• Title/Summary/Keyword: 시공간

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Simulation Approach for the Tracing the Marine Pollution Using Multi-Remote Sensing Data (다중 원격탐사 자료를 활용한 해양 오염 추적 모의 실험 방안에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Keunyong;Kim, Euihyun;Choi, Jun Myoung;Shin, Jisun;Kim, Wonkook;Lee, Kwang-Jae;Son, Young Baek;Ryu, Joo-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.2_2
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    • pp.249-261
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    • 2020
  • Coastal monitoring using multiple platforms/sensors is a very important tools for accurately understanding the changes in offshore marine environment and disaster with high temporal and spatial resolutions. However, integrated observation studies using multiple platforms and sensors are insufficient, and none of them have been evaluated for efficiency and limitation of convergence. In this study, we aimed to suggest an integrated observation method with multi-remote sensing platform and sensors, and to diagnose the utility and limitation. Integrated in situ surveys were conducted using Rhodamine WT fluorescent dye to simulate various marine disasters. In September 2019, the distribution and movement of RWT dye patches were detected using satellite (Kompsat-2/3/3A, Landsat-8 OLI, Sentinel-3 OLCI and GOCI), unmanned aircraft (Mavic 2 pro and Inspire 2), and manned aircraft platforms after injecting fluorescent dye into the waters of the South Sea-Yeosu Sea. The initial patch size of the RWT dye was 2,600 ㎡ and spread to 62,000 ㎡ about 138 minutes later. The RWT patches gradually moved southwestward from the point where they were first released,similar to the pattern of tidal current flowing southwest as the tides gradually decreased. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) image showed highest resolution in terms of spatial and time resolution, but the coverage area was the narrowest. In the case of satellite images, the coverage area was wide, but there were some limitations compared to other platforms in terms of operability due to the long cycle of revisiting. For Sentinel-3 OLCI and GOCI, the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were the highest, but small fluorescent dye detection was limited in terms of spatial resolution. In the case of hyperspectral sensor mounted on manned aircraft, the spectral resolution was the highest, but this was also somewhat limited in terms of operability. From this simulation approach, multi-platform integrated observation was able to confirm that time,space and spectral resolution could be significantly improved. In the future, if this study results are linked to coastal numerical models, it will be possible to predict the transport and diffusion of contaminants, and it is expected that it can contribute to improving model accuracy by using them as input and verification data of the numerical models.

Wildfire Severity Mapping Using Sentinel Satellite Data Based on Machine Learning Approaches (Sentinel 위성영상과 기계학습을 이용한 국내산불 피해강도 탐지)

  • Sim, Seongmun;Kim, Woohyeok;Lee, Jaese;Kang, Yoojin;Im, Jungho;Kwon, Chunguen;Kim, Sungyong
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.5_3
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    • pp.1109-1123
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    • 2020
  • In South Korea with forest as a major land cover class (over 60% of the country), many wildfires occur every year. Wildfires weaken the shear strength of the soil, forming a layer of soil that is vulnerable to landslides. It is important to identify the severity of a wildfire as well as the burned area to sustainably manage the forest. Although satellite remote sensing has been widely used to map wildfire severity, it is often difficult to determine the severity using only the temporal change of satellite-derived indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR). In this study, we proposed an approach for determining wildfire severity based on machine learning through the synergistic use of Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar-C data and Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument data. Three wildfire cases-Samcheok in May 2017, Gangreung·Donghae in April 2019, and Gosung·Sokcho in April 2019-were used for developing wildfire severity mapping models with three machine learning algorithms (i.e., Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and Support Vector Machine). The results showed that the random forest model yielded the best performance, resulting in an overall accuracy of 82.3%. The cross-site validation to examine the spatiotemporal transferability of the machine learning models showed that the models were highly sensitive to temporal differences between the training and validation sites, especially in the early growing season. This implies that a more robust model with high spatiotemporal transferability can be developed when more wildfire cases with different seasons and areas are added in the future.

Distribution of Pollutant Content within Surface Sediment and Evaluation of Its Removal Efficiency in the Sihwa Constructed Wetland (시화호 인공습지에서 표층퇴적토의 오염물질 함량 분포와 제거효율 평가)

  • Choi, Don-Hyeok;Choi, Kwang-Soon;Kim, Dong-Sup;Kim, Sea-Won;Hwang, In-Seo;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Kang, Ho;Kim, Eun-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.755-764
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    • 2009
  • To estimate the pollutant removal efficiency by surface sediment, matter content within surface sediment and its release from the sediment were investigated at 12 sites in the Sihwa constructed wetland. The content of COD, TOC, IL, TN, and TP within sediment varied temporally and spacially, showing ranges of 4.1~7.7 mg/g, 0.29~2.81%, 1.88~8.15%, 0.03~0.35%, 362~1,150 ${\mu}g$/g, respectively. The contents of organic matter and TN were significantly highest in March and decreased towards fall (March${\geq}$May${\geq}$July${\geq}$September, p=0.003 for COD, p=0.001 for TOC, p=0.017 for IL, p=0.015 for TN), whereas TP content was not significant statistically in difference between sampling times. The contents of heavy metals also varied largely with sampling sites and times (As:3.5~3.9 ${\mu}g$/g, Cd:0.08~0.38 ${\mu}g$/g, Cr:51.8~107.0 ${\mu}g$/g, Cu:16.4~81.8 ${\mu}g$/g, Pb:26.~81.8 ${\mu}g$/g, Zn:85~559 ${\mu}g$/g). As compared with sediment quality guideline, the content of organic matter within surface sediment of the Sihwa constructed wetland was classified as unpolluted level. In contrast, the contents of TN, TP and heavy metals were classified as medium or severe pollution state, except some heavy metals (Cu and Pb). From the results of release experiment, TN, Pb, and Zn tend to be removed by surface sediment, but TP, Cd, and Cu have a tendency to released from sediment. Therefore, a relevant plan to improve the removal efficiency of pollutant (especially phosphorus) by surface sediment in the Sihwa constructed wetland is needed.

Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease (파킨슨병 환자의 뇌관류 분석)

  • Jeong, Young-Jin;Park, Min-Jung;Kim, Jae-Woo;Kang, Do-Young
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.17-28
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Methods and Materials: Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: $62.9{\pm}6.9$ y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M:15, F:40, mean age: $61.4{\pm}9.2$ y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed $^{99m}Tc$-HMP AO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. Results: At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal cerebral blood perfusion in 32 (14.7%) of 219 patients with PD, decreased perfusion on the frontal lobe in 45 patients (20.6%), the temporal lobe in 39 patients (17.4%), the parietal lobe in 39 patients (17.9%), the occipital lobe in 40 patients (18.3%), diffuse area in 14 patients (6.4%) and unclassified in 10 patients (4.6%). Fifthly, we compared the results of the neuropsychological test and cerebral perfusion pattern. There was no correlation between two tests except visuospatial function. Conclusion: Various perfusion state were found in patients with PD according to the age and sex. Also we were able to classify perfusion state into several groups and compare the neuropsychological test with cerebral perfusion.

Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Surface Winds over the Adjacent Seas of the Korean Peninsula (한국 주변해역에서의 해상풍의 시공간적 특성)

  • Han, Sang-Kyu;Lee, Heung-Jae;Na, Jung-Yul
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.550-564
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    • 1995
  • The temporal and spatial characteristics of wind fields over the neighbouring seas of the Korean peninsula are investigated using 10-years daily wind data during 1978${\sim}$1987 which have been spatially smoothed and low-pass filtered. Long term annual and monthly means are examined for synoptic patterns and spectral analyses are made for temporal variability and spatial coherence. Spatial patterns of the annual mean wind stress and curl have a strong resemblance with those of monthly means during the winter season. Two outstanding periodicities are observed at 1 and 2 cycles per year. The synoptic winds over the study area are highly coherent at both the annual and semi-annual periodicities. However, each basin has its own characteristic spatial pattern. For instance, the prevailing wind during the winter season is northerIy over the northern East Sea (ES), Yellow Sea (YS), and northern East China Sea (ECS), while it is northwesterly over the southern ES and northesterly over the northern ES and southern ECS. At the same time, the wind stress curl is positive over the northern ES and southern ECS, while it is negative over the southern ES, YS and northern ECS. On the other hand, the wind field during the summer season, with its strength being much reduced, is completely different from that during the winter season, and frequent passage of tropical storms provokes large temporal variability over ECS. One remarkable point is that the annual cycle, dominated by the Siberian High, tends to propagate from northeast to southwest, i.e., from northern 25 toward southern ES, YS and ECS, while the semi-annual cycle propagates in the opposite direction, from southwest to northeast. The semi-annual periodicity may reflect development of extratropical cyclones in spring and fall which frequently cross the Korean peninsula. In higher frequencies, there are no dominant periodicities, but local winds over YS and ES are highly correlated for frequencies larger than 0.1 cycles per day and phase difference increases linearly with frequency. This linear increase of phase corresponds to phase speed of 550 and 730 km/d at 0.1 and 0.3 cpd, respectively, The phase speed is apparently coincident with moving speed of extratropical cyclones across the Korean peninsula in the west-east direction.

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Distribution of Indicator Species of Copepods and Chaetognaths in the Southeastern Area of the Yellow Sea and Their Relationship to the Characteristics of Water Masses (황해 동남 해역의 수괴지표성 요각류 및 모악류의 분포와 수괴특성)

  • PARK Joo-Suck;LEE Sam-Seuk;KANG Young-Shil;LEE Byung-Don;HUH Sung-Hoi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.251-264
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    • 1992
  • Distribution of indicator species of copepods and chaetognaths were studied as an indicator species of water mass in the southeastern area of the Yellow Sea. Undinula darwini, Lucicutia flavicornis, Pleuromamma gracilis, Euchaeta resselli, Euchaeta plane and Sagitta enflata were found to be reliable indicator species for determining warm water mass. Of these species, E. plana and E. rusrelli have a weak tolerance on the low temperature. Sagitta crassa was indicator species of neritic waters; Sagitta bedoti was that of mixing waters. Centropages abdominalis represented neritic cold waters. In February, U darwini, L. flavicornis, P. gracilis, E. russelli, E. plana and S. enflata occurred in the western waters of Cheju-Do where warm waters over $14^{\circ}C$ occupied. Centropages abdominalis occurred in the northern area beyond Chindo with water temperature less than $10^{\circ}C$. E. plana, E. russelli and S. bedoti were found at the regions between Cheju-Do and Chindo where the water temperature was $12- 14^{\circ}C$ corresponding to the mixing waters. Based on cluster analysis and T-S diagram in February three different water masses were identified from the south to the north. In August, water masses were analyzed at two different layers, 0-20m and 20m- bottom layers, separated by bhermocline depth. In 0-20m layer, E. plana and E. russelli were found from the western waters of Cheju-Do to Daehuksando. In 20m- bottom layer, E. russelli and E plena occurred at the northwestern waters of Cheju-Do with the water temperature warmer than $12^{\circ}C.\;C.$ abdominalis was found at the northern area beyond Chindo. Based on the cluster analysis and T-S diagram in August three different water masses at 0-20m and 20m-bottom layers were identified from the coast to the offshore. C. abdominalis was found at the adjacent water of Chindo at 0-20m layer and the northern area beyond Chindo at 20m~bottom layer. This fact suggested that the cold water mass existed at tile adjacent waters of Chindo in summer.

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Water Quality and Chlorophyll-a at the Birth Stage of a Large Reclaimed Estuarine Lake in Korea (Lake Hwaong) (간척하구호 (화옹호) 태동기의 수질과 엽록소-a 변화)

  • Kim, Ho-Sub;Chung, Mi-Hee;Choi, Chung-Il;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2003
  • This study evaluated the change of water quality and chlorophyll - a at the birth stage of a large reclaimed estuarine lake (Lake Hwaong) of which the dike was finally constructed in March, 2002. Physico -chemical parameters and chlorophyll - a were investigated along a longitudinal transect, including 3 in-lake sites and 1 out-lake site from June to November, 2002. Salinity at all in-lake sites was over 21 psu during the study period, indicating that lake is still in the seawater phase. Salinity was periodically diluted at times when precipitation was high, especially in August. Chemocline was established in July near the dam site, and correspondingly vertical profile of dissolved oxygen was very clear during that Period. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations at all lake sites were in the eutrophic range, and they were especially high at the stream inlet site. Nutrients concentration was not much varied vertically but significantly varied temporally, and correlated significantly with precipitation and chlorophyll-a concentration, indicating that inflowing water from the watershed seemed not to improve lake water by dilution but cause eutrophication of the lake, and thereby stimulate phytoplankton development. Based on the analyses of nutrient ratio (N/P) and trophic state deviation, both phosphorus and nitrogen appeared to limit phytoplankton growth in the lake. Phosphorus limitation appeared to be probable at all in-lake sites with being most severe at the stream inlet site. Nitrogen limitation seemed to occur at both in-lake and out-lake sites. These results indicate that in Lake Hwaong experiencing the very early stage of a reclaiming lake, water quality and phytoplankton development appear to be affect-ed largely by salinity and hydrology and nutrients from the inflowing water. Lake biogeochemistry is still very unstable, and thus further long-term study is necessary to understand the effects of seawater to freshwater conversion on lake biology and water chemistry.

Relationship between Earthquake and Fluctuation of Water Level in Active Fault Zone and National Groundwater Monitoring Wells of Gyeongju Area (경주 활성단층대 및 주변 국가지하수 관측정에서 지진과 수위변동 상관관계 연구)

  • Jang, Hyeon-Woo;Jeong, Chan-Ho;Lee, Yong-Cheon;Lee, Yu-Jin;Hong, Jin-Woo;Kim, Cheon-Hwan;Kim, Young-Seog;Kang, Tae-Seob
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.617-634
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of between earthquakes and fluctuation of water level in a groundwater well of the active-fault zone and 124 national groundwater monitoring wells in Gyeongju area. The spatial and temporal relationships between the fluctuation of water level and the earthquake were analyzed by the calculation of earthquake effectiveness (ε) and q-factor which are the function of earthquake magnitude and distance from epicenter. Two earthquake events of E1 (April 22, 2019, M 3.8) and E2 (June 11, 2019, M 2.5) show a close relationship with a post-seismic 83 cm decrease and a pre-seismic 76 cm increase in water level at the active fault zone of Dangu-ri, respectively. The spatial analysis of water level fluctuation data in National Groundwater Monitoring Networks caused by earthquake events shows a more distinct response in deep groundwater around fault zones than other area, and a greater change in deep groundwater than shallow groundwater. It's inferred that the decrease and increase in groundwater level are affected by the expansion of fractures and compression of rock mass due to seismic stress, respectively. The effective ranges of ε-value and q-factor of the monitoring well in Dangu-ri were calculated as 2.70E-10~5.60E-10 and 14.4~18.0, respectively.

Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Intertidal and Subtidal Waters in the Vicinity of Kunsan (군산부근 조간대 및 조하대역에서의 식물플랑크톤과 Bacterioplankton)

  • Lee, Won Ho;Lee, Gean Hyoung;Choi, Moon Sul;Lee, Da Mi
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1989
  • Quantitative species distribution and primary productivity of phytoplankton were studied monthly from August, 1987 to July, 1988 along with the quantitative distribution of total heterotrophic bacterioplankton and three groups of physiologically chracteristic bacterioplankton in the intertidal and subtidal waters off Kum River Estuary, Yellow Sea. A total of 121 phytoplankton taxa including 102 diatoms occurred, and cell concentration ranged from 15 to 5451 (cells/ml). The great spatio-temporal variations of the number of phytoplankton species and cell concentration well reflected the environmental differences between the intertidal and subtidal waters. Primary productivity (in Piopt, mgC/$m^3$/hr) ranged from 0.6 to 27.3. Just after the phytoplankton bloom (March) Piopt was very low in April at station 1, where amylolytic bacterioplankton also showed quite low population density. The peaks of primary productivity were not always coincided with those of phytoplankton standing crop. The ratio of Piopt's between samples well indicated the environmental differences between the intertidal and subtidal waters. Little characteristic trend was found in the scatter diagrams of phytoplankton standing crop along the population densities of total heterotrophic bacterioplankton and the three groups of physiologically characteristic bacterioplankton. In summer the phytoplankton standing crop was minimum in contrast with the high population density of bacterioplankton, which implies the influx of much allochthonous orgainc matter from Kum River. The scatter diagrams of Piopt along bacterioplankton population density revealed some phenomena there. Piopt had highly positive correlation with the population density of amylolytie bacterioplankton($R^2$=0.84) and that of lipolytic bacterioplankton($R^2$=0.70) while total heterotrophic bacterioplankton and proteolytic bacterioplankton had lesser correlations with Piopt. From the regression lines the increase of unit Piopt (mgC/$m^3$/hr) in the study area was calculated to mean the increase of $9.0{\times}10$ cells/ml and $8.0{\times}10$ cells/ml of amylolytic bacterioplankton and lipolytic bacterioplankton, respectively.

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Calculation of future rainfall scenarios to consider the impact of climate change in Seoul City's hydraulic facility design standards (서울시 수리시설 설계기준의 기후변화 영향 고려를 위한 미래강우시나리오 산정)

  • Yoon, Sun-Kwon;Lee, Taesam;Seong, Kiyoung;Ahn, Yujin
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.419-431
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    • 2021
  • In Seoul, it has been confirmed that the duration of rainfall is shortened and the frequency and intensity of heavy rains are increasing with a changing climate. In addition, due to high population density and urbanization in most areas, floods frequently occur in flood-prone areas for the increase in impermeable areas. Furthermore, the Seoul City is pursuing various projects such as structural and non-structural measures to resolve flood-prone areas. A disaster prevention performance target was set in consideration of the climate change impact of future precipitation, and this study conducted to reduce the overall flood damage in Seoul for the long-term. In this study, 29 GCMs with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were used for spatial and temporal disaggregation, and we also considered for 3 research periods, which is short-term (2006-2040, P1), mid-term (2041-2070, P2), and long-term (2071-2100, P3), respectively. For spatial downscaling, daily data of GCM was processed through Quantile Mapping based on the rainfall of the Seoul station managed by the Korea Meteorological Administration and for temporal downscaling, daily data were downscaled to hourly data through k-nearest neighbor resampling and nonparametric temporal detailing techniques using genetic algorithms. Through temporal downscaling, 100 detailed scenarios were calculated for each GCM scenario, and the IDF curve was calculated based on a total of 2,900 detailed scenarios, and by averaging this, the change in the future extreme rainfall was calculated. As a result, it was confirmed that the probability of rainfall for a duration of 100 years and a duration of 1 hour increased by 8 to 16% in the RCP4.5 scenario, and increased by 7 to 26% in the RCP8.5 scenario. Based on the results of this study, the amount of rainfall designed to prepare for future climate change in Seoul was estimated and if can be used to establish purpose-wise water related disaster prevention policies.