ye

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One Quadratic Equation, Different Understandings: the 13th Century Interpretations by Li Ye and Later Commentaries in the 18th and 19th Centuries

  • Pollet, Charlotte;Ying, Jia-Ming
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.137-162
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    • 2017
  • The Chinese algebraic method, the tian yuan shu, was developed during Song period (960-1279), of which Li Ye's works contain the earliest testimony. Two 18th century editors commentated on his works: the editor of the Siku quanshu and Li Rui, the latter responding to the former. Korean scholar Nam Byeong-gil added another response in 1855. Differences can be found in the way these commentators considered mathematical objects and procedures. The conflicting nature of these commentaries shows that the same object, the quadratic equation, can beget different interpretations, either a procedure or an assertion of equality. Textual elements in this paper help modern readers reconstruct different authors' understandings and reconsider the evolution of the definition of the object we now call 'equation'.

Siyuan Yujian in the Joseon Mathematics (조선(朝鮮) 산학(算學)의 사원옥감(四元玉鑑))

  • Hong, Sung Sa;Hong, Young Hee;Lee, Seung On
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.203-219
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    • 2017
  • As is well known, the most important development in the history of Chinese mathematics is materialized in Song-Yuan era through tianyuanshu up to siyuanshu for constructing equations and zengcheng kaifangfa for solving them. There are only two authors in the period, Li Ye and Zhu Shijie who left works dealing with them. They were almost forgotten until the late 18th century in China but Zhu's Suanxue Qimeng(1299) had been a main reference for the Joseon mathematics. Commentary by Luo Shilin on Zhu's Siyuan Yujian(1303) was brought into Joseon in the mid-19th century which induced a great attention to Joseon mathematicians with a thorough understanding of Zhu's tianyuanshu. We discuss the history that Joseon mathematicians succeeded to obtain the mathematical structures of Siyuan Yujian based on the Zhu's tianyuanshu.

Jin-Yuan Mathematics and Quanzhen Taoism (금원수학여전진도(金元数学与全真道))

  • Guo, Shuchun
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.325-333
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    • 2016
  • Chinese Mathematics during the period of Jin (1115-1234) and Yuan (1271-1368) is an integral part of the high achievements of traditional mathematics during the Song (962-1279) and Yuan dynasties, which is another peak in the history of Chinese mathematics, following the footsteps of the high accomplishments during the Warring States period (475-221 BCE), the Western Han (206 BCE-24 ADE), Three Kingdoms (220-280 AD), Jin dynasty (265-420 AD), and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589 AD). During the Jin-Yuan period, Quanzhen Taoism was a dominating branch in Taoism. It offered certain political protection and religious comforts to many during troubled times; it also provided a relatively stable environment for intellectual development. Li Ye (1192-1279), Zhu Shijie (fl. late 13th C to early 14th C) and Zhao Youqin (fl. late 13th C to early 14th C), the major actors and contributors to the Jin-Yuan Mathematics achievements, were either heavily influenced by the philosophy of Quanzhen Taoism, or being its followers. In certain Taoist Classics, Li Ye read the records of the relations of a circle and nine right triangles which has been known as Dongyuan jiurong 洞渊九容 of Quanzhen Taoism. These relations made significant contributions in the study of the circles inscribed in a right triangle, the reasoning of which directly led to the birth of the Method of Celestial Elements (Tianyuan shu 天元术), which further developed into the Method of Two Elements (Eryuan shu ⼆元术), the Method of Three Elements (Sanyuan shu 三元术) and the Method of Four Elements (Siyuan shu 四元术).

A study on Ye, Tianshi's treatment by means of both communication and supplementation of the Stomach-Bu(胃腑, Stomach-bowel) (엽천사(葉天士)의 통보위부법(通補胃腑法)에 관(關)한 고찰(考察))

  • Jung, Kyung-Suk;Baik, You-Sang;Jang, Woo-Chang;Jeong, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.125-139
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    • 2012
  • Objective : This study began with a recognition of the increase in internal disorders caused by functional impairment of the Spleen-Stomach(脾胃) due to modern dietary culture and environment. Method : Way of studying is select and analysis sentences which is include 'Stomach-Yin(胃陰)', 'Stomach-Jin(胃津)', 'Spleen-Stomach-Yin(脾胃陰)', 'Stomach-Yang(胃陽)', 'Spleen-Stomach-Yang (脾胃陽)' in Imjeungjinamuian(臨證指南醫案), and organize relevant paper. Result & Conclusion : In the history of the Spleen-Stomach Theory(脾胃學說), the theoretical mainstream was focused on On-yang(溫養), which was supplemented with methods of sweeten-cool-moisturize(甘凉濡潤) and communication-descent(通降法) by Ye, Tianshi(葉天士). Ye, Tianshi followed the academic theory of Li, Dongyuan(李東垣), putting emphasis on Stomach-gi(胃氣), along with some unique developments of his own. He specifically argued that the Spleen and Stomach be treated separately, and while accepting the methods of Li Dong-yuan in Spleen treatment, asserted that the Stomach-Yin be treated with medicinals with sweet/plain and sweet/cool/moist(甘平與甘凉濡潤) characteristics, and Stomach-Yang be kept firmly, as to prevent obstruction and reflux, by means of medicinals that communicate the Yang softly(通陽柔劑). As a result, the Yin-Yang(陰陽), Dryness-Dampness(燥濕) and Cold-Heat(寒熱) balance of the Yin-Jang (陰臟), Spleen and the Yang-Bu(陽腑), Stomach, the Stomach-Yin and Stomach-Yang was achieved both theoretically and in treatment by means of both communication and supplementation, adding accuracy to clinical application of the Spleen-Stomach Theory.

11-Methoxyviburtinal, A New Iridoid from Valeriana jatamansi

  • Chen Ye-Gao;Yu Li-Li;Huang Rong;Lv Yu-Ping;Gui Shi-Hong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1161-1163
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    • 2005
  • Five compounds of iridoids, lignan and phenylpropanoid glycosides were isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi by column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated as 11-methoxyviburtinal (1), baldrinal (2), prinsepiol-4-O-${\beta}$-D-glucoside (3), coniferin (4), and hexacosanic acid (5) by spectroscopic analysis. 11-Methoxyviburtinal was a new compound, and others were isolated from the plant for the first time.

Mutations in the GyrA Subunit of DNA Gyrase and the ParC Subunit of Topoisomerase IV in Clinical Strains of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Shigella in Anhui, China

  • Hu, Li-Fen;Li, Jia-Bin;Ye, Ying;Li, Xu
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.168-170
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    • 2007
  • In this research 26 Shigella isolates were examined by PCR and direct nucleotide sequencing for genetic alterations in the quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs). We tested for the presence of qnr genes by PCR in 91 strains, but no qnr genes were found. The results did show, however, some novel mutations at codon 83 of gyrA ($Ser{\rightarrow}Ile$) and codon 64 of parC ($Ala64{\rightarrow}Cys,\;Ala64{\rightarrow}Asp$), which were related to fluroquinolone resistance.

Lithium-silicate coating on Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide (LiNi0.7Mn0.3O2) with a Layered Structure

  • Kim, Dong-jin;Yoon, Da-ye;Kim, Woo-byoung;Lee, Jae-won
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.87-95
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    • 2017
  • Lithium silicate, a lithium-ion conducting ceramic, is coated on a layer-structured lithium nickel manganese oxide ($LiNi_{0.7}Mn_{0.3}O_2$). Residual lithium compounds ($Li_2CO_3$ and LiOH) on the surface of the cathode material and $SiO_2$ derived from tetraethylorthosilicate are used as lithium and silicon sources, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses show that lithium silicate is coated uniformly on the cathode particles. Charge and discharge tests of the samples show that the coating can enhance the rate capability and cycle life performance. The improvements are attributed to the reduced interfacial resistance originating from suppression of solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) formation and dissolution of Ni and Mn due to the coating. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the cycled electrodes shows that nickel oxide and manganese oxide particles are formed on the surface of the electrode and that greater decomposition of the electrolyte occurs for the bare sample, which confirms the assumption that SEI formation and Ni and Mn dissolution can be reduced using the coating process.