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A Study on the Depression and Cognitive Impairment in the Rural Elderly (농촌지역 노인들의 우울 및 인지기능장애에 관한 연구)

  • Rhee, Jung-Ae;Jung, Hyang-Gyun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.3 s.43
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    • pp.412-429
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    • 1993
  • For the purpose of promotion of mental health in the rural elderly, the author surveyed 558 elderlies aged 60 years or more, and assessed the prevalence rates of depression and cognitive impairment by using self-rating depression scale of Zung (SDS) and the Korean version of mini-mental state examination (MMSEK). Also the association between depression or cognitive function and socio-environmental factors were investigated. The major findings were as follows ; 1. The prevalence rates of severe depression and cognitive impairment were 20.9% and 14.9% in all the elderly of both sexes, respectively. 2. The rates of depression and cognitive impairment increased with increasing age in both sex groups. The mean scores of SDS increased and the mean scores of MMSEK decreased significantly among them (p<0.01). 3. Those being female, widows or widowers, and those having low levels of physical activity, showed significantly high the mean scores of depression and had significantly low the mean scores of cognitive impairment (p<0.01). 4. The depression scores relating to decreased libido, confusion, psychomotor retardation, hopelessness and indecisiveness were relatively high in both sexes. 5. All the items of mini-mental state examination were significantly correlated with depression. 6. In stepwise multiple regression analysis on depression, MMSEK, level of physical activity, chronic disease, marital status and family income were selected as highly correlated variables, and the $R^2$-value for these variables was 33.7%. 7. In stepwise multiple regression analysis on cognitive function, level of physical activity, age, depression, sex and marital status were selected as highly correlated variables, and the $R^2$-value for these variables was 62.6%. The depression and cognitive impairment of the elderly were positively correlated with nearly all sociodemographic variables.

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The Relationship between the Cognitive Impairment and Mortality in the Rural Elderly (농촌지역 노인들의 인지기능 장애와 사망과의 관련성)

  • Sun, Byeong-Hwan;Park, Kyeong-Soo;Na, Baeg-Ju;Park, Yo-Seop;Nam, Hae-Sung;Shin, Jun-Ho;Sohn, Seok-Joon;Rhee, Jung-Ae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.3 s.58
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    • pp.630-642
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the mortality risk associated with cognitive impairment among the rural elderly. The subjective of study was 558 of 'A Study on the Depression and Cognitive Impairment in the Rural Elderly' of Jung Ae Rhee and Hyang Gyun Jung's study(1993). Cognitive impairment and other social and health factors were assessed in 558 elderly rural community residents. For this study, a Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSEK) was used as a global indicator of cognitive functioning. And mortality risk factors for each cognitive impairment subgroup were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. At baseline 22.6% of the sample were mildly impaired and 14.2% were severely impaired. As the age increased, the cognitive function was more impaired. Sexual difference was existed in the cognitive function level. Also the variables such as smoking habits, physical disorders had the significant relationship with cognitive function impairment. Across a 3-year observation period the mortality rate was 8.5% for the cognitively unimpaired, 11.1% for the mildly impaired, and 16.5% for the severly impaired respendents. And the survival probability was .92 for the cognitively unimpaired, .90 for the mildly impaired, and .86 for the severly impaired respondents. Compared to survival curve for the cognitively unimpaired group, each survival curve for the mildly and the severely impaired group was not significantly different. When adjustments models were not made for the effects of other health and social covariates, each hazard ratio of death of mildly and severely impaired persons was not significantly different as compared with the cognitively unimpaired. But, as MMSEK score increased, significantly hazard ratio of death decreased. Employing Cox univariate proportional hazards model, statistically other significant variables were age, monthly income, smoking habits, physical disorders. Also when adjustments were made for the effects of other health and social covariates, there was no difference in hazard ratio of death between those with severe or mild impairment and unimpaired persons. And as MMSEK score increased, significantly hazard ratio of death did not decrease. Employing Cox multivariate proportional hazards model, statistically other significant variables were age, monthly income, physical disorders. Employing Cox multivariate proportional hazards model by sex, at men and women statistically significant variable was only age. For both men and women, also cognitive impairment was not a significant risk factor. Other investigators have found that cognitive impairment is a significant predictor of mortality. But we didn't find that it is a significant predictor of mortality. Even though the conclusions of our study were not related to cognitive impairment and mortality, early detection of impaired cognition and attention to associated health problems could improve the quality of life of these older adults and perhaps extend their survival.

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Effects of virtual reality cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function, physical function and depression in the elders with dementia

  • Moon, Hyun Ju;Choi, Yoo Rim;Lee, Sung Kook
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.730-737
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study is to examine the effects of virtual reality cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function, physical function and depression of long-term care insurance nongrading elderly dementia using Daytime protection service. For achieve this purpose, 30 dementia elderly were randomly assigned in to the experimental group(n=15)and control group(n=15). All subjects performed a general therapeutic exercise and 20- 30minutes takes virtual reality cognitive rehabilitation program were conducted with experimental group 2 times a week for 8 weeks. The intervention effects were measured by using cognitive function is mini-mental states examination-Korean version(MMSE-K), visual perception is MVPT(Motor-Free Visual Perception Test), Berg's balance scales(BBS), depression test GDS-K and lower limb strength. The results of study represented that the training group showed significant improvement in MMSEK( p<.05), visual perception(p<.05), balance(p<.05), lower limb strength(p<.05) and depression (p<.05). In conclusion, the virtual reality cognitive rehabilitation training using improves visual perception included cognitive function, physical function included balance, and lower limb strength and depression. These results suggest that virtual reality training using virtual reality cognitive rehabilitation program is feasible and suitable for mild dementia.

The Relations of Socioeconomic Status to Health Status, Health Behaviors in the Elderly (노인들의 사회경제적 수준과 건강수준, 건강행태와의 관계)

  • Lee, Sok-Goo;Jeon, So-Youn
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: To analyze the relationships of socioeconomic status(SES) to health status and health behaviors in the elderly. Methods: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 4,587 persons, older than 65 years, living in a community. We measured the sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health status (subjective health status, acute disease, admission experience, dental state, chronic disease etc.), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and mini-mental state examination-Korean (MMSEK). Binary and multinominal logistic regression analyses were employed to analyze factors affecting on the socioeconomic status of the elderly. Results: With regard to the SES and health status, those with a low SES had poorer subjective health states and lower satisfaction about their physical health. Also, acute disease experiences, admission rates and tooth deciduation rates were higher in those of low SES. In the view of physical and cognitive functions, the ADL, IADL and MMSE-K scores were also lower in those of low SES. However, with regard to health behaviors, lower smoking and alcohol drinking rates were found in the low SES group, and a similar trend was shown with regular physical exercise, eating breakfast, and regular physical health check-up. From these findings, we surmise that those with low SES have a poorer health condition and less money to spend on health, therefore, they can not smoke or drink alcohol, exercise and or have a physical health check-up. Conclusion: This study suggests that socioeconomic status plays an important role in health behaviors and status of the elderly. Low socioeconomic status bring about unhealthy behavior and poor health status in the elderly. Therefore, more specific target oriented(esp. low SES persons) health promotion activities for the elderly are very important to improve not only their health status, but their health inequity also.

Relationship between Blood Pressure and Impairment of Cognitive Function In Some Rural Residents Aged 60-64 (일부 60-64세 농촌 거주자에서 혈압과 인지기능 장애와의 관계)

  • Lee, Moo-Sik;Chun, Jong-Chan;Lee, Choong-Won
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : Face-to-face interviews were conducted to investigate the relationship between blood pressure and the impairment of cognitive function in rural elderly (N=932) aged 60-64 in Dalsung County, April to September in 1996 Methods : Impairment of cognitive function was defined as a score of less than 23 by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSEK). Blood pressure was measured once in each subject using a portable automatic sphygmomanometer. Results : By univariate logistic regression on males, no category of systolic blood pressure bore statistical significance. Groups with diastolic blood pressures of, less than 80 mmHg, 90-94 mmHg, and more than 95mmHg had odds ratios of more than one compared with the reference group (80-89 mmHg). This was most significant in the group with blood pressures lower than 80 mmHg, which had a statistically significant odds ratio of 1.68 (95% confidence interval CI; 1.02-2.75). No category of blood pressure was statistically significant in females. Multivariate logistic regression for males, with adjustment for age, educational attainment, smoking, alcoholic drinking, body mass index, atherosclerotic disease, and antihypertensive medication use, did not alter the odds ratios significantly in terms of systolic blood pressure. However, the group with diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mmHg had an increased odds ratio of 2.01 (95% CI; 1.15-3.52) compared with the reference group. In females, systolic blood pressure did not alter the odds ratio, but the group with a diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mmHg had a statistically significant odds ratio of 0.57 (95% CI; 0.37-0.89). Conclusions : These results suggest that the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function status is stronger diastolic than systolic blood pressure and that there is a complex relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function by sex.

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Assessment of Cognitive Disorders in Alcoholics Using the 7 Minute Screening Battery (주정의존 환자에서 7분선별검사를 이용한 인지장애의 평가)

  • Cheon, Jin-Sook;Yoon, Han-Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Young;Oh, Byoung-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.258-265
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to result in various neurocognitive deficits. Many neuropsychological studies revealed that the major disturbances occurred in the executive function, learning and short-term memory, visuospatial performance function, perceptuo-motor skills, and abstraction and problem solving abilities. This study was done to identify which cognitive areas might be mainly affected. Methods : The cognitive disturbance was evaluated using the Korean Version of the Mini Mental State Examination(MMSEK) and the 7 Minute Screen(7MS) in male inpatients with alcohol dependence(N=3 : as well as in age and education level matched healthy male controls(N=30). Four individual tests of the 7MS were consisted of the Benton Temporal Orientation Test, the Enhanced Cued Recall, the Clock Drawing and the Category Fluency. Results : 1) The average scores of four individual test of the 7MS for the alcoholics were $2.77{\pm}4.38$ for the Benton Temporal Orientation Test, $13.90{\pm}2.02$ for the Memory Test(the Cued Recall $6.77{\pm}1.94$, the Uncued Recall $7.10{\pm}2.45$), $5.84{\pm}1.86$ for the Clock Drawing, and $12.58{\pm}3.29$ for the Category Fluency. Except the Benton Temporal Orientation Test, there were statistically significant differences between test scores of alcoholics and those of controls(p<0.01). 2) The alcoholics who had MMSE-K score <24 were 9.68%. The average(${\pm}S.D.$) score of the MMSE-K for the patient group($27.23{\pm}2.62$) was significantly(p<0.001) lower than that of the healthy controls($29.20{\pm}1.24$). There were no statistically significant differences between four individual test scores of the 7MS of alcoholics with the MMSE-K score <24(N=3) and those of alcoholics with the MMSE-K score ${\geq}24$(N=28). 3) Four individual test scores of the 7MS seemed to have statistically significant association with such variables as MMSE-K, duration of alcohol drinking, blood magnesium concentration, liver function and thyroid function. Conclusion : Mild deficits of cognitive areas such as orientation, memory, visuospatial abilities and verbal fluency could be found in alcohol dependence.

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Body Residue-based Approach as an Alternative of the External Concentration-based Approach for the Ecological Risk Assessment (외부환경농도에 기반한 생태위해성 평가방법의 대안으로서 생체잔류량 접근법)

  • Lee Jong-Hyeon
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.21 no.2 s.53
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    • pp.185-195
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    • 2006
  • 환경오염물질로부터 수생태계 보호를 위한 표준적인 평가 및 관리 수단인 수질환경기준은 오염물질의 독성작용이 일어나는 표적기관에서의 오염물질의 농도에 대한 대체측정치로서 환경 내 오염물질의 농도를 이용해 왔다. 이러한 '외부환경농도에 기반한 접근방법'은 표적기관에서의 독성물질의 농도가 생물체내 농도에 비례하고, 결국 외부환경농도에도 비례할 것이라고 가정한다. 따라서 환경오염물질의 생물이용도나 생물축적 양상의 차이 때문에 고유 독성치를 비교 평가하는데 한계가 있다. 이와 달리 '생물체내 농도에 기반한 접근방법(이하 생체잔류량 접근법)'은 환경오염물질의 생물이용도나 종 특이적 생물축적 양상과 관련된 불확실성을 제거하고, 환경오염물질 고유의 독성을 비교 평가할 수 있게 해준다. 특히 생체잔류량 접근법을 독성동태학 및 독성역학 모델과 함께 사용하는 경우는 실제 현장에서 일어나는 복잡한 노출조건에서의 독성영향을 예측하는데 활용할 수 있다. '생체잔류량 접근법'은 독성기작별 임계잔류량(Critical Body Residue)을 결정함으로써 생물모니터링의 결과를 해석하는데 적용되고 있다. 또한 생태위해성평가를 위해서 필요한 '무영향예측농도(Predicted No-effect Concentration, PNEC)를 예측하기 위한 방법으로 생체 내 잔류량에 기반해서 농도-시간-반응관계를 기술하고, 예측할 수 있는 새로운 유형의 독성역학 및 독성동태학 모델을 제시하고, 생체내 '무영향농도(No Effect Concentration, NEC)'를 추정하게 해 준다. 특히 생체내 NEC는 '무영향관찰농도(No Observed Effect Concentration, NOEC)'와 '영향농도(Effect Concentration, EC)'처럼 분산분석이나 회귀분석모델과 같은 통계적 모델에 기반해서, 농도-반응관계만을 기술할 뿐인 기존 독성모델을 대체할 대안으로 최근에 OECD와 ISO에 의해서 추천되었다.분석을 시행한 결과 인지기능 장애정도 및 MMSEK 점수 증가에 따른 사망위험도는 어느 모형에서도 인지기능 장애정도가 사망에 미치는 위험도는 통계적으로 유의하지 않았다(표 6, 표 7). 이상 본 연구는 농촌지역 노인들에서 인지기능 장애정도가 사망에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였지만, 인지기능 장애정도가 사망에 미치는 영향을 통계적으로 유의하게 고찰하지 못하였다.의한 차이를 보였다. (P<0.05, P<0.001) 5. Excelco로 부식처리된 도재가 5% HF 용액으로 부식처리된 도재보다 부식정도가 더 현저하였다.은 제언을 하고자 한다. 먼저, 학교급식에 대한 식단 작성 시 학생들이 학교에서 제공되기 원하는 식단에 대한 의견을 받고 그 의견에 대한 결과를 게시하여 학생들이 제공되기 원하는 식단을 급식 시 제공하여 학생들이 식단선택에 동참할 수 있는 기회를 주는 것이 바람직하겠다. 또한 영양사는 학급의 반대표와의 정기적인 모임을 가짐으로서 학생들의 불만사항 및 개선 요구사항에대해 서로 의견을 교환하여 설문지조사가 아닌 직접적인 대화를 하여 문제점을 파악하고자 하는 적극적인 자세가 필요하겠다. 특히 아침식사의 결식 빈도가 높았고 이는 급식성과에 부정적인 영향을 줄 뿐 아니라 학교에서 제공하는 음식의 섭취정도에도 영향을 주고 있으므로 학생들에게 학부모와 전담교사 및 학교영양사는 학생들에게 이상적인 아침식사에 대한 교육은 물론이고 아침식사를 실천할 수 있도록 다양한 방안에 대해 함께 연구해야 하겠다. 정부차원에서 학교급식에 아침식사 프로그램을 도입할 수 있는 방안을 연구하고, 아침을 결식하는 학생이 학교에서 수업시작 하기 전에 간단한 식사를 할 수 있는 정책 도입이 필요하다acid의 생성량(生成量)을 측정(測定)하였는데 periodate의 소비량(消費量)은 1.23 mole, formic acid의 생성량(生成量)은 0.78 mole이다.한 경우도 비교적 많이 먹고 있었다(24.3%). 남 여

Association of Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (알츠하이머병과 경도인지장애에서 체질량지수와 인지기능과의 연관성)

  • Lim, Eun Jeong;Lee, Kang Joon;Kim, Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : This study analyzed the differences of body mass index(BMI) in Korean patients with Alzheimer's diseases(AD), Mild Cognitive Impairment(MCI), and healthy controls to verify whether low BMI is associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, this study also sought to examine any association between BMI and Mini Mental State Examination-Korean version(MMSE-K), Clinical Dementia Rating(CDR), and Global Deterioration Scale(GDS). Methods : A total of 257 subjects were included in the study. History taking, mental status examination, physical examination and neurocognitive function test were carried out for the diagnosis of AD and MCI. The subjects' demographic data and presence of diseases were also surveyed. The overall cognitive function and severity of diseases were assessed using MMSE-K, GDS, and CDR. Results : The order of BMI was found to be healthy controls>MCI>AD, with statistically significant differences among the groups. The order of MMSE-K scores was similar, with healthy controls>MCI>AD in statistically significant differences. The healthy controls had the lowest CDR and GDS scores, and AD patients had the highest scores. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and MMSE scores(r=0.238, p=0.000). BMI was negatively correlated with CDR(r=-0.174, p=0.008) as well as with GDS(r=-0.233, p= 0.000). Conclusions : Measuring BMI of patients with AD or MCI is expected to be meaningful in that BMI could be a clinical indicator of AD. We expect this to be beneficial for the diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic approach of AD and also expect large-scale, long-term longitudinal studies to follow.