• Title/Summary/Keyword: 이완

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Practice in Relaxation Techniques (이완요법의 실제)

  • Joe, Sook-Haeng
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2001
  • The relaxation response is a state of profound rest, creates physiological responses directly opposite to the stress response. The relaxation response can be used to counteract the harmful effects of stress. The relaxation response can be elicited by a number of techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing, meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, biofeedback, etc. These relaxation methods in any mental or physical conditions associated with distress and even in normal people have useful benefits for stress control and health enhancement. These relaxation techniques are but one part of a comprehensive stress management program, through regular and continuous practice appropriate for each person, they will make an effective role in stress management. In this review, author reviewed how to practically use meditation, progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic training, in more detail. In the treatment of various stress-related disease, especially in psychiatric disorders, the relaxation technique may be a useful complement to conventional treatment and serves as an intervention between stress and disease.

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Use of Hand Massage with Presence to Increase Relaxation in Korean -American Elderly (재미 한국이민노인에게 시행한 손마사지가 이완에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Kyung-Sook;Snyder Mariah
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.623-631
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    • 1996
  • 간호사가 사용하는 중재로서 관심을 표현하는 방법이며 의사소통의 통로인 접촉의 한 형태로서의 마사지가 이완과 안녕감을 증진시킬 수 있는지를 알아보기 위해 간편하면서도 장소에 거의 구애를 받지 않는 손마사지를 미국 미네소타주에 살고 있는 22명의 한국 이민노인에게 시행하였다. 자료수집 기간은 1992년 12월부터 1993년 6월까지 약 6개월이 소요되었다. 편의표출방법으로 대상자를 선정한 원시실험연구설계로, 독립 변수로 손마사지를 사용하였고 이완행동, 수축기혈압, 이완기 혈압, 맥박수로 측정한 이완의 정도와 안녕감을 종속변수로 사용하였다. 손마사지는 Snyder등이 개발한 방법으로 한 손에 2분 30초씩 5분이 소요되는데 이틀에 한번씩 6회 실시하였다. 안녕 감을 측정하는 Cantril ladder는 10개의 사다리로 된 도구로 첫번 마사지전, 세번째 마사지후, 그리고 여섯번째 마사지후에 대상자로 하여금 직접 사다리 점수를 매기도록 하였다. Luiselli등이 개발한 이완행동 측정도구로 각 마사지 전후에 대상자의 이완정도를 관찰하였고, 마사지 전후에 혈압과 맥박수를 측정하였다. 자료는 paired t-test와 ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA로 분석하였다. 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 1-6회 동안의 마사지전의 이완점수의 평균값과 1-6회 동안의 마사지후의 이완점수의 평균값을 비교한 결과 마사지후에 이완의 정도가 유의하게 증가하였고 (t=10.70, p=.000), repeated measures ANOVA로 검증한 시간에 따른 효과도 유의한 차이를 보였다. 2. 1-6회 동안의 마사지전의 수축기 혈압의 평균값과 1-6회 동안의 마사지후의 수축기 혈압의 평균값을 비교한 결과 마사지후에 수축기 혈압이 유의하게 저하되었 다(t=6.09, p=.000). 3. 1-6회 동안의 마사지전의 이완기 혈압의 평균값과 1-6회 동안의 마사지후의 이완기 혈압의 평균값을 비교한 결과 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다(t=.27, p=.793). 4. 1-6회 동안의 마사지전의 맥박수의 평균값과 1-6회 동안의 마사지후의 맥박수의 평균값을 비교한 결과 마사지후의 맥박수가 유의하게 감소하였다. (t=4.45, p=.001). 5. Cantril 안녕감의 점수는 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다(F=2.42, p=1.01)

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혈관근에서 Na$^{+}$/Ca$^{2+}$ Exchange System의 역할구명

  • Baek, Young-Hong;Kook, Hyun;Ryu, Bong-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.86-86
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    • 1993
  • 혈관근의 수축 또는 이완 반응에서 $Na^{+}$/Ca$^{2+}$ exchange계의 역할을 알아보고자 먼저 가토와 흰쥐 흉부 대동맥에서 수축과 이완 반응을 검색하고 이때의 혈관 이완 반응을 증개하는 cAMP와 cGMP농도를 측정하였다. 내피세포가 존재한 표본에서 acetylcholine은 norepinephrine 수축 반응을 이완시켰고 이완 반응은 methylene blue로 소실되었으며 isoproterenol과 nitroprusside는 내피 존재와 제거 양표본에서 이완 반응을 일으켰으며 이때 isoproterenol은 CAMP농도를, nitroprusside는 cGMP농도를 증가시켰다.

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A Study on the Estimation Method of Rock Load Applied to Concrete Lining Using Back Analysis (역해석을 이용한 콘크리트라이닝 지반 이완하중 산정방법 연구)

  • Park, Ki Hwan;Shin, Young Wan;Kim, Jung Joo;Yoo, Han Kyu
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.1957-1968
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    • 2013
  • Design criteria for rock load on tunnel concrete lining has not been established yet. Generally rock load on tunnel concrete lining is empirically estimated, which leads to a conservative design. Ordinary estimation method of rock load includes various problems. Estimating by numerical analysis is very complicated and has not been verified with field measurements. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on practical method of estimating rock load which is more accurate to the real rock load on tunnel concrete lining. This study, presents estimation method of rock load on tunnel concrete lining. Crown settlement of the tunnel construction site has been measured and it was been back analyzed to estimate the rock load. The rock load was estimated to be smaller compare to the ordinary estimation method.

Characterization of Superoxide-dependent Endothelial Relaxing Factor(s) (Superoxide에 의존하여 내피세포에서 유리되는 이완성 물질의 특성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Gi-Nam;Lee, Won-Suk;Rhim, Byung-Yong;Hong, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 1990
  • We recently reported a development of an experimental system which can identify the release of a superoxide-dependent vasorelaxant factor from endothelial cells using a two-bath system. In the present work, we further exploited the above system and observed whether the superoxide-dependent relaxing factor(s), released from the porcine coronary artery (PCA) endothelium, was similar in relaxation to those obtained from cat thoracic aortic endothelium and cultured endothelial cells of bovine aorta. However, there was observed a novel difference among the former one and the latter two relaxing factors; the release of relaxing factor from PCA endothelium can be inhibited either by catalase or by superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas the latter two can be inhibited only by SOD. It was further attempted to characterize the synthetic mechanisms of the relaxing factors: (1) They were readily inhibited by various lipoxygenase inhibitors (gossypol, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, AA 861, and eicosatetraynoic acid). (2) They were not inhibited by cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) and by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenease inhibitors (proadifen and cimetidine). Thus, it is likely that these relaxing factors, although obtained from different species, show common functional roles of arteriolar relaxation. It is suggested that they are related to pathophysiological involvement of various tissue ischemia-reperfusion injuries.

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Stress Relaxation Coefficient Method for Concrete Creep Analysis of Composite Sections (합성단면의 콘크리트 크리프 해석을 위한 이완계수법)

  • Yon, Jung-Heum;Kyung, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Da-Na
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2011
  • The concrete creep deformation of a hybrid composite section can cause additional deformation of the composite section and the stress relaxation of pre-compressive stress on the concrete section due to partial restraint of the deformation. In this study, the stress relaxation coefficient method (SRCM) is derived for simple analysis of complicate hybrid or composite sections for engineering purpose. Also, an equation of the stress relaxation coefficient (SRC) required for the SRCM is proposed. The SRCM is derived with the parameters of a creep coefficient, section and loading properties using the same method as the constant-creep step-by-step method (CC-SSM). The errors of the SRCM is improved by using the proposed SRC equation than the average SRC's which were estimated from the CC-SSM. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the SRCM with the proposed SRC equation for concrete with creep coefficient less than 3 was less than 1.2% to the creep deformation at the free condition and was 3.3% for the 99% reliability. The proposed SRC equation reflects the internal restraint of composite sections, and the effective modulus of elasticity computed with the proposed SRC can be used effectively to estimate the rigidity of a composite section in a numerical analysis which can be applied in analysis of the external restrain effect of boundary conditions.

A Study on Psychological Relaxation apply to Motion Graphic (모션그래픽을 활용한 심리이완 유도에 관한 연구)

  • 이주현;김종기;김치용
    • Proceedings of the Korea Multimedia Society Conference
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    • pp.684-687
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    • 2004
  • 현대 사회에서 인간은 과학의 발달과 환경오염, 복잡한 사회에서의 다양한 인간관계 둥으로 인해 긴장과 불안을 경험하며 자신도 모르게 스트레스를 받으며 살아가고 있다. 긴장과 불안은 스트레스의 요인이 되며 지속적으로 쌓이게 되면 정신적, 신체적 질병을 가져온다. 이러한 스트레스를 해소하기 위한 방법으로는 바이오피드백, 이완요법, 명상, 가벼운 운동 등이 있으며 현재는 멀티테라피가 널리 이용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 기존의 스트레스 해소방법이 아닌 시각적 요소만을 가지고 제작된 모션그래픽을 활용하여 심리이완을 유도할 수 있는 방법에 관하여 연구하였다. 첫째, 모션그래픽의 구성요소 중 3가지 요소(색, 헝태, 방향)를 조합한 설문 모션그래픽 중 어떤 요소가 가장 심리이완을 유도하는 것인지를 조사하여 분석하였고, 둘째, 3가지 요소(색, 형태, 방향)를 각각 2가지로 나누어 특성을 비교 분석해 보았다. 그 결과 심리이완을 유도하는 모션그래픽은 한색, 원, 수평으로 조합된 모션그래픽으로 문헌 조사와 동일한 결과를 나타났으나, 각 요소별 분석에서는 3가지 요소 중 색과 형태는 동일한 반면, 방향은 수평보다 수직이 심리이완을 유도하는 요소로 분석되었다. 향후 본 연구를 토대로 각 요소에 대한 세부적인 분석이 이루어진다면 심리이완에 있어 모션그래픽의 폭넓은 활용이 기대되어진다.

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Multi-Component Relaxation Study of Human Brain Using Relaxographic Analysis (Relaxographic 분석법을 이용한 뇌의 다중 자기이완특성에 관한 연구)

  • Yongmin Chang;Bong Soo Han;Bong Seok Kang;Kyungnyeo Jeon;Kyungsoo Bae;Yong-Sun Kim;Duk-Sik Kang
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.120-128
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To demonstrate that the relaxographic method provides additional information such as the distribution of relaxation times and water content which are poentially applicable to clinical medicine. Materials and Methods : First, the computer simulation was performed with the generated relaxation data to verify the accuracy and reliabilility of the relaxographic method (CONTINI). Secondly, in or der to see how well the CONTIN quantifies and resolves the two different ${T_1}$ environments, we calculated the oil to water peak area ratios and identified peak positions of ${T_1}-distribution$ curve of the phantom solutions, which consist of four centrifugal tubes (10 ml) filled with the compounds of 0, 10, 20, 30% of corn oil and distilled water, using CONTIN. Finally, inversion recovery MR images for a volunteer are acquired for each TI ranged from 40 to 1160 msec with TR/TE=2200/20 msec. From the 3 different ROIs (GM, WM, CSF), CONTIN analysis was performed to obtain the ${T_1}$-distribution curves, which gave peak positions and peak area of each ROI location. Results : The simulation result shows that the errors of peak positions were less in the higher peak (centered ${T_1}=600$ msec) than in the lower peak (centered ${T_1}=150$ msec) for all SNR but the errors of peak areas were larger in the higher peak than in the lower peak. The CONTIN analysis of the measured relaxation data of phantoms revealed two peaks between 20 and 60 msec and between 500 and 700 msec. The analysis gives the peak area ratio as oil 10%: oil 20%: oil 30% = 1:1.3:1.9, which is different from the exact ratio, 1:2:3. For human brain, in ROI 3 (CSF), only one component of -distributions was observed whereas in ROI 1(GM) and in ROI 2 (WM) we observed two components of ${T_1}-distribution$. For the WM and CSF there was great agreement between the observed ${T_1}-relaxation$ times and the reported values. Conclusion : we demonstrated that the relaxographic method provided additional information such as the distribution of relaxation times and water content, which were not available in the routine relaxometry and ${T_1}/{T_2}$ mapping techniques. In addition, these additional information provided by relaxographic analysis may have clinical importance.

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Evaluation of Attention and Relaxation Levels of Archers in Shooting Process using Brain Wave Signal Analysis Algorithms (뇌파 신호 분석 알고리즘을 이용한 양궁 슈팅 과정에 대한 집중력 및 긴장이완 수준 평가)

  • Lee, Koo-Hyoung
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2009
  • Archer's capability of attention and relaxation control during shooting process was evaluated using EEG technology. Attention and meditation algorithms were used to represent the levels of mental concentration and relaxation levels. Elite, mid-level, and novice archers were tested for short and long distance shootings in the archery field. Single channel EEG was recorded on the forehead (Fp1) during the shooting process, and attention and meditation levels were computed by real time. Four types of variations were defined based on the increasing and decreasing patterns of attention and meditation levels during shooting process. Elite archers showed increases in both attention and relaxation while mid-level archers showed increased attention but decreased relaxation. Elite archers also showed higher levels of attention at the release than mid-level and novice archers. Levels of attention and relaxation and their variation patterns were useful to categorize archers and to provide feedback in training.

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Release of a Stable Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor by A23187 from the Rabbit Aortic Endothelium (토끼 대동맥 내피에서 A23187에 의하여 유리되는 혈관이완물질의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chi-Dae;Rhim, Byung-Yong;Hong, Sung-Chul;Hong, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 1991
  • In the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery denuded of endothelium, we characterized the identity of the A23187-induced endothelium-dependent relaxing factor (EDRF) released from the endothelium of rabbit aorta, which is distinct from that of acetylcholine-induced relaxing factor. In the normal physiological salt solution (PSS), the dose-response curves to A23187 and acetylcholine were overlapped together. Their effects were also inhibited by methylene blue. Upon application of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase into the bath, the phenylephrine-induced precontraction was transiently increased followed by the sustained relaxation. During the burst of hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction, the $Ca^{++}$ ionophore, A23187 but not acetylcholine was able to cause an immediate relaxation. However, A23187-induced relaxation was not manifested when precontracted by 50 mM $K^+-PSS$. Nevertheless, in the presence of superoxide dismutase, A23187 could produce an immediate relaxation without accompanying the transient contraction as acetylcholine did during the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction. On the other hand, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was more sensitively inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) than A23187-induced relaxation. Endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside was not affected by PMA. Based on these results it is suggested that both A23187 and acetylcholine cause the methylene blue-inhibitable endothelium-dependent relaxation, and in addition, A23187 may release a stable EDRF which is resistant to superoxide anion and PMA.

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