Background: It is necessary to find and develop the effective way of intervention for patients with neck pain, since the neck pain is becoming increasingly common throughout the world. To identify the altered motor control in patient with neck pain would be informative to find and develop the effective way of intervention. Objects: The aim of this study was to review literature regarding the altered motor control in patients with neck pain, measured by using surface electromyography (sEMG), ultrasonography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to suggest prospective research work on neck pain. Methods: Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies published between 2004 and 2015 that investigated neck muscle activation, thickness, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltrate were searched in Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Twenty-eight articles were included in this study. Results: sEMG, ultrasonography, and fMRI were used complementarily to investigate the altered superficial and deep neck muscle activation, thickness, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltrate in patients with neck pain. They showed the following altered motor control when compared retrospectively with healthy subjects or during specific functional tasks: (1) increased superficial muscle activation, (2) lesser deep muscle thickness, (3) smaller cross-sectional area of the deep muscle, and (4) greater fat infiltrate in deep muscles. In particular, among the women, the office workers showed higher muscle activation of superficial neck muscles during functional tasks, although they did not have neck pain, than those who were not office workers. Conclusion: Studies revealed that patients with neck pain showed an altered motor control when compared with healthy subjects by using various assessment modalities. Understanding this phenomenon would help researchers design an effective intervention for alleviating neck pain or to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. In addition, we recommend that female office workers take measures to care for their necks before developing neck pain.