This study is motivated based on concern from some renowned scholars and central bankers whom have raised the issue of the sustainability of the International Monetary System (IMS). Using the panel data set of four major international currencies, USD, JPY, EUR and GBP from 1973 to 2013 with Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator, to re-examine whether Triffin dilemma still exists through investigating the relationship between the reserve share, current account balance and real effective exchange rate. The evidence from the result indicates that Triffin dilemma exists only in the long run, and shows that in the long-run, current account balance is proportionate to the increased real effective exchange rate while varies inversely with the reserve shares. However, the estimation for the short-run is not significant to prove the existence of Triffin dilemma. In addition, we investigated the non-dollar panel sample and found that the international monetary system still suffers from Triffin dilemma even without the dollar. To overcome Triffin dilemma, immediate step such as having currency swap mechanism is recommended. In medium term, a multi-polar Monetary System is suggested, and in the longer time, a supranational currency will be used to replace all the currencies in the world.
The study examines the magnitude of economic spillover and the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on the efficiency of the bank industry in China. This study employs unit root tests, cointegration tests and cointegrating regression analysis, including fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) and dynamic OLS (DOLS) to test the proposed hypotheses. The sample is restricted to the period of time in which monthly data is available and comparable among variables for the period from January 2002 to October 2013 (142 observations). All of the time series data was collected and retrieved from the People's Bank of China, China Monthly Statistics from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, and International Financial Statistics database from International Monetary Fund. The results of the Johansen cointegration test suggest that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between FDI inflows, foreign exchange rate and banks performance in China. The results of cointegrating regression analysis using FMOLS, CCR and DOLS suggest that M2 supply and FDI inflows are significant at the 0.01 level. The results confirm that FDI inflows in the banking sector are positively related to the increase of banks productivity and performance and short-term loans in China. However, the results suggest that Chinese Yuan currency exchange rate to U.S. dollar is not significant in the banking and financial industry of China.
In the globalization and free trade era, the current account deficit problem is a common phenomenon experienced by most countries, both developing and developed countries. Also with managed floating regime of exchange rate, it becomes very important to analyze the dynamics of current account balance which determine the trade. The deficit condition has lasted for four years in Indonesia, as well the deficit value above the value of the surplus that has been experienced during the period 2005-2011. This study is firstly aim to examine the condition of the deficit which happens in the export and import, manufactured goods and oil and gas, whether related to the transaction of goods and services. We try to build a predicted model which near the actual. Then, the focuses examines an exchange rate volatility impact on current account deficit. The model used in this research is a simultaneous model of Indonesia current account deficit from 2005 to 2014. The simulation result indicated that depreciation increase surplus to current account deficit. The decrease of export manufactured goods (non oil and gas) higher than the increase of import. For the oil and gas sector, depreciation of the rupiah against the US dollar results in an increased burden of higher oil and gas imports due to import transactions.
In recent decades, financial crises in various countries have often been preceded by the rise in non-performing loans (NPLs) in the banks' asset portfolios. The increase in NPLs is proven to have adverse impact on the banking sector so that understanding the determinant of NPLs is immensely crucial to ensure the efficiency and soundness of the overall economy. This study aims to shed light on bank-specific factors that affect loan default problems in developing countries whose banking sectors play a major role in the overall economy. This study analyzes panel data sets of 36 commercial banks listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange during the period 2008-2015. Applying fixed-effects panel regression model reveals that Indonesian banks' profitability and credit growth negatively influence the number of NPLs. Moreover, banks with higher profitability are proven to have lower NPLs because they can afford adequate credit management practices. Likewise, banks with higher credit growth evidently have lower NPLs in the sense that they demonstrate more specialized lending activity and thus have better credit management systems. These findings imply that, in order to lower loan defaults that can deteriorate banks' asset quality, banks should maintain their level of profitability and increase, rather than decrease, their credit supply to debtors.
We study the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) of Asian four countries such as Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, and China on housing market returns in Korea. Also, we document the relationship between the EPU index of those four countries and the housing market including macroeconomic indicators in Korea. The EPU index of those four countries has significantly a negative effect on the housing purchase price index, housing lease price index in Korea. The EPU index in Korea and Japan has significantly a negative effect on the CPI. The EPU index in only Japan has significantly a negative effect on the PPI. The EPU index in Hong Kong and Korea has significantly a negative effect but the EPU index in China significantly has a positive effect on the stock price index in construction industry. The EPU index in only Korea has significantly a negative effect the stock price index in banking industry. This study shows the EPU index of the Korea has the negative relationships on the housing market economy rather than other countries by VECM. And this study has an important evidence of the spillover of several macroeconomic indicators in Korea for the EPU index of the Asian four countries.
Corporate governance has received massive attention in academic research nowadays due to several recent corporate failures. Inefficiency of corporate governance mechanisms have driven the minds of the researchers and the policy makers to look with more insights into this area. Board composition, as part of corporate governance mechanism, plays a significant role to achieve company's goals or objectives and ensure transparency and accountability. The objective of this study is to find out the efficiency of board composition through board size, independent directors and female directors on firm performance in the listed manufacturing firms of Bangladesh. In this study, a sample of 162 firm years are considered as the sample during the period of 2011 to 2016. This study finds that large board is the significant explanatory variable in improving firm performance. This study also shows that board independence and female directors have no significant association with firm performance which implies that instrument of corporate governance mechanism particularly board composition is very weak. This study recommends that code of corporate governance, specially the role of independent directors and female directors, should be reformed in the light of cultural and institutional context along with the effective enforcement.
Researches based on the pattern of planned behavior holds that the three variables of entrepreneurial attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control influence each other and influence entrepreneurial intentions respectively. However, there are also different, even conflicting research conclusions that continue to emerge. Researches based on the pattern of alertness, believe that profit opportunities and individuals' pursuit to truth are the driving forces. Many scholars have demonstrated the impact of individual entrepreneurial alertness on entrepreneurial intentions. However, as an exogenous causal agent, profit opportunities have a logical problem: if there are no other assumptions, the mere existence of opportunities does not adequately explain entrepreneurial alertness. To address this gap, this study considered samples from mainland China, where entrepreneurial activities are very active currently, to test the role that entrepreneurial alertness is assumed to play in the planned behavior model. The results show that the three dimensions of alertness, individually partly intermediate the influence of entrepreneurial attitude on entrepreneurial intention, the influence of subjective norms on entrepreneurial intention, and that of perceived behavior control on entrepreneurial intention. This article studied the production of entrepreneurial intention by integrating the two patterns of planned behavior and alertness through empirical analysis, and opened up a new field for subsequent research on entrepreneurial intention.
The purpose of this study is to explore how small and medium enterprises in India has identified the opportunities and challenges in adopting the Web 3.0 technologies to improve their productivity and efficiency. After an in-depth literature review, researchers framed a semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended questions for collecting responses from managers working in 40 Indian SME's representing five key economic sectors. The collected data was analyzed, and themes were encoded using the NVivo 11 computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Content analysis was used to analyze the data collected with the semi-structured interviews. This study identified five key themes and 12 subthemes illustrating the key advantages and challenges as perceived by the managerial leadership of SMEs. The five key themes identified in this study include integration of data and services, the creation of new functionalities, privacy and security, financial and technological challenges, and organizational challenges. The results of this study will benefit the organizational leadership of SMEs in planning and developing their short-term and long-term information systems strategies and will enable SME leaders to make optimal use of their information technology assets, improving the productivity and competitiveness of the firms. Web 3.0 technologies are considered as emerging technologies, so the advantages and challenges of using these technologies for SMEs have not been explored in the context of emerging economies, such as India.
The purpose of this study is to substantiate the affecting factors of informal learning outcomes for professions in various dimensions of an individual and organization. In specific, the study analyzed the effects of learning motivation, job characteristics, and a supportive learning environment which have on task-related knowledge acquisition, adapting to organization and understanding contexts, relationship formation, and improving self-development-ability. The participants of the study were 261 professionals working at four major accounting firms in South Korea. Multiple regression models were applied step by step for analysis. In this study, the informal learning of professionals working at four major accounting firms is influenced by various factors of learning motivation, job characteristics, and a supportive learning environment. The detailed analysis results were as follows. Firstly, peer-support showed the most positive effect on task-related knowledge acquisition. Secondly, for adapting to organization and understanding contexts, task autonomy showed the greatest effect. Thirdly, peer-support was found to be the most important factor for relationship formation. Fourthly, for improving self-development ability, learning goal orientation showed to be the most important factor. The various factors facilitated the professional learning by empirical identification. The study presented practical implications for creating an effective informal learning support environment.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of narcissism on employees' social media addiction and how it influences their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. And this study explores if perceived organizational support can moderate the relationship between narcissism and social media addiction. For this, this study collected data from 285 employees in Korean companies through a survey method and uses SPSS 18.0 for hierarchical regression analysis in the hypothesis test. First, organizational politics increases mood modification, withdrawal and tolerance among the sub-factors of social media addiction. Second, each phenomena of social media service addiction such as salience, withdrawal and tolerance decrease each relevant factors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Third, withdrawal and tolerance among the sub-factors of social media addiction play the mediating roles between narcissism and each relevant factors of job satisfaction/organizational commitment. Finally, perceived organizational support decrease the effect of narcissism on mood modification, withdrawal and tolerance among the sub-factors of social media addiction. This study provides some of managerial implications to corporate executives who try to manage organizational attitudes.
Generic medicine (GM), which is an alternative drug product for branded medicine (BM), is used less in Japan than in other OECD countries. Therefore, we investigate why the medical consumers of Japan avoid the use of GMs even though the efficacy and safety of the medicines have already been proven. We theorize that effectiveness or risk of GMs are related to the consumer attitude toward GMs is affected by the behavioral approach/activation system (BAS) which promotes actions to reach the desired state, and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) which suppresses behaviors to avoid negative outcomes. To see which of the BAS and BIS dimensions are related to GM usage, we surveyed 374 Japanese consumers and found that Quality, Efficacy, Safety, & Cost-effectiveness with the BAS, and Functional Risk, Financial Risk, Social Risk, Physical Risk, Psychological Risk, & Time Risk with the BIS had a significant effect on consumer attitude to GMs. These results are important in that they 1), confirm the role of BAS/BIS in attitudes to GMs, 2), provide guidelines when marketing GMs, 3), help governments promote the use of GMs as a cost-saving measure, and 4), guide future surveys regarding consumer attitudes to GMs.
A primary goal of transnationals is to offer their vision for selling products or services so that they are relevant to local cultures. The purpose of this study is to provide a solution for how transnational companies face various environments and how they can utilize and overcome them and survive strategically. This study will present strategic recommendations for transnational organizations. First, transnational organizations should identify the core areas where organizational can invest or allocate its precious resources to get full advantage of the attractive opportunities form the market and focus on building strong networks with the key stakeholders. Second, they should manage the knowledge flows and provide strategic direction in cooperative venture for the long term successful future and ensure that every department has an effective coordination with other departments in order to bring about the organizational change. Lastly, they should overcome the challenges managers face in a transnational business environment when companies expand their operations into international markets. The managers need to assess the organization's strengths and weaknesses and evaluate different forces which are present in the external environment. And then, Managers have to ensure that the company has sufficient resources, core competencies and capabilities.
The present paper study investigates the relationship between social exclusion and donation intention among specific social groups in Korea. Social exclusion refers to non-participation in social experiences by the socially disadvantaged. Data were analyzed using two sources; first was the evidence of behaviors arising from social exclusion of the university students and then socially excluded reactions of the elderly responses from the survey were compared with the first research findings. The reason of using multi-sources of data is that the outcome from the experimental design of the university student is imperative to clarify what the conclusions will be the same result with the other demographic characteristic of the elderly. The research design was three excluded elderly individuals of a self-excluded group and two other excluded groups divided such as "ignored" and "rejected" individuals to compare the differences among three groups of different sources of exclusion. The conclusion of this study is that those with high social exclusion exhibited a more negative donation intention than those with lower social exclusion, but that those who perceived themselves as self-excluded were more likely to give donations than those excluded by others, regardless of the level of their social exclusion.
In the contemporary era of smart tourism, travelers face more accommodation options than ever before. The rapid expansions of alternative accommodation sector are partially owing to the growth of electronic commerce and the rise of online intermediary platforms. Online travel agencies serve as a critical distribution channel for tourism sectors, and the significance is further increased for small and micro entrepreneurs whose direct communication channels are scarce. Considering the holistic process of customer experience started with a third-party online intermediary, this study explores basic and extended attributes of small and medium-sized alternative accommodation where the comparative value is created. In order to achieve the objective, a research design was developed to synthesize the qualitative evidence. The synthesis encompasses both theoretical and practical perspectives, from a systematic review and opinions of academic professionals to an in-depth interview with an industry expert and the current practices of online travel agencies. This study suggests that the sources of value creation for alternative accommodation are not always consistent with those of the traditional. Accounting for the temporal and spatial dynamics in customer experience, the findings of this study provide insights on the comparative value of alternative accommodation, to both academic and industry audiences.