This study contributes to addressing the problem of an aging population by providing important information that determines feasible monthly payments for the clients of Chinese reverse mortgage products and by promoting the implementation of reverse mortgages in China. The variables used in this study include mean values obtained from time series data, of the rate of increase of housing prices, and the probability value, interest rate, and mortality rate obtained through the geometric Brownian motion (GBM). For mortality rates, China Life Insurance female mortality rates (2000-2003) were used. This study aims to apply the main variables that affect reverse mortgage products in a monthly payment model based on Chinese financial market conditions, and determine loan values. In this study, Shanghai's reverse mortgage monthly payments, by age levels, were calculated through the loan-to-value (LTV) and payment (PMT) methods to evaluate the value of the reverse mortgages. Based on the optimal combination of the three factors of payment amount, loan interest rates, and the level of acceptance of prices, efforts must be made to extract the best value for the elderly. Only in this way can the interests of both lenders and borrowers be protected, by increasing the market share and economies of scale of the reverse mortgage industry and effectively improving the living standards of the elderly.
The main purpose of the research is to suggest a new business model of direct distribution of organic agricultural products cultivated in suburban area. To secure competitiveness, logistics cost reduction is important through direct transaction of organic agricultural products cultivated on suburban area. The research addresses food safety, farmers' income and unemployment issues with Eco-M business model. The research methods include investigation on the followings: current domestic agriculture; related problems on the existing literature reviews; the current status of suburban agriculture; specialty store of eco-friendly agricultural products. Eco-M business model can solve various problems of suburban agriculture supply system, challenges of organic farming specialty stores, unemployment issues, and difficulties of processing verticalization. Future research should include followings. First, there should be comparative analysis between businesses of environment-friendly specialty stores through suburban agriculture and producer's agriculture connected with organic farming market. Second, it is required to develop strategy of environment-friendly specialty stores. Finally, analysis of the potential of Sextic industries is necessary throughout production-process-service process.
The authors emphasize that the Republic of Kazakhstan is characterized by significant differences in the level of innovation capacity of regions. This article summarizes that the result of the monitoring of innovation potential of the regions are prerequisites for innovation policy adjustments, make it more dynamic, which ultimately contributes to its effectiveness. So, there are substantial differences in the level of innovation potential of the regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan, meanwhile it is noted that most regions' innovative features and potential can be assessed as average. After analysis of previously used methods, it can be concluded that the ranking of the level of innovation potential of regions takes place in the following order: High level of innovative potential: East Kazakhstan (3 matches), Almaty city (2 matches), Pavlodar (2 matches) and Zhambyl regions (2 matches); Low level of innovative potential: Almaty (2 matches), Mangistau (2 matches), West Kazakhstan (2 matches), Kyzylorda oblast (2 matches). In conclusion, it is emphasized that monitoring of innovative potential of regions creates the preconditions for innovation policy adjustments. These adjustments make the policy more dynamic and contribute to its effectiveness in the long run.
This study investigated effects of five consumption values of family restaurants, that is to say, functional value, economic value, social value, creative value and emotional value, upon consumers'satisfaction and brand reliability, and effects of satisfactions upon brand reliability, and effects of satisfaction and brand reliability upon consumers' behavioral intention to help develop family restaurant industry. Frequency analysis was done. The interviewees had demographic characteristics of gender: 156 men (54.4%) and 131 women (45.6%). The interviewees live in the places: 136 persons (47.4%) in Gyeonggi and Metropolitan area, 57 persons (27.0%) in Gangbuk, Seoul, 38 persons (13.2%) in other areas in Seoul, 34 persons (11.8%) in Gangnam, Seoul, 18 persons (6.3%) in Incheon and 4 persons (1.4%) in other regions. Values of the use of family restaurants, for instance, functional value, economic value, social value, emotional value and rarity value had influence upon satisfaction and brand reliability, had influence upon satisfaction as well as brand reliability. This study investigated consumption values of which consumers thought much, effects of consumption values upon satisfaction and brand reliability, effects of consumer's satisfaction upon brand reliability, and consumer's satisfaction and brand reliability upon behavioral intention, and to verify effects having influence upon local and foreign family restaurant.