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Computer Simulation Study for Analyzing Alternative Refrigerants in Residential Air-conditioners (가정용 냉방기의 대체 냉매 성능 분석을 위한 전산 해석 연구)

  • Yoo, Hwaan-Kyu;Jung, Dong-Soo
    • Solar Energy
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.75-90
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    • 1995
  • This paper is concerned about alternative refrigerants for HCFC22 used in room air conditioners and heat pumps. Computer simulation of residential air conditioners using refrigerant mixtures is carried out. Following refrigerants are selected as the pure refrigerants constituting the mixtures studied: R32, R124, R125, R134, R134a, R143a and R152a. Simulation results are presented fur the following mixtures: R32/R134a, R32/R152a, R32/R134, R32/R124, R143a/R134a, R143a/R152a, R143a/R124, R125/R134a, R125/R152a, R125/R124, R32/R152a/R134a, R32/R152a/R134, R32/R152a/R124. The best fluid is found to be the ternary mixture of R32/R152a/R124. For that mixture, the coefficient of performance(COP) and volumetric capacity for refrigeration(VCR) are 13.7% larger and 23% smaller than the respective values for HCFC22. R32/R124 mixture is the best binary fluid pair whose COP and VCR are 13.4% larger and 9.6% smaller than those for HCFC22.

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Interleukin-32 in Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

  • Kim, Soohyun
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2014
  • Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a cytokine inducing crucial inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}(TNF{\alpha})$ and IL-6 and its expression is elevated in various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, certain cancers, as well as viral infections. IL-32 gene was first cloned from activated T cells, however IL-32 expression was also found in other immune cells and non-immune cells. IL-32 gene was identified in most mammals except rodents. It is transcribed as multiple-spliced variants in the absence of a specific activity of each isoform. IL-32 has been studied mostly in clinical fields such as infection, autoimmune, cancer, vascular disease, and pulmonary diseases. It is difficult to investigate the precise role of IL-32 in vivo due to the absence of IL-32 gene in mouse. The lack of mouse IL-32 gene restricts in vivo studies and restrains further development of IL-32 research in clinical applications although IL-32 new cytokine getting a spotlight as an immune regulatory molecule processing important roles in autoimmune, infection, and cancer. In this review, we discuss the regulation and function of IL-32 in inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid arthritis.

Design of a High Performance 32$\times$32-bit Multiplier Based on Novel Compound Mode Logic and Sign Select Booth Encoder (새로운 복합모드로직과 사인선택 Booth 인코더를 이용한 고성능 32$\times$32-bit 곱셈기의 설계)

  • Kim, Jin-Hwa;Song, Min-Gyu
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.205-210
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, a novel compound mode logic based on the advantage of both CMOS logic and pass-transistor logic(PTL) is proposed. From the experimental results, the power-delay products of the compound mode logic is about 22% lower than that of the conventional CMOS logic, when we design a full adder. With the proposed logic, a high performance 32$\times$32-bit multiplier has been fabricated with 0.6um CMOS technology. It is composed of an improved sign select Booth encoder, an efficient data compressor based on the compound mode logic, and a 64-bit conditional sum adder with separated carry generation block. The Proposed 32$\times$32-bit multiplier is composed of 28,732 transistors with an active area of 1.59$\times$1.68 mm2 except for the testing circuits. From the measured results, the multiplication time of the 32$\times$32-bit multiplier is 9.8㎱ at a 3.3V power supply, and it consumes about 186㎽ at 100MHz.

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The Efficient 32×32 Inverse Transform Design for High Performance HEVC Decoder (고성능 HEVC 복호기를 위한 효율적인 32×32 역변환기 설계)

  • Han, Geumhee;Ryoo, Kwangki
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.953-958
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, an efficient hardware architecture is proposed for $32{\times}32$ inverse transform HEVC decoder. HEVC is a new image compression standard to deal with much larger image sizes compared with conventional image codecs, such as 4k, 8k images. To process huge image data effectively, it adopts various new block structures. Theses blocks consists of $4{\times}4$, $8{\times}8$, $16{\times}16$, and $32{\times}32$ block. This paper suggests an effective structures to process $32{\times}32$ inverse transform. This structure of inverse transform adopts the decomposed $16{\times}16$ matrixes of $32{\times}32$ matrix, and simplified the operations by implementing multiplying with shifters and adders. Additionally the operations frequency is downed by using multicycle paths. Also this structure can be easily adopted to a multi-size transform or a forward transform block in HEVC codec.

Generation of Antagonistic RNA Aptamers Specific to Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-32

  • Kim, Se-Ho;Kim, Jung-Hee;Yoon, Su-Jin;Kim, Keun-Sik;Yoon, Moon-Young;Yoon, Do-Young;Kim, Dong-Eun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.3561-3566
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    • 2010
  • Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a recently identified cytokine that induces major proinflammatory cytokines such as $TNF{\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$, which play an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases. To antagonize the biological function of IL-32 in cells, we generated RNA aptamers that could bind specifically to IL-32 protein. The highest affinity aptamer, AC3-3, successfully antagonized IL-32 by abolishing the induction of $TNF{\alpha}$ in the human lung carcinoma cells expressing IL-32. This aptamer could be used as a potent and selective antagonist against IL-32 to further elucidate the roles of IL-32 in chronic inflammatory diseases, as well as a therapeutic agent.

Performance of HFC32/HFC152a Mixture for Water-source Heat Pumps (수열원 히트펌프 용 HFC32/HFC152a 혼합냉매의 성능평가)

  • Kang, Dong-Gyu;Kim, Wook-Jin;Jung, Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.391-400
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    • 2012
  • In this study, performance of HFC32/HFC152a mixture is measured in the composition range of 20 to 50% R32 with an interval of 10% for the comparison with the conventional HCFC22 in water-source heat pumps. Tests are carried out under the same capacity in a heat pump bench tester equipped with a variable speed compressor at the evaporation and condensation temperatures of 7/$45^{\circ}C$ and -7/$41^{\circ}C$ for summer and winter conditions, respectively. Test results show that the compressor power of the HFC32/HFC152a mixture is 13.7% lower than that of HCFC22 while the coefficient of performance(COP) the HFC32/HFC152a mixture is 15.8% higher than that of HCFC22. Hence, from the view point of energy efficiency, the HFC32/HFC152a mixture is excellent as compared to HCFC22. Compressor discharge temperatures of HFC32/HFC152a mixture are increased up to $15.4^{\circ}C$ as compared to that of HCFC22. The amount of charge for HFC32/HFC152 mixture decrease up to 27% as compared to that of HCFC22. Overall, HFC32/ HFC152a mixture is an excellent long term candidate to replace HCFC22 in water-source heat pumps.

A Design of an Embedded Microprocessor with Variable Length Instruction Mode (가변길이 명령어 모드를 갖는 Embedded Microprocessor의 설계)

  • 박기현;오민석;이광엽;한진호;김영수;배영환;조한진
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we proposed a new instruction set(X32Y ISA) with 3 different types of instruction mode. The proposed instruction set organizes 32-bit, 24-bit, 16-bit instruction in order to solves a problem of memory size limitation in an embedded microprocessor. We designed a 32-bit 5 stage pipeline RISC microprocessor based on the X32V ISA. To verify the proposed the X32V ISA and a microprocessor, we estimated a program code size of multimedia application programs using a X32V simulator. In result, we verified that the Light mode and the Ultra Light mode obtains 8%, 27% reduction of a program code size through comparison with the Default mode. The proposed microprocessor was verified all X32V instructions execution at Xilinx FPGA with 33MHz operating frequency,

Identification of C4orf32 as a Novel Type I Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Membrane Protein (Type I 소포체 목표화 막단백질에 속하는 새로운 C4orf32 막단백질의 동정)

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Park, Sang-Won;Lee, Jin-A;Jang, Deok-Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.949-954
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    • 2019
  • Membrane topology is a key characteristic of membrane proteins. We previously reported the cloning of the chromosome 4 open-reading frame 32 (C4orf32) gene as a potential membrane protein; however, the cellular localization and membrane topology of C4orf32 was as yet unknown. In this study, we found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C-terminus of C4orf32 (C4orf32-GFP) was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We applied three tools to identify determinants of C4orf32 topology: protease protection, fluorescence protease protection (FPP), and an inducible system using the ternary complex between FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP), rapamycin, and the rapamycin-binding domain of mTOR (FRB) (the FRB-rapamycin-FKBP system). Using protease protection and FPP assays, we found that the GFP tag in C4orf32-GFP was localized to the cytoplasmic surface of the ER membrane of HeLa cells. Protease protection and FPP assays are useful and complimentary tools for identifying the topology of GFP fusion membrane proteins. The FRB-rapamycin-FKBP system was also used to study the topology of C4orf32. In the absence of rapamycin, a monomeric red fluorescent protein-FKBP fusion (mRFP-FKBP) and C4orf32-GFP-FRB were localized to the cytoplasm and the ER membrane, respectively. However, in the presence of rapamycin, the mRFP-FKBP was shifted from the cytoplasm to the ER and colocalized with the C4orf32-GFP-FRB. These results indicate that the FRB moiety is facing the cytoplasmic surface of ER membrane. Overall, our results clearly suggest that C4orf32 belongs to the family of type I ER resident membrane proteins.

Performance of HFC32/HFC125 Mixtures for Heat Pumps (HFC32/HFC125 혼합냉매의 히트펌프 성능 평가)

  • Kim, Wook-Jin;Kang, Dong-Gyu;Lee, Yo-Han;Jung, Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.791-798
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    • 2011
  • In this study, performance of R410A(50%R32/50%R125) and HFC32/HFC125 mixture is measured to examine the effect of composition shift of R410A used for various air-conditioners and heat pumps. The composition of HFC32/HFC125 mixture varies from the reference composition of R410A ${\pm}10%$ with 5% interval. Tests carried out in a heat pump bench tester at the evaporation and condensation temperatures of $7/45^{\circ}C$ and $-7/41^{\circ}C$ for summer and winter conditions, respectively. Test results show that both the coefficient of performance (COP) and compressor power of the HFC32/HFC125 mixture have the maximum difference of 2.0% as compared to those of R410A. Compressor discharge temperatures of HFC32/HFC125 mixture are increased up to $6.7^{\circ}C$ as compared to that of R410A. The amount of charge for HFC32/HFC125 mixture vary within 5.6% as compared to that of R410A. Overall, performance of R410A is not appreciably affected by the composition shift of ${\pm}10%$ of R32 under both air-conditioning and heat pumping conditions.

Detection of Expressed IL-32 in Human Stomach Cancer Using ELISA and Immunostaining

  • Seo, Eun-Hee;Kang, Jeong-Woo;Kim, Ki-Hong;Cho, Min-Chul;Lee, So-Jung;Kim, Hee-Jong;Kim, Jung-Hee;Kim, Eun-Jin;Park, Dong-Ki;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Choi, Yang-Kyu;Kim, Jin-Man;Hong, Jin-Tae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1606-1612
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    • 2008
  • Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently identified proinflammatory cytokine that is one of the IL-18 inducible genes, and plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We produced antibodies against IL-32 and studied the expression of IL-32 in human stomach cancer. We detected IL-32 secreted from K-562 cells which were stably transfected with IL-32 and in the sera of stomach cancer patients by a sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody KU32-52 and a polyclonal antibody. In order to optimize a sandwich immunoassay, recombinant IL-32a was added, followed by the addition of a biotinylated KU32-52 into microtiter plate wells precoated with a goat anti-IL-32 antibody. The bound biotinylated KU32-52 was probed with a streptavidin conjugated to HRP. This sandwich ELISA was highly specific and had a minimal detection limit of 80 pg/ml (mean${\pm}$SD of zero calibrator) and measuring up to 3,000 pg/ml. This ELISA showed no cross-reaction with other cytokines such as hIL-1$\alpha$, hIL-1$\beta$, hIL-2, hIL-6, hIL-8, hIL-10, hIL-18, and hTNF-$\alpha$. Intra-assay coefficients of variation were 18.5% to 4.6% (n=10), and inter-assay coefficients were 23% to 9% (n=10). The average IL-32 level in the sera of 16 stomach cancer patients (189 pg/ml) was higher than that of 12 healthy control men (109 pg/ml). Our results indicate that serum IL-32 level can be detected by using an established ELISA, and that this immunoassay and mAb KU32-09 specific for immunohistochemistry can be used in the detection of expressed and secreted IL-32 in stomach cancer patients.