The Effects of the Ash Content in Flour on the Rheological Properties of Frozen Dough

밀가루의 회분 함량이 냉동 생지 반죽의 물성에 미치는 영향

  • Kim, Seok-Young (Department of Baking Technology, Korea Tourism College) ;
  • Han, Jae-Heung (Daehan Flour Mills Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Song, Young (Department of Applied Biology & Chemistry, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Si-Kyung (Department of Applied Biology & Chemistry, Konkuk University)
  • 김석영 (한국관광대학 제과제빵과) ;
  • 한재흥 ((주)대한제분 연구소) ;
  • 송영 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과) ;
  • 이시경 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과)
  • Published : 2003.02.28


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ash contents of bread flour on the rheology of frozen dough In making frozen dough by measuring amylograph, flrinograph and extensograph. The quality of frozen-stored dough under freezing condition ($-20^{\circ}C$, 12 weeks) was evaluated by measuring final proof time, moisture content, baking loss, loaf volume and hardness of bread with storage time. In bread flour with high ash content farinogram showed that water absorption, degree of softening increased but valorimeter value decreased. In bread flour with low ash content amylogram showed that gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity increased and extensogram showed that the area and resistance of the bread flour increased. As the proof time increased the extensibility decreased. Final proof time of frozen dough was shortened at the bread flour with low ash content with storage time. In bread using the flour with high ash content, moisture content, increased but baking loss rate decreased while the hardness of product increased slowly with time. But in bread using the flour with low ash content, the loaf volume of baking increased but the hardness of product decreased. As the frozen storage time was shortened, the product was more stable and better in quality.

냉동 생지 제조시 같은 밀을 이용해 회분 함량을 달리하여 제분한 밀가루로 만든 냉동 생지의 물성에 미치는 영향인 farinogram, amylogram. extensogram을 비교 조사하였고, 냉동 생지의 품질을 결정하는 2차 발효 시간, 빵 제품의 수분 함량,굽기 손실, 부피 및 경도에 미치는 영향을 $-20^{\circ}C$ 냉동고에서 제조직후부터 12주까지 저장하면서 비교 조사하였다. 회분 함량이 높은 밀가루의 경우 farinogram에서 흡수율과 약화도는 증가하였고, 반죽 전체의 강력도는 감소하였으며, 회분 함량이 낮은 밀가루의 경우 amylogram에서 반죽의 최고 점도시 온도와 최고 점도가 높게 나타났고, extensogram에서 면적과 저항도가 높게 나타났으며 발효 시간이 증가할수록 신장도는 감소하였고 2차 발효 시간도 가장 짧게 나타났다. 회분 함량이 높은 밀가루로 제조한 빵 제품의 수분 함량이 높게 나타났고 굽기 손실은 낮게 나타났으며 저장 기간에 따른 빵 제품의 경도 변화는 서서히 증가한 반면 회분 함량이 낮은 밀가루로 제조한 빵 제품의 부피가 가장 크게 나타났으며 경도는 낮게 나타났다. 냉동 저장 기간은 짧을수록 제품에 좋은 영향을 미치며 4주 이하가 가장 양호한 것으로 나타났다.



  1. Yasuo, T. (1981) Freezing injury of baker's yeast in frozen dough. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo gakkaishi. 28, 100-111
  2. Matsumoto, H. (1980) In Baking science & techmhgy Japan Intemational Baking School, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 38-40
  3. Davis, B. and Rogers, D. E. (1980) Quality preservation in frozen rolls. Baker's Digest 54, 10-14
  4. Davis, E. W. (1981) Shelf-life studies on frozen dough. Baker's Digest 55, 12-17
  5. Inoue Y. and Bushuk, W. (1991) Studies on frozens, I. Effects of frozen storage and freeze-thaw cycles on baking and rheological properties. Cereat Chem. 68, 627-631
  6. Inoue, Y. (1994) Theory of frozen dough (II). Improvement of retain gas and the effect of oxidadon. Pain 41, 39-41
  7. Karel, K., Kaus, L. and Juergen, B. (1995) In Frvzen & refrigerated dough and batters. Published by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. Minnesota, USA. pp. 136
  8. Nakae, K. (1983) In Baking chemistry Pan News Co. LTD., Tokyo, Japan. pp. 120-138
  9. Fujiyama, Y. (1984) hi Baking science & technotogy JapanIntemational Baking School, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 48-67
  10. Fujiyama, Y. (1984) In The ingredients of baking Japan Intemational Baking School, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 1-44
  11. Matsunioto, H. (1997) The expansion, extensibility, and spread of dough. Pain 44, 41-47
  12. Kato, Y. (1996) The ingredients of baking. Frozen dough (IV).Pain 43, 47-51
  13. Matsumoto, H. (1991) The glutathione story (I). Pain 38, 43-45
  14. Matsumoto, H. (1997) The expansion, extensibility, and spread of dough (HI). Pain 44, 46-49
  15. Hiroaki, Y, Yasuniri, I., Kanenoro, T., Nono, I., Takeo S. and Takeshi, T. (1999) A kinedc study on staling of white bread made by frozen dough method. Nippon Slwkuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi 46, 212-219
  16. Szczesniak, A. S. (1998) Applying rheology to dough and baked goods. CereaI Foods WorId 33, 841-843
  17. Bloksma, A. H. (1990) Dough structure. Dough rheology and baking quality. Cereat Foods WorId 35, 237-244
  18. Neyreneuf, O. and Van Der Plaat, J. B. (1991) Preparadon of frozen Brench bread dough with improved stability. Cereal Chem. 68, 60-66
  19. Inoue, Y. and Bushuk, W. (1992) Studies on frozen doughs 11. Flour quality requirements for bread production from frozen dough. CereaI Chem. 69, 423-428
  20. R $\ddot{a}$s$\ddot{a}$nen, J., La r i k a i nen, T. and Autio, K. (1995) Freeze-thastability of prefermented frozen lean wheat doughs: EBect offlour quality and fermentation time. Cereat Chem. 72, 637-642
  21. American Associadon of Cereal Chemists (1991) In Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists Minnesota, USA. 08-01, 22-10, 54-10, 54-21
  22. fujiyama, Y. (1981) In The method of experiment JapanInternational Baking School, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 3
  23. Nam, J. K. and Han, Y. S. (2000) Bread-making properties of domestic wheats cultivars. Kor. J. Soc. Food Sci. 16, 1-8
  24. Cho, N. J., Kim, Y. H., Kim, S. M., Do, J. J., Bae, S. H., Shin, Y. H., Sim, C. H., Lee, M. H., Jeong, S. T., Cha, Y. J. and Hwang, Y. K. (2000) In The ingredients of baking B&C world, Seoul, Korea. pp. 53-86
  25. Tipples, K. H. (1995) In The amylograph handbook: Uses and applications American Association of Cereal Chemists, Minnesota, USA. pp. 12-24
  26. Kim, S. K. (1979) Physicochemical studies on the hard and soft wheat flours. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technot. 11, 13-17
  27. Hoseney, R. C., Hsu, K. H. and Junge, R. C. (1979) A simple spread test to measure the theological properties of fermentation dough. Cereat Chem. 56, 141-148
  28. Gelinas, R, Deaudelin, I. and Grenier, M. (1995) Frozen Dough: ESects of dough shape, water content, and sheeting-molding conditions. Cereat Foods Wortd bold, 124-126.
  29. Pence, J., Lubisich, T. M., Mecham, D. K. and Smith, G. S. (1955) Effect of temperature and air velocity on rate offreezing of commercial bread. Food Technot. 9, 342
  30. R$\ddot{a}$s$\ddot{a}$nen, J., Launkainen, T. and Autio. K. (1997) Permentationstability and pore size distribution of frozen prefermented leanwheat doughs. Cereat Chem. 74, 56-62
  31. Lee, J. M., Lee, M. K., Lee, S. K., Cho, N. J., Cha, W. J. and Park, J. K. (2000) Effect of gums on the characteristics of the dough in making frozen dough. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technot. 32,604-609
  32. Boyacioglu, M. H. and D'Appolonia, B. L. (1994) Characterization and utilization of Durum wheat for Breadmaking III. Staling properties of bread baked from bread wheat flours and Durum wheat flour. Cereat chem. 71, 34-41