This paper examines short-run and long-run dynamic relationships between selected macroeconomic variables and stock prices in the Korea Stock Exchange. The data is restricted to the period for which monthly data are available from January 1986 to October 2016 (370 observations) retrieved from the Economic Statistics System database sponsored by the Bank of Korea. The study employs unit root test, cointegration test, vector error correction estimates, impulse response test, and structural break test. The results of the Johansen cointegration test indicate at least three cointegrating equations exist at the 0.05 level in the model, confirming that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic variables in Korea. The results of vector error correction model (VECM) estimates indicate that money supply and short-term interest rate are not related to stock prices in the short-run. However, exchange rate is positively related to stock prices while the industrial production index and inflation are negatively related to stock prices in the short-run. Furthermore, the VECM estimates indicate that the external shock, such as regional and global financial crisis shocks, neither affects changes in the endogenous variables nor causes instability in the cointegrating vector. This study finds that the endogenous variables are determined by their own dynamics in the model.
This research examined the alternatives of Jensen's alpha (α) estimation models in the Capital Asset Pricing Model, discussed by Treynor (1961), Sharpe (1964), and Lintner (1965), using the robust maximum likelihood type m-estimator (MM estimator) and Bayes estimator with conjugate prior. According to finance literature and practices, alpha has often been estimated using ordinary least square (OLS) regression method and monthly return data set. A sample of 50 securities is randomly selected from the list of the S&P 500 index. Their daily and monthly returns were collected over a period of the last five years. This research showed that the robust MM estimator performed well better than the OLS and Bayes estimators in terms of efficiency. The Bayes estimator did not perform better than the OLS estimator as expected. Interestingly, we also found that daily return data set would give more accurate alpha estimation than monthly return data set in all three MM, OLS, and Bayes estimators. We also proposed an alternative market efficiency test with the hypothesis testing Ho: α = 0 and was able to prove the S&P 500 index is efficient, but not perfect. More important, those findings above are checked with and validated by Jackknife resampling results.
The study examines economic and environmental impacts of mass tourism on regional tourism destinations, particularly the establishment of "Ten New Bali", in Indonesia. The sample is restricted to the period of time in which annual data is available and comparable among variables from 1980 to 2015 (36 observations). All of the time series data was collected and retrieved from the World Development Indicator database published by the World Bank. This study applies cointegrating regression analysis using the fully modified OLS, canonical cointegrating regression, and dynamic OLS. The results of the study suggest that 1) there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between tourism receipts, environmental degradation and economic growth in Indonesia, 2) tourism growth and agriculture land growth are positively related to an increase of total output in the short-run in Indonesia, and 3) arable land is significant at the 0.01 level, but forest rents and CO2 from transport are not significant in the short-run in Indonesia. The results confirm that arable land is negatively related to an increase of total output in Indonesia. That is, when tourism growth in the economy is getting realized it shows that the environmental degradation increases greatly in inverse in the model, eventually negative impacts to the environment.
The paper aims to investigate the impact of trade cost on export: A Case Study Vietnam. The study conducts a static linear panel data analysis on annual data covering bilateral export between Vietnam and 70 major importers of Vietnam from 2001 to 2013. The gravity model has been one of the most successful applications in empirical trade. In this paper we apply the gravity model to estimate the impact of trade cost on Vietnamese bilateral export value. The paper uses gravity model to estimate the impact of trade cost on Vietnamese bilateral export value. The empirical results derive from a static linear panel data analysis (fixed effects model) indicates that trade cost plays a crucial role in determining the export value that occurs between Vietnam and trading partners. Besides, population of importing country, trade openness of importing country, gross domestic product of importing country and gross domestic product of Vietnam are also significant determinants of Vietnamese bilateral export value. The main findings indicates that trade cost plays a very important role in the Vietnamese bilateral export performance. This suggests that the Vietnamese government should attempt to improve domestic trade costs to enhance competitiveness and increase export growth sustainably.
The study aims to articulate a definition of luxury brands, to propose a framework for consumer luxury brand relationships and to provide empirical evidence of the proposed model. The study conducted two surveys in Portugal and the United States in 2009 and 2013 for selected luxury brands. The study employs factor analysis and structural equation modelling techniques to test the hypotheses. The study finds a link between luxury products and consumer's psychological association represents in a hierarchical order of: cognitive attributes at its base level, extrinsic attributes on a secondary level and intrinsic attributes at the advance level. The findings suggest a concept for luxury brands from three dimensions of: luxury product characteristics, consumer's psychological characteristics, and consumer's psychological association with the luxury product. The research was conducted in Portugal and the United States so that there is always a potential criticism concerning the ability to generalize research results to a broader international population. The findings provide a holistic perspective in the understanding of luxury brand constructs and a definition of luxury brands in the way why consumers involve symbolic consumption. The successful application of the findings in a brand setting would be of particular interest to marketers and brand strategists.
The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of country personality dimensions and product involvement on European consumers purchase and visit intentions, considering the Portuguese context. The increasing economic globalisation has resulted in the reducing of trade barriers between nations and the availability of more foreign products and services across borders. Therefore, the place associations of these products and services might be regarded as a potential competitive differentiator in their respective markets. Despite the proliferation of literature devoted to assessing the effects of country-of-origin, the symbolic dimension of a country's image remains understudied. A questionnaire measuring country personality dimensions, product involvement, and consumer's purchase and visit intention was passed on a sample of 335 European consumers. Country personality indeed matters both positively and negatively. Findings show that while assiduousness positively influences consumer's visit intentions, wickedness has a negative influence on consumer's purchase intentions. Findings also reveal that product involvement has a positive significant influence on consumer's purchase and visit intentions. On developing marketing strategies, international marketers and governmental decision-makers should consider product involvement attributes and specific country personality traits to provide the country's products with a competitive edge, as well as to promote the country as a travelling destination.
The growth of Bandung's tourism industry has had a massive impact on the hotel sector. Most tourists visiting Bandung are domestic tourists and tend to be modest spenders fitting the profile of a mid-market (2/3 star) hotel guest. As competition has increased mid-market hotels have come under pressure from upmarket (4/5 star) and budget hotels committed to cutting prices. There is also competition with the mid-market hotel sector, which means that the 2/3 star hotels have to keep innovating in order to remain competitive. This study uses the Service Quality framework to describe customer expectations and identify gaps in hotel services. A questionnaire survey of 105 local tourists who had stayed in 2/3 star hotels in Bandung showed that the most important dimension is responsiveness, following by reliability, assurance, tangibles and empathy. Thus we conclude that local tourists' primary expectations are that hotels will deliver the service they have promised, be responsive to guests' needs and comply with service standards. Furthermore, these findings validate the earlier prediction that comparing 2/3 star hotel with 5/4 start hotel, the customers are having preliminary knowledge on facilities limitation and friendliness. Tourists using 2/3 star hotels tend to be prepared to accept limited facilities and less friendly staff service.
This study developed and tested the impact of hallyu 4.0, social media, and consumer ethnocentrism on the decision to purchase Korean products of Generation C in Vietnam. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were utilized in this study. Qualitative research was first carried out with in-depth interview, conducted to derive measurement items for the interested constructs. Quantitative research used cross-sectional field design by pilot study and official study. The model was tested and developed using data collected by questionnaires, from a sample of 575 respondents, by both electronic and paper surveys with non-probability and convenience sampling techniques. SPSS 20 and AMOS 20 software were employed to analyze the data. The results of structural equation modeling showed that hallyu 4.0, social media, and consumer ethnocentrism influenced the intermediates variables: subject norms, trust, attitude and behavioral intention and influenced purchase decision. The hallyu 4.0, social media, and consumer ethnocentrism are independent variables. They impact purchase decision through mediating variables such as trust, subjective norms, attitude and behavioral intention. Social media influences not only to trust but also to subjective norms. Subjective norms influence on purchase decision. This study also discovers an interesting fact that trust and attitude variables have an impact on behavioral intention and purchase decision.
The objective of this research is to explore the diverse challenges faced by the customer as well transport providers through the selected modes of transportation of the second most populous country in the world - India. Two separate well-structured questionnaires administered to garner the opinions on different challenges. A random sample of 100 equally selected from the customers of 3 modes of transportation along with 30 transport providers. The collected data was analyzed in Microsoft Excel and R Studio platforms using Percentile Rank Tool and R Programming Language for Chi-square test respectively. Traffic congestion coupled with parking is the major problem in case of roadways while Safety and cleanliness in railways are the first amongst the problems to reckon with. High fares and lack of trained employees are the biggest challenges faced by aviation industry. The research is concentrated only in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in India with most widely used three modes of transportation viz., Road, Rail and Airways. This research paper is first of its kind which has collected the opinions of both customers as well transport providers on the problems faced. This research proffers information about the challenges faced by the customers which there will be an enormous possibility to review their strategies and plans.
While the number of women labor force in Malaysia is increasing, only a few of them make it to the top. For many reasons, some women turn down top position offer and some of them refuse to stay working. Commitment to the family, work-life conflict and lack of support from the family and the colleagues are among issues that caused women to have less interest to pursue career advancement. This article examines the role of work-life balance and its relationship to women career advancement, and why both are important in Malaysia. The arguments are arranged based on a review of the previous literature to conceptualize the relationship between work-life balance and career advancement. It is found that both work-life balance and women career advancement are important to retain women in the working world as well as to motivate them to pursue promotion to a higher position. Even though some researchers agreed that the relationship between work-life balance and career advancement is mostly negative, others found positive relationship between both constructs. At the end of the paper, some suggestions on how to improve work-life balance and career advancement are presented as well as suggestion for future research.
Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are place contributing to the intellectual advancement of the nation, quality human resource, and to a number of socio-economic improvements for society and organizations. Despite facilitators and staffs are the bare-bone of HEIs, there is a scarcity of research, both conceptual and empirical, focusing on their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). To attempt to fill this gap, this article develops a conceptual model of OCB under influencing of organizational justice and job satisfaction. The prospective respondents were chosen randomly from HEIs (public and private). Individuals have been employed at least one year and above will be the unit of analysis in which the experimental test of the proposed model will be conducted. The results suggest that organizational citizenship behavior is one of the most important factor influence the organizational performance. Furthermore, the performance of HEIs does not affect only the national human resources, but also impact on national economy. In this context, a conceptual framework is proposed to study the determinants of organizational citizenship behavior in the form of organizational justice and job satisfaction. Additionally, the ultimate benefits of OCB through perceived organizational justice with job satisfaction as mediator is enlightened. Finally, the authors discuss the managerial implications of their research.
The study aims to investigate methods for companies to contribute to not only social and national developments, but also on the promotion of individuals and companies by re-examining the various phenomena that define companies. The study examines the relationship between subordinate factors of social responsibility activities and job performances as well as the role of CEOs in showing authentic leadership and meaningfulness of work. A total of 312 valid questionnaires were obtained, and hypotheses were tested using regression analysis, hierarchical regression analysis, and 3-way interactions. The results suggest that corporate social responsibility activities not only enhanced the performance of the members, but also confirmed the importance of the authentic leadership of the CEO. Additionally, the role of the members in the company also showed to play a very significant role in a company's developments. The results also show that the CEO and members need to make efforts to increase ethics as well as gain more competitiveness and improve their reputation by promoting their sense of calling and feeling of compassion in the workplace. In other words, the members of the high-ranking book and the members of the relatively low position will have different degrees of information transfer and evaluation of the company policy may be different.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of two-dimensional factor of motivators and hygiene on civil servants' job satisfaction using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) as a technique employed to analyze the measurement and structural models. Exploratory study was deployed to evaluate the relationship among variables. By using multistage stratified sampling, statistical data was collected from a survey of 441 public municipal civil servants who have employed in various levels (municipal government, districts and communes) in Vietnam. The findings provided evidence that hygiene factors (relationship with leader, salary, relationship with coworker and working environment) directly impact on civil servants' job satisfaction. Meanwhile, only career development factor from motivators significantly influenced on public employee's job satisfaction. Based on the empirical results, the hygiene factors of job satisfaction are more dominated that the motivators one. This finding suggests that municipal governments should focus policies on improving the hygiene factors which lead to higher job satisfaction on civil servants. Gaining a thorough understanding of the determinants of job satisfaction toward municipal public servants will enable policy makers to grasp the factors that results in retaining employees. Finally, the policy makers can use this knowledge to promote civil servants' job satisfaction.
The article compares economic and environmental performance of Taipei and Almaty from the point of view of "green" economy, which is able to act as a key tool to ensure sustainable development of the region. As the comparison of the parameters of ecological and economic development of the Taipei and Almaty cities shows, they are similar in population size, but demonstrate completely different trends of sustainable development. Economic performance of the Taipei city is achieved with a decrease in the consumption of natural resources and the production of pollution, while the situation in Almaty is the opposite. Almaty maintains a high level of air pollution due to the use of coal in electricity production, as well as increased traffic and density of construction, including the southern part of the city, which is a zone for the transit of mountain air flows. The article discusses the activities jointly conducted by the Government of Taiwan and non-governmental organizations on environmental issues, as well as environmental NGOs, which resulted in significant improvements in the environmental field. Measures to stimulate the development and implementation of environmental innovations applied in the field of sustainable development in the city of Taipei can be adapted for the city of Almaty, where the environmental situation deteriorates year by year.
This research aims to generalize the conceptual basis of precariousness of employment, study the factors and scale of unsustainable of employment in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The concept of precariousness of employment is formed in social and economic studies about 40 years ago, but objective and subjective conditions and forms of unsustainable employment existed before. This study proposes a classification of forms of precariousness of employment on 16 criteria: the duration and timing of agreements, contract terms, the nature of income; the degree of labor autonomy; the level of formality; the level of openness; the level of vulnerability; the conditions of growth of qualification; the level of flexibility; the level of stability; regularity; the severity of the danger of work; in relation to the workplace; the quality of employment, the level of social security. In this research highlighted factors (globalization, demography, migration, structure factors, shadow and informal economy, social development and living standards, unemployment), and systematized certain trends of precariousness of employment, channels and means, forms of manifestation. The empirical analysis identified of the labor potential of the Eurasian countries and new quantitative estimates of the levels of unsustainable employment in the Eurasian Economic Space.
This study aims is to explore of the theoretical concepts of regional imbalances and spatial inequality, analysis of spatial distribution of economic growth and identifying of "growth poles" for sustainable development in the regions of Kazakhstan. Based on the theoretical views, we conclude that the key direction of regional policy is the search and development of "growth poles", which will distribute their potential equally to backward regions. The authors propose the methodological tools for presenting a standard form of evaluation of spatial distribution and inequality of the regions of Kazakhstan. This study confirms the importance of using of proposed methods and its application for objectively and realistically defines "growth poles" for sustainable development. Further, the obtained results showed the distribution of Kazakhstan's regions by economic growth and specialization with using modified index of KDI. According to the results of this theoretical and empirical study proved that distribution of the regions of Kazakhstan and results of KDI indexes shows that the spatial differentiation of economic development, but its level and dynamics are different in different respects. In addition, according to the conducted survey, we conclude that one of the most important tasks is sustainable growth based on "growth poles" for sustainable development.
This study aims to explore the relationship between organizational justice and social loafing of organizations in Ho Chi Minh City through quantitative analysis from the survey data for the 228 employees are working at the Organizations in Ho Chi Minh City. The instrument of collecting data was a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and employing exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach's alpha, multiple regression analysis. The results showed that only two factors are Distributive justice and Procedural justice is to have the reverse effect on social loafing of employee. From the results of the study showed, Distributive justice and Procedural justice has the opposite effect of social loafing, which demonstrates that when individuals feel that their work is spent on Perform tasks in a clearly divided and they will receive a worthwhile result in the group when performing the task then the individual's collective indifference to the organization will decrease. And motivate the employee to make more efforts to work and contribute for the organization. In addition, the factor of Procedural justice also has the opposite effect of collective redundancy, which demonstrates that employees are more concerned about fairness in official policies and organizational procedures.
This paper aims to explore the risk governance framework and socially viable solutions, attempting to provide guidance for the decision making process. The key idea of this study start with overcoming the limitations of IRGC risk governance framework, which mainly focuses on a comprehensive framework for risk governance. This article has employed SWOT analysis as a methodology, which is a strategic planning technique used to help identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to business competition or risk management. In this paper, socially viable solutions as an alternative plan place emphasis on the adoption of concern assessment through a concerns table. It is also proposed that scoping has to get introduced, with SWOT analysis in the process. The results of this paper support that multiple stakeholders have to participate in the process of identifying and framing risk and communicating with each other, considering the context. It should be noted that communities can become involved and take important parts in decision making process in various ways. It is recommended that engaging stakeholders to both risk assessment and risk management is material to dealing with risk in a socially viable way. It also implies that the community-based disaster management should be better prepared for the decision making process in socially viable solutions.
Paying close attention to those new to an organization, whether fresh or experienced, whose primary interest is in (re)socialization, the current study intends to (1) further the concept of mentoring from a bilateral relationship to a community and culture fostered by developmental networks, (2) propose an integrated conceptual framework for organizational socialization, and (3) suggest implications for practice and future research. This study reviews, analyzes, and integrates research assets and subsequently re-conceptualizes the aggregate information as valid propositions and a conceptual framework. The findings include (1) 11 propositions regarding the relationships among network characteristics (embeddedness, diversity), developmental functions (career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling), and socialization outcomes (learning and attitudinal outcomes); and (2) an integrated conceptual framework that depicts a comprehensive mechanism through which developmental networks conduce to organizational socialization of newcomers. Implications are that developmental networking must be an individual's fundamental competency and an essential part of organizational onboarding processes, and imperative for both members' career development and innovative organizational culture. By integrating research assets on the developmental phenomenon into conceptualizations, this study furthers the concept of mentoring to organizational culture and stimulates a substantive discourse for theory-building towards organizational socialization from the developmental network perspective.