• Title/Summary/Keyword: 변화

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Genesis and Characteristics of the Soil Clay Minerals Derived from Major Parent Rocks in Korea -I. Rock-forming Minerals and Mineralogical Characteristics of the Parent Rocks (한국(韓國)의 주요(主要) 모암(母岩)에서 발달(發達)된 토양점토(土壤粘土) 광물(鑛物)의 특성(特性)과 생성학적(生成學的) -I. 조암광물(造岩鑛物)과 광물학적(鑛物學的) 특성(特性))

  • Um, Myung-Ho;Lim, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Young-Ho;Um, Ki-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1991
  • A study was carried out to investigate the composition of rock-forming minerals and mineralogical characteristics of the five major parent rocks in Korea. The identification was done through the analyses of chemical. X-ray diffraction, thermal(DTA, TG), infrared spectroscopic, and microscopic methods. Among these methods, X-ray diffraction was considered to be the most rapid and effective way to identify minerals in the parent rocks. The main rock-forming minerals of the parent rocks were feldspars, quartz, and micas in granite and granite-gneiss, calcite and dolomite in limestone, quartz and calcite in shale, plagioclase and augite in basalt. A small amount of sesquioxides was identified as a accessory mineral by means of DTA from the parent rocks of Weoljeong series(granite) and Cheongsan series(granite-gneiss). The abrasion pH affecting the soil formation ranged from 7.5 to 8.4 in the parent rocks containing ferromagnesian minerals and carbonates. In the granite and granite-gneiss of which the main rock-forming minerals were feldspars and quartz with low content of biotite, the abrasion pH ranged from 6.2 to 6.4. In chemical composition of the parent rocks, Si, AI, and K oxides tented to increase with higher contents of quartz, feldspars, and muscovite, while Fe and Mg oxides with higher content of biotite, chlorite, amphiboles, and augite. Higher ignition loss in limestone and shale resulted in the release of $CO_2$ from calcite and/or dolomite.

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Changes of Properties in the Soil Treated with Paper Mill Sludge (제지스럿지 시용토양(施用土壤)의 성질변화(性質變化))

  • Lee, Kyu Seung;Choi, Jong Woo;Song, Jae Young;Kim, Moon Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.74-79
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    • 1991
  • In order to use of new organic matter source, soil samples collected from paddy, upland and orchard treated with kraft and paper board mill sludge were analysed comparing with non-treated soil in view of some soil properties, soil microorganisms and soil enzyme activities. Also, the value of fertilizer was estimated with kraft and paper board mill sludge. 1. Paper mill sludge showed more than 55% of organic matter content, and higher total nitrogen and phosphorus, and CEC. 2. Soils treated with kraft sludge were higher contents than non-treated 2.5-3 for organic matter, 1.5-2 for total-nitrogen, 2 for $NO_3$-N, 1.5 for phosphorus and 1.4 times for CEC. Also, 12-1.9 for bacteria and 3 times for fungi, and 1.4-1.5 of cellulase, 1.5-1.8 of phosphatase and 1.5-1.8 times of urease activities. 3. Organic matter contents, number of fungi, and activities of cellulase and phosphatase in soil treated with paper board sludge were 1.4-22, 2.4, 1.5-1.6 and 1.3-1.4 times higher than non-treated soil, respectively. 4. Paper mill sludge was evaluated as a good organic matter source to increase of soil organic matter, CEC, inorganic components, soil microbes and enzyme activities.

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Enzymatic Studies on the α-Galactosidases from Soybean and Aspergillus niger (대두(大豆) 및 Aspergillus niger α-galactosidase의 효소학적(酵素學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Keum, Jong-Hwa;Oh, Man-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.49-73
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    • 1991
  • To elucidate enzymatic properties of $\alpha$-galactosidases (EC3, 2, 1, 22) from germinated soybean and Aspergillus niger changes in the enzyme activities and oligosaccharide contents during germination of soybean were determined and $\alpha$-galactosidases from germinated soybean and wheat bran culture of Aspergillus niger were purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Their chemical and enzymatic properties were investigated and the results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. $\alpha$-Galactosidase activity of soybean was maximized when it was germinated at $25^{\circ}C$ for 120 hours. And raffinose and stachyose in soybean were decomposed completely after 96 hours and 120 hours of germination, respectively. 2. The highest level of $\alpha$-Galactosidase activity was obtained when Aspergillus niger was grown on wheat bran medium at $30^{\circ}C$ for 96 hours. 3. Soybean $\alpha$-galactosidase was purified by 6.6 fold by ammonium slufate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex A-50., and gel filtration on Sephadex G-150. Its specific activity was 825 units/mg protein and the yield was 2.5% of the total activity of crude extracts. 4. Aspergillus niger $\alpha$-galactosidase was purified by 23.7 fold. Its specific activity was 1,229 units/mg protein and the yield was 14% of the total activity of wheat bran culture. 5. The purified $\alpha$-galactosidases of soybean and Aspergillus niger were found to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by HPLC. 6. Chemical properties of the purified $\alpha$-galactosidases were : 1) The soybean $\alpha$-galactosidase was monomeric and its molecular weight was estimated to be 30,000 by SDS-PAGE whereas the Aspergillus niger $\alpha$-galactosidase was a tetrameric glycoprotein which consisted of identical subunits with molecular weight of 28,000 each.

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Effect of Shift Interval for the Clinical Nurse on the Circadian Rhythm (임상 간호사의 교대근무 기간이 circadian rhythm 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 황애란;정현숙;임영신;이혜원;김조자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.129-149
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    • 1991
  • Circadian rhythm is entrained in the 24-hour time interval by periodic factors in the environment, known as zeitgeber. But most rotating work schedules are outside the range of the entrainment of the pacemaker timing the human circadian sleep - wake cycle. It has been postulated that physiological and emotional disturbances occur in most human functions when the circadian rhythm is disturbed. So application of circadian principles to the design of shift schedules can aid in maintaining the temporal integrity of the circadian system and thereby minimize for the shift worker any detrimental consequences of circadian disruption. This study was a quasi-experimental study to test the effect of shift intervals for the clinical nurse on the circadian rhythm. Twenty nurses newly employed in general units of two hospitals were selected as an experimental group and twelve college nursing students as a control group. Both groups were selected according to an established criteria using a purposive sampling technique. Ten subjects were assigned to a weekly shift group and another ten to a biweekly shift group engaged in a semi -continuous shift schedule(sunday off) with a backward direction, that is, morning -evening - night shift. The control group worked a morning shift for 42 days. Oral temperature rhythm, waking tim, sleep - wake cycle, fatigue, and mental performance were measured during the experimental period. The data collection period was from April 30, 1990 to June 10, 1990. MANOVA, paired t-test, ANOVA, and Student Newman Keuls method were used for statistical analysis. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Phase delay in the acrophase of temperature rhythm was shown according to the backward rotating shift. A complete adaptation to work on the night shift was achieved between the sixth and ninth day of the night shift. 2. There was no difference in either waking time or sleep- wake cycle according to the duration of the working day for every shift group. Significant difference was found in the waking time and the sleep -wake cycle for subjects on the morning, evening, and night shift in both of the shift groups(weekly shift group : λ=0.121, p<0.01, λ=0.112, p<0.01, biweekly shift group : λ=0.116, p<0.01, λ=0.084, p<0.01). 3. There was no difference in fatigue between the first working day and the last working day for the control group and for the biweekly shift group. In the weekly shift group, physical fatigue was significantly different for the first day and the sixth day of the night shift(t=-2.28, p<0.05). Physical fatigue and total fatigue on the first day of the night shift showed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=5.79, p<0.01, F=4.56, p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05), Physical fatigue, neurosensory fatigue and total fatigue on the last day of the night shift showed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=12.65, p<0.01, F=7.77, p<0.01, F=9.68, p<0.01). There was a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05). 4. No difference in mental performance was seen between the first day and the last day of work in each case. An arithmatic test on the first day of the night shift revealed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=3.79, p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05) . The digital symbol substitution test and the arithmetic test on the last day of the night shift showed a significant difference among the control group, the weekly shift group, and the biweekly shift group(F=3.68, p<0.05, F=5.55, p<0.01), and both showed a significant difference between the shift groups and the control group(p<0.05). Accordingly, this study showed that during night duty, the waking time, sleep- wake cycle, and fatigue increased and mental performance decreased compared with morning and evening duty. It was also found that the weekly shift group had a higher fatigue score on the sixth day of night duty as compared to the -first day, but the waking time, sleep- wake cycle, and mental performance revealed no difference for the duration of the night duty or between shift groups, and complete adaptation of temperature rhythm was achieved between the sixth and ninth day of night duty. It is possible to conclude from these results that for intermediate circadian type in a healthy young woman, a biweekly shift system is more compatible with the circadian timing system than weekly shift system.

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Effectiveness of Magnesium-and Boron-Enriched Complex Fertilizer(14-10-12-3-0.2) on the Pasture Maintenance and Management I. Changes in the soil chemical properties and mutural balance of mineral nutrients in soil in a mixed grass/clover sward (초지관리용 복합비료(14-10-12-3-0,2)의 비효시험 I. 토양의 화학성 및 무기염기의 상호균형에 미치는 영향)

  • 정연규;이혁호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 1991
  • This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of magnesium-and boron-enriched complex fertilizer(CF, N-P$_2$O$_{5}$-K$_2$O-MgO-B$_2$O$_3$: 14-10-12-3-0.2) on the maintenance and management of hilly pasture. The effectiveness of CF was compared to those of some straight fertilizers (SF). This first part of the study was concerned with the soil chemical properties and the mutural balances of mineral nutrients in the soils of a mixed grass-clover and a pure grass swards. The results of a two-year field experiment are summarized as follows: 1. The Mg contents in the soils of the CF plots were higher than those of the SF plots. On the other hand, the Ca contents were higher in the SF plots than in the CF plots. The contents of Mg and Ca, and CEC, except K, in both the CF and SF plots were considerably below the optimum levels. At the normal application rate of NPK, the contents of available P$_2$O$_{5}$ were close to the optimum level in both the CF and SF plots. 2. The contents of exchangeable Mg were lower than the K contents in soils of all the plots. At the normal application rate of NPK, the Mg contents in the CF plots, but not in the SF plots, were close to the critical level for general crops (0.29me Mg/100g soil). The Mg contents in soils of all the plots, however, were considerably below the critical level for pasture forages and grazing cows (0.41me/100g). 3. Considering the desirable base saturation level of soil, the saturation levels of Ca and Mg were insufficient in both the CF and SF plots. The saturation levels of Mg in the CF plots, however, were relatively good compared with the SF plots. The equivalent ratios or Mg/K, Ca/Mg. Ca:Mg:K, and %Mg of CEC in soils were generally unfavorable in all the plots. These ratios of the CF plots, however, were relatively better than those of the SF plots. 4. Considering the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils, it is suggested that the application of slaked magnesium lime as a soil amelioration might be desirable for the fundamental increment of those contents at pasture establishment.

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Studies on Bacterial Contamination of Domestic Chicken Breeding Farm (국내 종계장에 있어서 미생물 오염에 관한 연구)

  • 김기석;이희수;김상희;박근식
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 1991
  • As a part of investigation on causes of drop in egg production in domestic chicken breeding farm, bacteriological contamination on air, feed, drinking water and artificial insemination instruments of randomly selected three farms was surveyed. Total bacterial population in the air was very high in all of the chicken houses tested and was not significantly different among these farms . However, total bacterial counts in the air of the problem house having egg drop problem and colibacillosis was higher than normal house within the problem farm. Bacterial population in the assorted feed was low before or after administration on the normal farm while it was much more increased after administration than before administration on the problem farm. Bacterial population of the drinking water in the source of water supply was very low and has no differences among farms tested. Also, bacterial population in the normal farm was not significantly different between source of water supply and after administration. However, population of total bacteria and coliform bacteria after administration was increased. Bacterial population was much higher in the artificial insemination instrument of problem farm than normal farm. However, this bacterial population in the problem farm was decreased to those of normal farm after these instruments were sanitized.

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Effect of Drying Temperature of Rough Rice on Grain and Eating Quality (벼의 건조온도가 미질과 식미에 미치는 영향)

  • ;Eun-Woong Lee;Yong-Woong Kwon;Jeon-Woo Bang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 1991
  • Rough rice samples of Chucheongbyeo, Bongkwangbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo were collected by the National Agricultural Products Inspection Office. Drying methods of rough rice were sun drying and forced ventilation drying by an oven dryer and temperature of the oven dryer was set to 43, 60, 70, or 8$0^{\circ}C$. Moisture content of samples was reduced from ca. 20% to 15% at the end of drying, and additionally to 12.5 % for the drying at 8$0^{\circ}C$. Characteristics related to rice grain quality, milling recovery, ratio of broken and cracked rices, percentage of germination, and sensory scores of the cooked rices were evaluated. Yielding percentage of brown rice and polished rice remarkably decreased by drying at 8$0^{\circ}C$. Percentages of cracked rice and broken rice were within the criterion of the second grade government brown rice (20%) only in the sun dried and the rices dried at 43$^{\circ}C$, on the basis of damaged rice, opaque kernel rice and colored rice. Broken rice percentage of the polished rice was within the criterion for the standard of government rice (5%) in the sun dried and the rices dried at 43$^{\circ}C$. Germination percentage of rough rice was higher than 80% in sun drying and drying at 43$^{\circ}C$, but remarkably decreased by drying rice at 6$0^{\circ}C$ and over. Sensory palatability of the cooked rice decreased with increase in drying temperature. The present governmental method of judging rough rice on the basis of moisture content and appearance of the rough rice appears to be improved to include the ratio of broken and cracked rices.

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Regional Distribution of Cerebral Blood Flow in Childhood Measured by $^{99m}Tc-HMPAO$ SPECT : Reference Values of Semiquantitative Indices and Effect of Age ($^{99m}Tc-HMPAO$ SPECT를 이용한 어린이 국소뇌혈류의 정량적 분석 : 정량적 지표들의 참고값 및 연령에 따른 변화)

  • Kim, Sang-Eun;Lee, Dong-Soo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul;Koh, Chang-Soon;Cho, Soo-Churl;Hong, Seung-Bong;Yoon, Byung-Woo;Roh, Jae-Kyu;Myung, Ho-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.6-16
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    • 1991
  • Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in 12 children ranging in age from 2.7 to 10.0 yr using $^{99m}Tc-HMPAO$ SPECT. For quantitative analysis, 13 pairs of homologous regions of interest (ROIs) were created on three attenuation-corrected 18.8 mm thick transverse slices matching the cerebral cortical regions, deep gray matter, cerebellar hemisphere, and vascular territories, and the semiquantitative indices including "right to left ratio" [(mean count/voxel of homologous right ROI) / (mean count/voxel of homologous left ROI)] and "regional index"(RI) [(mean count/voxel of a ROI)/ (mean count/voxel of all ROIs of each hemisphere)] were calculated. Mean values of right to left ratios of homologous regions ranged from 0.984 to 1.028 in children under 5 yr (group 1) and from 0.982 to 1.012 in children between 5 and 10 yr (group 2), and the mean $value{\pm}2S.D.$ for each region did not exceed 11% and 12% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the RIs of the homologous right and left regions. Significant differences of RIs were found both between vascular regions (p<0.0005 for goup 1, and p=0.0001 for goup 2) and between regions of cerebral cortices (p<0.0005 for group 1, and p<0.005 for group 2) with a relatively high value in the occipital cortex and the lower values in the cerebellum and deep gray matter among the regions of cerebral cortices in both groups. There were no significant differences between the RIs of corresponding regions of group 1 and group 2, except a significantly higher value of right deep gray matter in group 2 than in group 1(p=0.0301). The RIs of the superior frontal cortex and deep gray matter showed to be positively correlated with age (superior frontal cortex; right: rs=0.5254, p=0.0814, left : rs=0.5919, p=0.0496/deep gray matter; right: rs=0.8246, p=0.0062, left: rs=0.6266, p=0.0377). The results suggest that the rCBF pattern of children approaches that of adults in an accipito-rostral direction. This time course of rCBF changes is in agreement with behavioral, neurophysiological, and anatomical alterations known to occur in the developing brain.

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Comparative Studies on the Enzymatic Properties of Trypsins from Cat-shark and Mackerel -1. Purifications and Reaction Conditions of the Trypsins- (복상어와 고등어의 Trypsin에 관한 비교 효소학적 연구 -1. Trypsin의 정제와 반응조건-)

  • PYEUN Jae-Hyeung;CHO Deuk-Moon;HEU Min-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.273-288
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    • 1991
  • To elucidate the physiological and biochemical differences between chondrichthyes and osteichthyes, the properties of the specific digestive enzymes in cat-shark, Cephaloscyllium umbratile, and mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Homogenous trypsin proved through the disc-electrophoresis, SDS-PAG electrophoresis and gel filtration was obtained from the pancreas of cat-shark by $50-70\%$ saturated ammonium sulphate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography, benzamidine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography and Sephadex G-75-120 gel filtration. Two types of trypsins were also obtained from the pyloric caeca of mackerel by $30-70\%$ saturated ammonium sulphate fractionation and the slightly modified procedure from the method adopted in the purification of cat-shark trypsin. The two trypsins, designated trypsin A and B, were proved their homogeneity by disc- and SDS-PAG electrophoresis and gel filtration. The molecular weights of the trypsins were estimated to be 31,700 for cat-shark trypsin, 30,000 for mackerel trypsin A and 29,000 for mackerel trypsin B by SDS-PAG electrophoresis, but those were estimated to be 21,500 for cat-shark trypsin, 23,700 for mackerel trypsin A and 21,500 for mackerel trypsin B by gel filtration. The trypsins exhibited their optimum conditions at pH 9.0 and on temperature ranged from $45^{\circ}C\;to\;50^{\circ}C$ for cat-shark, and at pH 8.0 and a temperature of $50^{\circ}C$ for mackerel trypsin A and B, respectively. The cat-shark trypsin was stable at pH 10.0 and the temperature below $10^{\circ}C$, whereas the mackerel trypsin A and B, were stable in the range over pH 7.0 to pH 9.0 below $10^{\circ}C$ and at pH 8.0 below $35^{\circ}C$, respectively. The mackerel trypsins were severely inhibited by some heavy metal ions such as $Ag^{2+},\;Cu^{2+}\;and\;Hg^{2+}$ compared to cat-shark trypsin. All of the enzymes were also inhibited by antipain, leupeptin, TLCK(tosyllysine chloromethyl ketone) and SBTI(soybean trypsin inhibitor) remarkably. The inhibitory effects of PMSF(phenylmethane sulphonylfluoride), DFP(diisopropyl fluorophosphate) and benzamidine were indicated that these enzymes belong to serine-proteases.

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Formaldehyde Exposure in the Plywood Manufacturing Factory (목재 가공업소에서의 Formaldehyde폭로)

  • Ha, Myung-Wha;Kim, Doo-Hie;Lim, Hyun-Sul;Park, Sang-Hu
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1991
  • In the plywood manufacturing factory established in 1979, female 3 workers who had exposed to adhesives containing formaldehyde for more than 48 months of duration suffered from eye, nasal, oral, throat and skin irritation and dyspnea as chief complaints. The actual level of the exposure to formaldehyde were not estimated when the exposed workers started to have above symptoms. The environmental monitoring of workplace was measured on April 25, 1990, and the concentration of formaldehyde revealed 0.2 ppm, however the exhaustive ventilatory system was already installed at that time. Twenty six subjects from entire factory were examined by questionnaire, physical examination and spirometry, etc. on August 22, 1990. Significant difference was observed in symptoms and signs of nasal, oral and throat irritation between the exposed group with longer duration and that with short duration. When the exposed group with longer duration was compared to the group of nonexposed, symptoms and signs of nasal, oral, throat and skin irritaion, chest tightness and dullness were significantly increased in the former group. The results of the spirometric test showed that the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume at 1 second were decreased among the exposed group with longer duration but not significant.

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