Global rating agencies, such as Moody's and S&P, have assigned credit ratings to corporate bonds issued by Japanese firms since 1980s. Local Japanese rating agencies, such as R&I and JCR, have more market share than the global raters. We examine the yield spreads of 1,050 yen-denominated corporate bonds issued by financial firms in Japan from 1998 to 2014 and find no evidence that bonds rated by at least one global agency are associated with a significant reduction in the cost of debt as compared to those rated by only local rating agencies. Unlike non-financial firms, the reputation effect of global rating agencies does not exist for Japanese financial firms. We also observe that firms with less information asymmetry are more likely to acquire ratings from Moody's or S&P. Additionally, the firm's financial profile does not affect its choice to seek out ratings from global raters. Our findings are contradictory to those by Han, Pagano, and Shin (2012), who employ bonds issued by non-financial firms in Japan. Our conjecture is that the asymmetric nature of financial firms makes investors less likely to depend on a credit risk assessment by rating agencies in determining the yields of new bonds.
The study tests the Fama and French three-factor model by using the newly created Islamic equity style indices. Based on a dataset from May 2006 to April 2011, the three-factor model is tested based on returns of Islamic unit trust funds using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) methodology. The sample period is also divided between periods before and after the Global Financial Crisis in August 2008 to test for robustness, and the Bai and Perron (2003) multiple structural break test was used to determine the structural break in the series. The analysis shows that the Fama and French model is valid for Islamic unit trust funds before and after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. The result further indicates the reversal of size effect. As for trading strategies, value funds outperform growth funds by annualized 3.13 percent for the full period. During pre-crisis period, value funds perform better than growth funds while in post-crisis, size factor yields better return than other strategies. As policy suggestion, fund managers need to be aware of the reversal of size effect, and they need to ensure a more transparent stock selection process so that investors can make an informed decision in their asset allocation.
The study is aimed at investigating the main factors that affect the interest rate yields, in the long-term. In addition, the study surveys the theories and literature relating to the determinants of interest rate. The importance of which is essential not only for governments, but also for banks and corporate financial risk management decisions, including risk exposures in banks and capital markets. Interest rate influences corporate profit as well as growth. For this purpose, the study examines the impact of budget deficit, risk-free rate, capital inflows, money supply and business cycles on real interest rate in Jordan. These factors are based upon well-established theories and straightforward practical view as interest rate determinants. Using data for (1990-2015), the study employed Johansen's co-integrating test, which takes into consideration the long-term unsynchronized relationships. The data is tested for normality, symmetric correlations, covariance diagonal and unit root. The results show that the government budget deficit, short-term risk-free interest rate, capital inflows, money supply and business cycle are long-term determinants of the real interest rate in Jordan. The coefficients of government budget deficit, short-term risk-free rate, money supply and business cycle all are inversely affecting the real interest rate, while capital inflows has a positive impact on the real interest rate.
The paper aims to examine relationships between search-based sentiment and stock market reactions in Vietnam. This study constructs an internet search-based measure of sentiment and examines its relationship with Vietnamese stock market returns. The sentiment index is derived from Google Trends' Search Volume Index of financial and economic terms that Vietnamese searched from January 2011 to June 2018. Consistent with prediction from sentiment theories, the study documents significant short-term reversals across three major stock indices. The difference from previous literature is that Vietnam stock market absorbs the contemporaneous decline slower while the subsequent rebound happens within a day. The results of the study suggest that the sentiment-induced effect is mainly driven by pessimism. On the other hand, optimistic investors seem to delay in taking their investment action until the market corrects. The study proposes a unified explanation for our findings based on the overreaction hypothesis of the bearish group and the strategic delay of the optimistic group. The findings of the study contribute to the behavioral finance strand that studies the role of sentiment in emerging financial markets, where noise traders and limits to arbitrage are more obvious. They also encourage the continuous application of search data to explore other investor behaviors in securities markets.
With the paramount importance of key account management in business-to-business relationship, today companies are using this approach as a strategic weapon in their selling efforts targeted at the most important customers to solve their complex requirements with special treatment that eventually ensures both parties' financial and nonfinancial objectives. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of key account management performance among the export-oriented readymade garments companies in Bangladesh with regards to company's experience in business, size of the company and key account serving capacity of the company. Using a questionnaire, data from 112 readymade garments companies in Bangladesh were collected and analyzed using descriptive analysis and ANOVA to test the level of key account management performance. Results show that the level of key account management performance by the garments companies did not vary by the company's experience in business and size of the company respectively. In contrast, the level of key account management performance was found to be different concerning high, medium, and low customer service capacity. Apparently, companies with big number of customers show better performance than companies with small number of customer. Implications for this study are discussed along with suggestions for future research avenues.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of quality of management discussion and analysis (MD&A) disclosure on stock price crash risk. The MD&A can be seen to reflect the management's intention on public announcement and reveals directly what the management says to communicate with outside investors. A firm's high-quality MD&A implies the management's commitment to communicating with the market, not allowing the managers to have incentives to hoard unfavorable news, which if revealed to the public, may lead to downward stock price corrections, damaging corporate values. The high-quality MD&A is, thus, likely to reduce the stock price crash risk. We use a logistic regression to test whether MD&A influences crash risk using listed companies in the Korean Stock Exchange (KSE) stock market between 2010 and 2013. Findings of the empirical test show that the higher the quality of MD&A, the less likely crash risk appears, implying that the MD&A disclosed adequately can be one of the factors mitigating firm's stock price crash risk. This study has implications as it presents the MD&A disclosure as a factor influencing stock price crash risk and suggests voluntary disclosure as well as mandatory disclosure acts as a variable that explains the risk of stock price crash.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between regional financial development and corporate investment efficiency as well as the relationship between firm-level characteristics and corporate investment efficiency. Using a large sample of A-listed companies in China from CSMAR database between 2003 and 2016, this paper explores corporate investment efficiency and its influencing factors in emerging market on the basis of heterogeneous stochastic frontier model. The results show that: (1) the average investment efficiency of Chinese listed companies is 74.5%, and the investment efficiency of large enterprises, state-owned enterprises and enterprises with relatively high financial development level is significantly higher; (2) compared with average corporate investment efficiency in the year 2003, the investment efficiency of different types of enterprises in 2016 is significantly higher, and the gap is gradually widening; (3) enterprise heterogeneity namely firm size, nature of property right, and institutional environment reflected by the level of regional financial development indirectly affects corporate investment efficiency by influencing the financing constraints and uncertainty. The findings suggest that to improve corporate investment efficiency in emerging market, financial market should be accelerated, regional balance should be restored and the differences among regions, industries and differences between public and private sectors should be eliminated.
The cultural industry is treated as the sunrise industry in modern society. It has taken an increasing role in promoting the economic growth. Due to this, this paper attempts to explore the dynamic relationship between cultural industry and the economic growth. On the grounds of Cobb-Douglas production function, the cultural industry is regarded as a determinant such as the labor input and the capital input to impact the economic growth. Meanwhile, the quarterly datum form 2000-Q1 to 2017-Q4 are employed to perform an empirical analysis via the vector error correction model. The GDP is treated as an independent variable. The input of capital, the input of labor and the total input of cultural industry are treated as dependent variables. Furthermore, a menu of statistical approaches such as the co-integration test and the impulse response function will be used to testify the dynamic relationship between cultural industry and economic growth. Via the Johansen co-integration test, the results report that the cultural industry has a obviously positive effect on economic growth. Through the vector error correction estimation, the results also report that the cultural industry also has a significantly positive effect on economic growth, but less than that of the Johansen co-integration test. This paper provides a view that the cultural industry is a kind of a determinant to promote the economic growth. Therefore, the China's government should pay much attention to the cultural industry construction.
The study investigates the factors that affect Kyrgyzstan's bilateral trade flows with its main trading partners and attempts to predict trade potential for Kyrgyzstan. Using panel data, the gravity model is applied to estimate Kyrgyzstan's trade from 2000 to 2016 for its 35 main trading partners. The coefficients derived from the gravity-model estimation are then used to predict trade potential for Kyrgyzstan. Results proved to be successful and explained 63% of the fluctuations in Kyrgyzstan's trade. According to the results, Kyrgyzstan's and its partners' GDP have a positive effect on trade, while distance and partners' population prove to have a negative effect. Predicted trade potential reveals that neighboring countries (China, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan) and Russia still have a significant trade potential. Kyrgyzstan, being a less developed economy, even by Central Asia standards, can only achieve its goals of reducing poverty and becoming more developed by increasing its overall trade with the rest of the world. Therefore, it is essential to study the main determinants of Kyrgyzstan's bilateral trade. In this way, we can help policy makers formulate policies to expand Kyrgyzstan's trade. This study is the first attempt to apply to the gravity model to Kyrgyzstan in an attempt to predict trade potential.
Price discount is one of the commonly used promotion strategies to increase sales and revenue. If a discount is perceived before the purchase (i.e., pre-purchase discount), consumers are likely to perceive it as a potential gain. If it is noticed after making a regular-priced purchase (i.e., post-purchase discount), consumers may develop negative emotions and attitudes. Based on the rising transparency and omnipresence of price and discount information through web and mobile platforms, we attempt to tackle an understudied topic on the negative effect of post-purchase price discount. Specifically, post-purchase discount information may increase consumers' perception of monetary loss, which may affect consumers' decision to return the product, potentially increasing the operating costs borne by retailers. Based on a close scrutinization of the current market environment and previous academic literature, we suggest a novel conceptual framework to understand consumers' perception, attitude, and behavior (perception of loss, willingness to return) upon perceiving various formats of discount promotion (absolute value vs. percentage discount) posterior to the purchase of a product. We also look at the effect of price level (low-priced vs. high-priced). For marketing practitioners, we intend to suggest optimal promotion formats that can alleviate consumers' negative perceptions and prevent additional operation costs.
The aim of this study is to delve deeper into the online brand community study. This study tests (a) the effects of online brand community on its outcomes, (b) the impact of value creation practice construct as a whole, (c) the effects of value creating practice construct on the two types of loyalty, loyalty toward the brand and the community. Participants of this study (N=353) are members of four types of online brand communities (e.g., business-to-consumer virtual product support community, firm-hosted online community, user-generated online community, peer-to-peer problem-solving community, and social media based brand community). Data were collected online using Amazon Mechanical Turk from April 10, 2016 to May 10, 2016. The data were analyzed through structural equations modeling using AMOS 20. The three community markers (e.g., consciousness of kind, rituals and traditions, and moral responsibility) and the four value creation practices (e.g., social networking, impression management, community engagement, and brand use) are proved to be significant indicators of online brand community and value creation practice constructs, respectively. Test results showed that strong and effective online brand communities generate value creation practices, and value creation practices enhance brand loyalty. The mediating effects of community loyalty between value creation practices and brand loyalty were revealed.
As various types of information technology systems are becoming more pervasive than ever, many studies have evaluated the systems from the user perspective. Some of them have used surveys to measure consumers' cognitive responses to the target technology. However, this method may cause problems if the survey participants do not have a useful frame of reference for evaluating an unfamiliar system. To examine this issue, the current study empirically tested the effect of personal product knowledge on the predictability of a behavioral model, such as Technology Acceptance Model. A series of measurement invariance tests as well as multi-group comparison tests were conducted for rigorous examination of the data. Our analysis showed that the variance of attitude that is explained by the two believes (perceived usefulness and ease of use) was relatively small when the survey respondents had lower amount of product knowledge. Moreover, the group had weaker causal relationship between attitude and intention to use the technology, hindering the predictability of the research model. The results indicated that respondents should have a certain amount of knowledge of the target system in order to form accurate beliefs and behavioral decisions. The findings of this study provide important implications on sampling strategies for researchers with new technology.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of the strategies for managing firms' business activities but may have heterogeneity depending on ownership structures. This study investigates the association between group-affiliation and CSR activities. Drawing on a theory from the prior research, this study predicts that group-affiliated firms are less likely to invest on CSR activities. For instance, prior research finds that controlling shareholders expropriate the values of minority shareholders. As one of the motivations of investing on CSR activities is the harmonization among the stakeholders, it leads to the prediction that firms controlled by large shareholders are less likely to engage in CSR activities. Second, group-affiliated firms under poor financial performance benefit from other group members through sharing their financial resources. Thus, there is less incentive for managers of group-affiliated firms to increase their financial performance by conducting CSR. By leveraging firms listed in Korean stock market and CSR score from Korea Economic Justice Institute, the result shows that the group-affiliation is negatively related to CSR activities. The result is consistent in case of applying propensity score-matched sample. Based on the findings of this study, this paper contributes to the related literature by showing the significant association between group-affiliation and CSR decisions.
There has been a recent increase in the interest towards founding companies and in line with the South Korean Government's policy on start-up support, discussions are rife about the effect of entrepreneurship on the management and performances of these companies. To enhance the competitiveness of SMEs, it is expedient to acquire and deploy consistent entrepreneurship, differentiate corporate resources, ensure the appropriate utilization of resources and the integration of such factors in response to the changing environment. This research examines relationships among entrepreneurship, three components of corporate capabilities, dynamic capability and technical performance based on resource-based view and the dynamic capability theory. The authors also investigate the moderating role of corporate life cycle. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a survey on 352 technologies -innovative SMEs located in South Korea via professional research institutes. The findings confirm the hypothesis that SMEs' entrepreneurship has a positive effect on three kinds of corporate capabilities (e.g., marketing, R&D, operations capability), and it had a positive effect on dynamic capability, whiles dynamic capability also had an influence on technical performances. The findings also confirmed the hypothesis that corporate life cycle moderates the relationship between dynamic capability and technical performances respectively. The research implications for both practitioners and academicians are discussed.
An alternative method for team diversity studies is to examine demographic faultlines. A concept of demographic faultline enables us to better understand team dynamics with multidimensional diversity. This study suggests the demographic faultline as a new situational factorto influence the relationship between leader teamwork behaviors and a climate of support for innovation. When subgroups divided by demographic faultline are homogeneous within them and heterogeneous between them, the homogeneity may increase intimacy in each subgroup while the heterogeneity may increase exclusiveness between those subgroups. We argued that a leader could play an important role to build a cooperative relationship between faultline-based subgroups and highlight positive aspects of developing and maintaining subgroups in organizations. With a sample of 81 teams (558 employees), it was examined how leader teamwork behaviors would affect a team-level climate of support for innovation and how this relationship would be moderated by each team's demographic faultline (gender, age, and educational specialty). As predicted, it was found that there was a significant positive relationship between each leader's teamwork behaviors and each team's climate of support for innovation. In addition, this relationship was stronger for teams with strong faultline than with weak faultline. Our findings and their implications were further discussed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between job characteristics and creativity. The role of transformational leadership is also examined. To identify the relationship between core team job characteristics and transformational leadership, an empirical survey was conducted through surveys of domestic distribution companies. Among the collected questionnaires, missing and insincere responses were excluded and 636 individuals of 107 teams were used for the SPSS 18 analysis. It was found that job meaningfulness was positively related to team creativity and transformational leadership also had a significant effect. Task feedback was shown to be an important factor on the motivation to perform tasks successfully. In the case of transformational leadership, this leadership style helped individuals overcome fear by providing support, sympathy, and consideration to create novel ideas. But, its effects were different on team creativity when it interacted with core job characteristics. Departments where creativity is highly emphasized within an organization are able to design job characteristics which fit the task at hand. Moreover, transformational leadership brings about different effects on team creativity when it interacts with job characteristics. The findings of this study suggest that organizations should consider characteristics of tasks and individuals as well when conducting education and training.
At a turn of the third millennium the world storms and quickly changes. It became difficult to expect what expects us tomorrow. The most important are questions of recovery from the crisis and rescue of mankind from forthcoming global changes: warming of climate, water and food problems, social, economic and political conflicts that are shaking the world and other various cataclysms, accidents, negative processes. It puts before mankind the problem which never solved by our civilization. All this is caused by ignoring of objective economic laws, laws of wildlife and also by violation of cyclic development management's laws. In article the concept of strategy of mankind's survival in XXI and next centuries, the principles of creation of planetary house of universal civilization for post-industrial world based on spirituality scientific and technological revolutions, ecology, space exploration, economy and world safety are considered. Introduction of uniform universal measurement of currency for the whole world in the form of "power" is offered. Important aspect of a research is theoretical postulate on integrated innovative society. The author puts forward a new paradigm of government on a basis of 5 spirals. The basic model of forced development of small and medium business, including 9 projects, is developed.
This study examined the effects of startup firm's knowledge assets on the effectiveness of their sales strategies, efficiency of sales activities, and management performance, after categorizing these assets into customer knowledge assets and technology knowledge assets. Furthermore, the moderating effects of promotion focus by CEOs and sales managers of startup firms were analyzed. For the analysis, dyadic questionnaire surveys were conducted targeting the CEOs and sales managers of startup firms established at the Gyeongnam Technopark and the KAIST Technology Business Incubation Center in Korea. Hypotheses were verified through structural equation modeling, and moderating effects were identified through ANOVA. CEO's customer knowledge asset strengthened their effectiveness of sales strategies, and sales manager's technology knowledge asset strengthened the efficiency of their sales activities. Also, CEO's effectiveness of sales strategies and sales manager's efficiency of sales activities have been found to enhance startup firm's management performance. Meanwhile, the moderating effect of promotion focus strengthened CEO's effectiveness of sales strategies through CEO's customer knowledge asset and interaction as CEO's promotion focus level increased, but promotion focus of sales managers did not have any significant interaction effect. This study provides implications by offering empirical evidence on startup firms with regard to knowledge assets.
The paper suggests making a policy and strategies for a way of exporting Korean ICT product effectively in the EU and Eastern area, and an effective preparation of 4th industrial revolution through analysis of preparation status of 4th industrial revolution of the Visegrad group. Analyze policy, status, what they want for 4th preparation in the Visegrad group from comparing characteristics analysis of each country's official data, publication data, portal, paper, and etc. They have been preparing for 4th industrial revolution long time ago as basic research and business before 4th wave word. With these basic results, they are trying to apply such as, AI, S/W, security, ICT, etc. of 4th wave core technology. For the development of new export market in EU, the Korean team should research with university and research center or venture company. Through these cooperation, they should understand their personal characteristic, lifestyle, and what consumers want to purchase in EU. And this results can be used in South Asia and India that give a big effect to all over the world ICT market. The external impact of the 4th wave must have a long-term shift in manpower, and production policy is related to the EU's strategic role, or the preparation of the 4th wave to the V4 country in the short term.
The interest in decrepitude expanded by graying is gradually growing in modern society. Moreover, he concern over decrepitude along with healthy mind and body is increasing. Therefore, there are many concerns and efforts toward physical and mental health. In addition, the interest in and effort for appearance health and value is rising as well as physical and mind health. The middle age is the most stable age based on the economic and social status that had been achieved through the life, but it is the most stressful age due to physical health problem and appearance ageing. There are many advanced studies for self-esteem and life satisfaction in old age by using hair, skin-care, cosmetic, nail-art among beauty related fields but studies on self-esteem and perception of successful ageing through user satisfaction of beauty service is lacking. This study is aiming to verify empirically the positive effect of self-esteem improvement through user satisfaction of beauty service on perception of successful ageing for middle-aged over 50 years old. The study has assumed that the higher middle-aged's satisfaction of beauty service is, the more self-esteem improves and there has a mediated effect to contribute successful ageing.