The banking industry regulators have imposed on commercial banks to maintain a certain level of liquidity to ensure that they can meet their obligations to the depositors and third parties. This study examines the factors influencing liquidity creation among commercial banks in Uzbekistan. Specifically, this study examines three internal factors namely, risk assets, deposits, and inter-bank loans on the creation of liquidity in commercial banks of Uzbekistan. This study uses content analysis on financial reports of 33 commercial banks in Uzbekistan over 21 years. This study shows all the factors chosen in this study significantly influence liquidity creation among the commercial banks in Uzbekistan. While deposits and inter-bank loans significantly and positively influence liquidity creation, this study shows that risk assets significantly and negatively influence liquidity creation. Further analysis shows that these three factors contribute to a 92.4% variance in liquidity creation among commercial banks in Uzbekistan. The findings of this study provide valuable insights to the stakeholders in the banking industry on the factors influencing liquidity creation in banks. In addition, this study adds to the existing literature by providing insight into the internal factors' role in influencing liquidity creation in the context of an emerging economy.
The study attempted to answer the questions related to the expected effects of supply chain management variables which include: Partnership with Suppliers (PS), Relationships with Customers (RC), Quality of Information Exchange (QIE), and Postponement (P), as independent variables, total quality management (TQM) as a dependents variable, and just in time (JIT) as a mediator variable. The study relies on the descriptive approach by conducting an empirical study on commercial companies in Riyadh Governorate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Through the methods of descriptive and analytical statistics represented in exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM)), using the AMOS and SPSS programs, the results of the applied study indicated that: There is an effect of supply chain management variables (quality of information exchange, Postponement) on just in time (JIT), there is no effect of the supply chain variables (relationship with customers, partnership with suppliers) on just in time (JIT), there is an indirect effect of the quality of information exchange, Postponement, partnership with suppliers, the relationship with customers on total quality management (TQM), relationship with customers affect on total quality management (TQM) indirectly, just in time (JIT) does not affect total quality management (TQM)
Logistics industry is being an important industry in Vietnam with the contribution from 8-10% of GDP recently. This industry employs about 15 millions people. Increasing the employees' job satisfaction is become one of the most concerns of managers in logistics companies to strengthen the employee engagement and improve their business performance. The aim of this study is to investigate how employees' perceptions of job satisfaction are influenced by factors such as job stress, leadership capability, work-life balance, and demographics. 426 workers in the logistics sector in Vietnam were surveyed online. The acquired data was analyzed using a structural equation model. In total 16 hypotheses were established, 13 of which were deemed to be significant. The results demonstrate how the literature-informed second-order constructs can potentially explain the overall job stress, leadership capability, and work-life balance of employees in the Vietnamese logistics industry. These variables account for 54.8% of job satisfaction. This study makes a theoretical contribution to the extant literature by showing how researching second-order constructs can improve the theory's capacity to predict employees' job satisfaction. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for the management of logistics firms in Vietnam.
This paper investigates the effect of independent directorship on the firm performance of Chinese listed companies under the impact of the global COVID-19 epidemic. The study starts by assessing the relationship between independent director-related characteristics and firm performance, then mines independent director characteristics variables, collects variable data, proposes reasonable hypotheses, and constructs a data model. 1597 companies listed on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock index, China, from 2020 to 2021 has been selected as the research sample. An empirical study on the relationship between independent directors' characteristics and firm performance was conducted using SPSS25. The results show that under the impact of the global COVID-19 epidemic, the proportion of independent directors on the board of directors, the age of independent directors, the remuneration of independent directors, and the overseas background of independent directors in Chinese listed companies have a negative relationship with the current firm performance, while the proportion of female independent directors and the part-time rate of independent directors do not have a positive effect on firm performance. The findings of this study strongly imply that independent directors' characteristics play a significant role in corporate governance and firm performance in Chinese listed companies and that the external environment has an impact on how well independent directors can carry out their duties.
Over the past ten years, numerous industries have undergone upheavals that have significantly altered how businesses interact with their clients and how goods are created and produced bySMEs. Many cutting-edge technologies have recently been created and implemented to enhance business models, facilitate sustainability features for organizations, and boost business capabilities. This essay seeks to understand how digital entrepreneurship functions in developing nations. The results of this study show the effectiveness of digital transformation in the context of SMEs is greatly influenced by aspects including the change of managerial intensity and the involvement and perception of workers, customers, and shareholders. One of the needs that business owners showcased in this study in terms of digitization is infrastructure resources to support digitization such as devices, the Internet, and funds, but also the ability to use digital media for business development. Practical skills that business people want to learn such as product design and management of their social media accounts. There are also aspects of time and self-motivation of the business actor that can speed up or slow down the digitization process. Finally, government support that is structured in encouraging MSMEs is also one of the supporters and drivers of digitalization in the blue economy.
Business is an important entity in every economy with its role in job creation, budget contribution, and national output. It can be said that enterprises are also one of the leading units that play a key role in implementing digital transformation, grasping science and technology, and improving labor productivity. Developing a team of enterprises that are both strong in quantity and strong in quality is an urgent requirement in many countries, including Vietnam. Vietnam is a developing country and home to many textile and garment enterprises operating due to the advantages of cheap labor and a large market, the textile and garment industry is capable of creating many jobs for the economy. Studying the factors affecting corporate financial performance across 250 textile and garment enterprises in Hanoi capital and Bac Ninh province, the research results show that when enterprises have the ability to mobilize capital, the cost is cheap, appropriate, and optimal, most businesses often achieve higher business efficiency and financial performance. In contrast, enterprises that are difficult to raise capital in the economy often achieve low financial efficiency and financial performance. The study also confirms the role of human capital in enterprises, enterprises with high human capital often achieve high profits.
There is a strong association between poverty levels and the probability of natural disasters. East Java, however, exhibits a distinct pattern. While the rate of poverty is declining, natural disasters are becoming more severe. Considering that East Java is an area with a high risk of natural disasters and a high poverty rate, this study aims to estimate the effect of environmental preservation and the magnitude of the impact of disasters as measured by the Disaster Risk Index (IRBI) on poverty. The 3SLS model is used on secondary data from 38 districts/cities from 2015 to 2021 as an analytical database. Based on the estimation results, there are 3 findings in this study: (i) the role of government, population development, and economic activity have a strong influence on nature conservation; (ii) nature conservation has a strong influence on disaster risk; and (iii) the disaster risk index has a strong effect on poverty. As a result, areas with a high level of disaster risk have a slower rate of poverty reduction. The role of this research is to show the need for the government's role in improving the quality of natural disaster mitigation anticipation, economic activity, and the role of the population in a sustainable manner.
This study investigates the impact of corporate governance (defined as companies' ownership structure and board of directors' characteristics) on cash holdings in the context of Oman. This study leverages a quantitative panel pooled regression on a dataset of Omani non-financial firms from 2009-2015. The findings of this study are generally in line with the predictions of Agency Theory and Mentoring and Busyness Hypotheses. The analysis demonstrates that a large stockholder size has a significant positive relationship with cash holding. Meanwhile, a positive (but insignificant) relationship was also found between institutional ownership and cash holding. Furthermore, state ownership was found to exhibit a significant negative relationship with cash holding. In terms of the board of directors' traits, this study's findings suggest that board sizes have a positive (but insignificant) relationship with cash holding. Furthermore, busy and independent boards were found to have a significant positive relationship with cash holding. The above findings suggest that boards with such traits are less effective in providing oversight on managers' actions, which would then increase Omani non-financial firms' cash holdings.
The paper aims to investigate the asymmetric long-run and short-run relationships between inflation and remittance outflows in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (hereafter KSA) over the period 1971-2019 by using the Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model. The statistical tests have supported the validity and stability of the model. The Wald F-test statistics confirm the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship among the model variables; remittance outflows, positive (negative) shocks in inflation rates, investment, real GDP, and trade openness. Moreover, the empirical results confirm the existence of an asymmetric effect of the inflation rate on remittance outflows. The response of foreign workers to an increase in inflation rates differs from their response to a decrease in inflation rates. However, this asymmetric relationship between the increases/decreases in inflation and remittance outflows is significantly weak. The weakness of this relationship is due to the high marginal remittance propensity of migrant workers, which is explained by the low consumption propensity of foreign workers and their ability to adjust to the high cost of living due to inflation and the imposition of accompanying fees. Finally, the change in the inflation rate is not among the main factors influencing foreign remittance decisions in Saudi Arabia.
MSMEs encountered several issues during the COVID-19 pandemic, including decreased sales and capital, difficulties in distribution, trouble obtaining raw materials, decreased production, and employee layoffs. These issues posed a threat to the national economy. The final effect was the company's bankruptcy as a result of its failure to survive a pandemic, which led to the company's downfall. This research aims to find out and analyze MSMEs' business strategy and innovation to maintain their business during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. This research is qualitative. Researchers got data using interviews, observation, and documentation. The analysis of this research is descriptive. To draw customers during the COVID-19 pandemic, MSMEs use social media or digital marketing, followed by the delivery of orders, promotions, or discounts and the creation of freebies. MSMEs develop new products as part of their ongoing efforts to expand their businesses while upholding standards for quality, value, and customer service. They also adapt to changing consumer tastes and popular food trends while showcasing some of their most intriguing products.
This study examined the relationships among owner-manager characteristics, e-commerce adoption, and performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Although the growth of e-commerce was encouraging in many countries, studies of e-commerce adoption among SMEs in developing countries such as Malaysia are insufficient. Furthermore, studies that investigated individual characteristics and e-commerce adoption are still low in number. This study specifically employed the technology-organization-environmental (TOE) framework to develop its research model. The sample was selected by using a non-probability judgmental sampling technique because the desired population frame was unavailable. A total of 111 owner-managers of SMEs were surveyed using online self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, the data was analyzed through partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results revealed significant relationships between owner-manager characteristics and e-commerce adoption, as well as between e-commerce adoption and the performance of SMEs. The findings suggested that owner-manager characteristics played an important role in determining e-commerce adoption among SMEs. Moreover, e-commerce adoption was crucial in affecting the performance of SMEs. This paper provided new insights into factors affecting e-commerce adoption and firm performance. It could further benefit the government and SMEs in strategizing e-commerce adoption and development, especially in the era of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) and the post-COVID-19 pandemic.
Given the gaps in the link between leadership, knowledge resource, and innovation capability, this study aims to examine the potential mediating role of knowledge sharing and moderating role of knowledge-centered culture in the relationship between transformational leadership and a firm's capability for innovation. This study applied the Structural Equation Modeling to try out proposal hypotheses in the research model through a questionnaire survey from a sample of 301 participators in 115 small and medium firms in the field of tourism and hotel. The findings disclosed that knowledge-sharing behaviors significantly mediate the transformational leadership-innovation relationship. It highlights the significant impact of explicit knowledge sharing in comparison with the influence of tacit knowledge sharing on innovation capability. The paper also reveals the crucial role of knowledge-centered culture in boosting the knowledge-sharing-innovation relationship. By exploring the mediating role of knowledge sharing and the moderator of knowledge-centered culture, the paper significantly brings insight into different mediating and moderating mechanisms to improve innovation capability. The paper significantly fills up the gaps and provides valuable initiatives on the mechanism of how transformational leadership and specific forms of knowledge-sharing behaviors positively affect innovation capability under the moderating role of knowledge-centered culture.
This study seeks to determine if the efficiency of bank human resources, as played by human capital, impacts the performance and diversification of banks. This study uses secondary data from data obtained from 385 commercial banks in 33 countries in Asia during the 2010-2020 period with the diversification analysis method. We use the Z-score to measure the amount of standard deviation that must be from earnings (ROAA). We examined it using the Tobit regression technique. According to the regression estimation results, human capital has a significant role in the performance and effective diversification of Asian banks. The human capital efficiency coefficient (HCE) is significantly negative with the cost-to-income ratio (CTIR) and significantly positive with Profitability, Financial Stability, and cost efficiency score. The level of efficiency of human resources has an effective role in increasing human capital which has an impact on bank diversification and performance. The development of human resources in a human capital framework plays an important role in the diversification and improvement of bank performance. Human capital has a significant role in the performance and effective diversification of Asian banks. The level of efficiency of human resources has an effective role in increasing human capital which has an impact on bank diversification and performance.
The detrimental impacts of financial instability on the world economy during the financial crisis highlighted the requirement to understand the existing financial circumstances. Stability and developments in financial conditions are important for economic prosperity. This study analyses the impact of geopolitical risk on the economic conditions of some specific emerging economies using monthly data from January 1999 to September 2016 by applying a fixed-effects panel data model. The estimation results demonstrated that geopolitical risk has a significant, negative impact on financial conditions. It shows geopolitical risk could be seen as a key factor that contributes towards financial conditions. Further, it implies that negative shocks of high geopolitical risk experienced by emerging economies are one of the primary reasons for the financial conditions' deterioration. The findings provide important insights for governments, policymakers, and investors. For instance, governments and politicians should refrain from expressing or producing tension, economic discomfort, or news that is likely to increase a high geopolitical risk. Maintaining a close eye on geopolitical risk and its sources may also help to stabilize financial conditions and develop a well-functioning financial system. As a result, investors would be better informed about an economy's economic and financial conditions, allowing them to diversify their international portfolios and devise investing strategies during uncertain economic times.
Within the context of publicly traded Sharia-compliant companies in Malaysia, this study investigated the influence that board and company characteristics have on corporate donations. The primary focus of the study was (i) two board characteristics derived from upper echelons theory, namely gender composition and education level, and (ii) four firm variables derived from stakeholder theory, specifically company size, profitability, leverage, and industry category. This study used a total of 402 Shariah-compliant companies that operated in accordance with Shariah law. The information utilized in this study was culled by hand from the annual reports of various companies covering the years 2017 through 2019. According to the findings, the educational level of a company's board of directors has a significant impact on the amount of money donated to charitable organizations by Shariah-compliant companies. The level of expertise possessed by board members can be of assistance to businesses in becoming more aware of the necessity of making contributions or donations. Corporate contribution practices among Shariah-compliant companies in Malaysia were also significantly influenced by the firm's size, profitability, and the industry category in which the business was classified. The findings of the study contribute to a better understanding of the impact that board and company variables have on the activities of corporate donors.
The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which Small-to-Medium Enterprise (SME) owners and operators in Mountain Province were willing to take on financial risk to invest in the capital markets as a potential additional source of income, as well as the extent to which these five indicator variables-particularly their income, expenses, financial goals, liquid cash, and insurance coverage-were influenced by demographic factors. The study used a quantitative approach and employed a descriptive survey research method. The results show that the SME Owners and Operators in Mountain Province have minimal knowledge of capital market investments which makes them moderate investors with a neutral level of financial risk tolerance toward capital market investment. Their marital status, net income, and educational attainment significantly influence their financial risk tolerance level. The respondents also believe that engaging in the capital markets will grow their businesses. Further, the extent of influence of Income, Expenses, Liquid Cash, and Insurance Cover on the financial risk tolerance of the SME owners and operators in Mountain Province a great extent; thus, making them careful in investing in the capital markets, and it is primarily affected by their Net Income. Consequently, the financial goals of SME owners and operators in Mountain Province have a vital role in their financial risk tolerance level.
This study aims to determine the factors that influence training programs in increasing entrepreneurial success as a new model for developing entrepreneurship training in a new era. It intended to provide a suggestion for building an entrepreneurship training model for Beginner Young Entrepreneurs (BYE) organized by the Ministry of Youth and Sports of Indonesia. The study used a quantitative method by collecting data through a Google form questionnaire distributed via the WhatsApp group. This study employs samples from 358 BYE training participants for 2017-2020, and data was processed using Amos SEM software to analyze factors that influence the success of entrepreneurship. The results showed that entrepreneurial motivation is a partial mediator in increasing the effect of training on its success by BYE participants. Furthermore, the key factor for increasing entrepreneurial motivation is challenging young people to start businesses. This study recommends that BYE program policymakers build a training model by considering many practical case studies to increase motivation as an important mediator in influencing entrepreneurial success. Meanwhile, to boost the morale of training participants, it is necessary to add significant real challenges for participants to start entrepreneurship. Moreover, future studies should add other independent variables, such as personality.
The study aimed to study the effect of the inflation rate, the real domestic product, the interbank lending interest rate, and the total deposits on credit facilities in Jordan for 2012-2021 through quarterly data. The study adopted the ARDL model. The study used the time series analysis method, as the study tests the stationarity of the time series. The results showed that the impact of inflation on the total credit facilities was negative. In contrast, the impact of each of the total deposits, real GDP, and the interest rate of interbank loans on the total credit facilities was positive and significant. The study recommended the need for the banking sector in Jordan to develop risk management mechanisms in a way that allows it to adapt to economic cycles and crises by conducting stress tests and developing scenarios that ensure the formation of sufficient provisions to meet emergencies. The study also recommended that the macroeconomic policy should be based on creating a stable macroeconomic environment that allows the efficient employment of resources in all economic sectors in a way that achieves high economic growth rates, which contributes to the promotion of economic recovery and is reflected in income. Hence, individuals have a greater ability to repay loans.
This research aims to give information about the current situation of five financial sources for climate change in Vietnam, including (i) the State budget used by ministries; (ii) the State budget used by provinces; (iii) Bilateral funds; (iv) Multilateral funds; and (v) Private funds, and then classify them in line with the effectiveness. The working paper's secondary data on spending on CC-related activities, collected from reports of six ministries and 29 provinces, show that the State budget has been crucial in subsidizing CC-related activities in Vietnam. Moreover, domestic investment has accounted for a major part of the total expenditure of ministries and provinces for climate change. In addition, by using primary data collected from surveys sent to twelve experts from 5 groups, such as researchers, practical experts, managers of private funding organizations (such as banks and enterprises), managers of international funding organizations and beneficiaries, and then analyzing the data through the AHP method, the study shows that all climate finance sources in Vietnam are still not very effective. However, private sector funds are considered the most effective financial source for responding to climate change.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses disastrous effects on human lives and hinders global efforts to realize the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. The study examined the effects of the pandemic on unemployment toward realizing the SDGs. The downsizing and collapse of businesses have forcibly left many unfortunate Malaysians jobless and without income. The situation may directly influence government efforts to achieve SDG 8 'Decent work and economic growth', which indirectly affects SDG 1 'No poverty', SDG 2 'Zero hunger', and SDG 3 'Good health and well-being'. Pre-and post-pandemic assessments on unemployment and retrenchment level by sector were performed by adopting observation and data comparison methods. Critical findings revealed that the unemployment rate has risen among males and females and the youth, as well as the number of retrenchments. The services sector, specifically the wholesale, retail, trade, and hotel industry showed the highest number of retrenchments. Some important unemployment issues were also covered in this study, including the demand for employment, the role of government and business, and the effect of the gig economy on the current employment landscape. The avenue for future studies can focus on additional societal effects that could prevent the country from attaining the SDGs by 2030.
A significant body of prior research on performance management systems (PMSs) either explains the components and the design of the systems or investigates the link between particular system/s and organizational functions, capabilities, or performance. In contrast, this study investigates the comprehensive use of PMSs and relates them to corporate financial and non-financial performance. Further, this study examines whether the association between PMSs and performance varies between industries or is moderated by the size of the company. Data was collected using a questionnaire that was sent to companies from different industries operating in Riyadh province, where the most important businesses in Saudi Arabia are located. A total of 152 usable responses were received. The results of this study revealed that companies use a variety of PMSs at a balanced level. The extent of each category of PMS use is associated with the extent of other PMS categories' use. However, the larger the company, the more PMSs it uses. Importantly, the results showed a positive and significant association between PMSs' extent of use and both financial and non-financial performance. This association was minimally moderated by the company size and industry for specific categories of PMSs and performance.
This study desires to examine the impact of five dimensions of entrepreneurial (EO) orientation (innovation, competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness, risk-taking, autonomy) on the operation of women-owned SMEs; the author conducted a case study in Vietnam. How will each dimension of EO affect women-owned SMEs' performance? This study aims to seek the answer to these questions. A survey research design and a theoretical framework have been developed for all factors in the current context. A simple random sampling technique was applied in 300 SMEs in some provinces of Vietnam through a survey questionnaire, and a total of 258 valid responses were assessed as appropriate. The obtained data was analyzed by using SPSS 20.0. Cronbach's α test and factor analysis have been carried out to test the reliability of data and validate the hypothesis. Research results show that innovation, competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness, and autonomy positively affect business performance, while risk-taking negatively affects business performance. The results suggest that female business owners should know how to improve each dimension of the entrepreneurial in line with its context. Research results are important implications for Government administrative agencies for businesses to consult and introduce effective support policies. It is recommended that similar studies be replicated to confirm this result.
This study intends to investigate the impact of leadership style on civil servants' (in 4 ministries representatives of the Indonesian government) readiness to change and relocate to the future capital of Indonesia (Ibu Kota Nusantara / IKN). The quantitative approach was used from the data survey from 62 high-level civil servant representatives using a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS software and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The findings also indicated that, out of the 12 indicators of leadership style measured in this study, persuasion and integration leadership style should be considered crucial and important factors in shaping supportive behavior in the context of readiness for change. Making the relocation process successful requires avoiding the type of initiation structure leadership style. The finding of this study reveals that to choose the best leaders, the Indonesian government is urged to use these two criteria (persuasion and integration leadership style), especially for those in charge of facilitating the relocation process to IKN. Additionally, to demonstrate their confidence and make full use of their resources, leaders who are in command must be able to anticipate that the relocation of civil servants would go smoothly with less risk.