• Title/Summary/Keyword: 희토류 원소

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LiCl 용융염 전해환원 공정 희토류원소 산화물의 화학적 거동

  • Park, Byeong-Heung;Choe, In-Gyu;Jeong, Myeong-Su;Heo, Jin-Mok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • 2009.11a
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    • pp.346-346
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    • 2009
  • 산화물 형태 사용후핵연료의 효율적 처분 혹은 재활용을 위한 연구 가운데, 고온의 LiCl 용융염 중에서 전해환원하여 금속으로 환원시킨 후, 환원된 금속을 고온의 LiCl-KCl 용융염에서 전해정련하는 연구가 국내외적으로 활발하게 진행되고 있다. 전해환원을 위해 일정 농도 $Li_2O$가 LiCl 용융염에 첨가되며 $Li_2O$ 농도가 높으면 반응 재질의 부식성이 크게 증가하므로 일반적으로 우라늄 산화물은 1wt% 이하의 $Li_2O$ 농도에서 전해환원 된다. 우라늄 산화물의 전해환원 전위는 $Li_2O$의 전해환원 전위 보다 표준 상태를 기준으로 공정온도인 650 $^{\circ}C$ 에서 약 70 mV 정도 낮기 때문에 전해환원 과정에서 $Li_2O$ 의 환원으로 Li 금속이 생성될 가능성이 있으며 우라늄 산화물은 대부분 직접 전해환원 되지만 일부 Li에 의해 화학적으로 환원되기도 한다. 전해환원 공정에서 환원되지 않은 희토류 산화물은 전해정련 공정에서 $UCl_3$와 반응하여 $UO_2$를 생성시켜 공정 효율을 떨어뜨린다. 따라서 전해환원 공정에서 가능하연 최대한 희토류 산화물을 금속으로 환원시키는 조건을 찾아내는 것이 바람직하고 이를 위해서 우선 전해환원 공정에서 희토류 산화물의 화학적 거동의 이해가 요구된다. 본 연구에서 열역학적 검토를 통하여 희토류 산화물의 환원 조건을 조사한 결과 희토류 산화물은 매운 낮은 $Li_2O$ 농도에서 Li에 의해 환원되고, 1wt% 이하의 $Li_2O$ 농도에서는 Sc와 Lu의 산화물이 $Li_2O$와 복합산화물을 형성하고 이들 복합산화물은 Li에 의해 환원되지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 희토류 원소 별로 희토류 원소 산화물의 Li에 의한 환원 조건으로서 평형상태에서의 $Li_2O$ 농도 즉 환원 임계 $Li_2O$ 농도를 실험적으로 측정하였으며 1wt% $Li_2O$ 농도 이하에서 열역학적 해석과 동일하게 Sc와 Lu만이 복합산화물을 형성하여 Li에 의해 직접환원 되지 않는 것으로 관찰되었다.

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A Study on Addition of Rare Earth Element in the Spent Permanent Magnet Scrap to Gray Cast Iron (회주철에서의 폐 영구자석 스크랩을 활용한 희토류 원소 첨가 영향 연구)

  • Park, Seung-Yeon;Noh, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hyo-jung;Lim, Kyoung-Mook
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.48-57
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we developed a method for manufacturing high strength gray cast irons by adding a rare earth element (R.E.) included in a spent permanent magnet scrap to gray cast irons. The improvement of the mechanical properties of gray cast irons is attributed to A-type graphite formation promoted by complex sulfide, which was formed by R.E. in the spent magnets during a solidification process. The cast specimen inoculated by R.E. in the spent magnet scrap showed excellent tensile strength up to 306 MPa, and is similar to that of the specimen inoculated by expensive misch-metal. In this regards, we concluded that the cheap spent magnets scrap is a very efficient inoculation agent in fabrication of high performance gray cast irons.

Variation of Rare Earth Element Patterns during Rock Weathering and Ceramic Processes: A Preliminary Study for Application in Soil Chemistry and Archaeology (암석의 풍화과정 및 도자기 제조과정에 따른 희토류원소 분포도의 변화: 토양화학 및 고고학적 응용을 위한 기초연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Gu;Kim, Kun-Han;Kim, Jin-Kwan
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.133-143
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    • 2008
  • On the basis of chemical composition of granite, gneiss and their weathering products, in this paper, rare earth elements (REEs) was estimated as tracer for clarifying a geochemical variance of earth surface material during weathering process. The chemical composition of clay, clay ware and pottery also were measured for testifying usefulness of REE geochemistry in clarifying the source material of pottery. It was observed that there was no systematic variation of chemical composition among source rock, weathered rock and soil during weathering process. The chemical composition of clay, clay ware and pottery also did not show systematic variation by baking pottery. However, PAAS (Post Archean Australian Shale)-normalized REE patterns of rock-weathered rock-soil and clay-clay ware-pottery are similar regardless of weathering process or ceramic art. Our results confirm that REE geochemistry is powerful tool for clarifying the source materials of surface sediment or archaeological ceramic products.

Geochemical Composition of the Continental Crust in Korean Peninsula (한반도 지각암류의 지구화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Seung-Gu;Kim, Dong-Yeon
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.113-128
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    • 2012
  • The chemical composition of the continental crust play an important role in understanding of crustal formation and evolution and quantifying other processes taking place within continental crust. We summarized geochemical data reported in the previous literature for the crustal rocks in the Korean Peninsula and divided their chemical composition into geologic time scale. In the variation diagram normalized by average composition of the upper crustal rocks, the geochemical characteristics of the upper crust during Triassic period is different from those of the upper crustal rocks after Jurassic period or before Precambrian. However, the geochemical characteristics of the Jurassic and Precambrian period are similar each other. Our summarized data indicate that the source material of Triassic upper crust may be different from that of Jurassic or Precambrian upper crust.

Element distribution of the surface sediments from the loess plateau in China (황토고원 표층 시료의 원소분포 특성)

  • Yoon, Yoon Yeol;Kwon, Young Ihn;Cho, Soo Young;Lee, Kil Yong
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.468-473
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    • 2007
  • The chemical composition distribution of the surface samples collected from the loess plateau in China were estimated. Major elements concentration distribution difference between 10 different sampling site were not found except sample 3. This sample had higher contents of Ca, Mg, LOI and lower contents of Si, Fe, P, Na, Ti. And also, minor element contents such as Ba, Cr, Nb, Pb, Rb, Zr, V were lower than other samples. UCC-normalized abundances of the most elements were within $0.5-1.5{\times}UCC$ and Cr showed enrichment aspect. Rare-earth element (REE) analysis results showed light REE enriched pattern compared to heavy REE with negative Eu anomaly in condrite-normalized REE pattern.

Geochemical Study of the Cretaceous Granitic Rocks in Yeosu Area (여수 지역에 분포하는 백악기 화강암류에 대한 지화학적 연구)

  • Wee, Soo-Meen;Kim, Eun-Hyo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.267-281
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    • 2009
  • Cretaceous intrusive and extrusive rocks are widely distributed in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, possibly the result of intensive magmatism which occurred in response to subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the northeastern part of the Eurasian plate. Geochemical and petrological study on the Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Yeosu area were carried out in order to constrain the petrogenesis of the granitic rocks and to establish the paleotectonic environment of the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula. Igneous rocks of the Yeosu area consist of diorite, hornblende biotite pite and micrographic granite. Chondrite normalized REE patterns show generally enriched in LREE ($(La/Lu)^{cN}$=4.2-13.3). Diorites show flat to slight negative Eu anomalies while micrographic granites have strong negative Eu anomalies. The ${\Sigma}REE$ of the granites are 76.2-235 ppm, which corresponds to the range of the continental margin granite. Whole rock chemical data of the granitic rocks from the Yeosu area indicate that the rocks have characteristics of calc-alkaline series in the subalkaline field. On the A/NK vs. A/CNK and tectonic discrimination diagrams, parental magma type of the granites corresponds to I-type and volcanic arc granite (VAG). Interpretations of the chemical characteristics of the granitic rocks favor their emplacement in a compressional tectonic regime at continental margin during the subduction of Pacific plate.

Distribution Pattern, Geochemical Composition, and Provenance of the Huksan Mud Belt Sediments in the Southeastern Yellow Sea (황해 남동부 흑산니질대 퇴적물의 분포, 지화학적 조성 및 퇴적물 기원지)

  • Ha, Hun Jun;Chun, Seung Soo;Chang, Tae Soo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.289-302
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    • 2013
  • In order to determine the provenance of the Huksan Mud Belt sediments in the southeastern Yellow Sea, the major and rare earth elements of the same sediments were analyzed. The surface sediments were sampled from top of piston-cores and box-cores taken at 51 sites within the Huksan Mud Belt. With the mean grain size of $5-6{\phi}$, the sediments of the study area are mud-dominated. The spatial distribution patterns show that silt content is high in the northern Mud Belt, whereas clay content increases as it moves toward the southern Mud Belt. Interestingly, the geochemical compositions both of major and rare earth elements have resulted in differences of sediment provenance. Among the major elements, plots of Fe/Al vs. Mg/Al ratios, $Al_2O_3$ vs. MgO ratios, and $Al_2O_3$ vs. $K_2O$ reveal that the Huksan Mud Belt sediments are dominated by the Korean river-derived sediments. However, the characteristics of rare earth elements infer sediments originating from the Chinese rivers. This discrepancy between the above provenances is attributed to the different contributory factors in the content of chemical elements. Considering strong correlation between major elements with grain sizes, the contents of the major elements are thought to be influenced by the grain size. However, there is a weak correlation between rare earth elements and grain sizes. The behaviour of rare earth elements may be controlled by heavy minerals, rather than grain sizes. Further study requires to solve the discrepancy arose from the difference in applied chemical tracers.

Rare Earth Elements (REE)-bearing Coal Deposits: Potential of Coal Beds as an Unconventional REE Source (함희토류 탄층: 비전통적 희토류 광체로서의 가능성에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Woohyun;Park, Changyun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.241-259
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    • 2022
  • In general, the REE were produced by mining conventional deposits, such as the carbonatite or the clay-hosted REE deposits. However, because of the recent demand increase for REE in modern industries, unconventional REE deposits emerged as a necessary research topic. Among the unconventional REE recovery methods, the REE-bearing coal deposits are recently receiving attentions. R-types generally have detrital originations from the bauxite deposits, and show LREE enriched REE patterns. Tuffaceous-types are formed by syngenetic volcanic activities and following input of volcanic ash into the basin. This type shows specific occurrence of the detrital volcanic ash-driven minerals and the authigenic phosphorous minerals focused at narrow horizon between coal seams and tonstein layers. REE patterns of tuffaceous-types show flat shape in general. Hydrothermal-types can be formed by epigenetic inflow of REE originated from granitic intrusions. Occurrence of the authigenic halogen-bearing phosphorous minerals and the water-bearing minerals are the specific characteristics of this type. They generally show HREE enriched REE patterns. Each type of REE-bearing coal deposits may occur by independent genesis, but most of REE-bearing coal deposits with high REE concentrations have multiple genesis. For the case of the US, the rare earth oxides (REO) with high purity has been produced from REE-bearing coals and their byproducts in pilot plants from 2018. Their goal is to supply about 7% of national REE demand. For the coal deposits in Korea, lignite layers found in Gyungju-Yeongil coal fields shows coexistence of tuff layers and coal seams. They are also based in Tertiary basins, and low affection from compaction and coalification might resulted into high-REE tuffaceous-type coal deposits. Thus, detailed geologic researches and explorations for domestic coal deposits are required.

Hyperfine Structures of La I by using Saturation Absorption Spectroscopy and Polarization Intermodulated Excitation method (편광 변조 분광법과 포화 흡수 분광법을 이용한 La I의 초미세 구조 연구)

  • 채인옥;박현민;이미란;정의창;이용주;이종민
    • Proceedings of the Optical Society of Korea Conference
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    • 2000.08a
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    • pp.86-87
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    • 2000
  • 최근 들어 희토류 원소(Rare earth elements)에 대한 학문적 가치와 산업적 응용에의 중요성에 대한 인식이 증대되면서 이들 원소에 대한 분광학적 연구가 활발하게 이루어지고 있다. 란탄족 원소(Lantanoid)로도 일컬어지는 6주기 3족 원소(원자번호 57~71번)인 희토류 원소들은 일반적으로 녹는점 및 끓는점이 상대적으로 높고 보다 복잡한 원자 구조를 가지고 있으므로 원자 분광학적 연구가 쉽지 않다. 따라서 이들 원소들에 대한 분광학적 정보를 얻기 위해서는 고효율의 원자 시료 발생 방법 및 고분해능의 원자 분광법이 요구된다$^{(1)}$ . (중략)

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Optical properties of Rare-Earth-Implanted GaN Epilayer (희토류 원소를 이온주입법으로 도핑한 GaN 박막의 광전이 특성)

  • Kim, Yong-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.210-214
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    • 2007
  • We have studied optical transitions of Gd-implanted GaN epilayers. Photoluminescence transition intensity at 590 nm at T=5 K diminishes and its center position moves to short avelength (blue shift) with increasing temperature up to 200 K. Above T=200 K, the transition intensity increases with increasing temperature while the center position remains the same. We believe that such anomalous optical transition behavior is due to the effect of rare-element in the semiconductor host material and lattice imperfection which was occurred during the implantation process well as.