• Title/Summary/Keyword: Labor Market

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A Model on Enhancing Labor Market Flexibility (노동시장 유연성 제고 모형)

  • Park, Dong Un
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.117-138
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this article is to show a model on enhancing labor market flexibility and to compare labor market flexibility, considering that the model on labor market flexibility, universally acceptable, are not found. The writer classified the scope of labor market flexibility into three parts such as indirect adjustment, direct adjustment and policy adjustment. The writer further classified the contents of labor market flexibility into eleven sub-parts. This kind of classification regarding labor market flexibility is unique and comprehensive. Based on this classification, the writer measured the degree of labor market flexibility of four countries such as USA, Japan, Germany, and Korea. According to the results, the ranks of labor market flexibility are USA, Japan, Korea, Germany.

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Labor market characteristics of US metropolitan areas and individual earnings attainment : Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics (미국 대도시지역 노동시장의 특성과 취업 노동자의 개인소득 : 백인, 흑인, 동양인과 남미인)

  • ;Kwon, Sangcheol
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.169-187
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    • 1995
  • Contemporary US metropolitan areas have undergone divergent economic transformation, and as a result labor markets have become the focus of concern in their role as determinants of earnings attainment. Explanations of individual earnings attainmnent as a lobor market outcome have been established in two diafferent stances one who emphasizes personal or group attributes in the human capital perspective and the other who emphasizes economic structure in the labor market segmentation perspective. While remaining at the conceptual level and yet relatively unexplored, the importance of place in labormarket operation is a significant advancement as it appears in labor market areas and local labor markets considering that labor market areas represent the intersection of labor market structure and individual labor market experiences at specific geographic places. The substantive inquiry of this study was to explore labor market characteristics and their differentiation across large metropolitan areas, and assess their effects on the individual earnings attainment. Integating individual attributes and labor market characteristics as major factors of labor market operation, this study intended to contextualize individual earnings attainment with geographic labor market areas. Using 1990 US population census 5% "Public-Use Microdata Samples, " the largest 65 metropolitan areas were first selected and employed male workers who are aged between 25 and 50 for whites, blacks, asians, and hispanics. As an initial step earnings differentials between racial/ethnic groups and selected 65 metropolitan areas were examined using analysis of variance, and then earnings differentials were attributed to the individual attributes such as education, age, and immigration status, and four dimensions of metropolitan labor market differentiation devised by principal component analysis of industrial and occupational segments: Public versus Blue Collar Core(CS1), Finance-Core Utility versus Blue Collar Local Monopoly (CS2), Oligopoly versus Blue Collar Periphery(CS3), and Self Employed-White Collar Periphery versus Low-Skill Core(CS4). As a final analysis, individual earnings were related to each individual attribute and its interaction with metropolitan labor market characteristics to examine how the differentiated metropolitan labor market characteristics alter the role of individual attributes on earnings attainment. The findings indicated that individual attributes, education in particular exert significant effects on earnings attainment, but their effects were significantly altered by metropolitan labor market characterristics. Particularly important dimensions were: Oligopoly differentiated from Blue Colla Periphery metropolitan areas enhancing earnings returns to individual attributes for all groups but minority groups (black, asians, hispanics) rely more on this, and Finance-Core Utility differentiated from Blue Collar Local Monopoly metropolitan areas provide higher earnings returns to whites exclusively. These findings suggest that individuals with identical individual attributes involving racial/ethnic categories would have different earnings atteinments depending on the metropolitan labor market characteristics where they reside. Referring back to the major traditions of the human capital and the labor market segmentation in labor market research, the interaction between individual attributes and metropolitan labor market haracteristics on earnings attainment highlights the complimentary nature of the two on earnings determination in particular geographic places, Hence, labor market characteristics differentiatcd across metropolitan areas are an integral part of labor market operation which should be considered for the explanation of individual earnings attainment and racial/ethnic group earnings differentials. Gcographic places are the important contexts for labor market segmentation and individual labor market experiences. In conclusion, this study brings geographic labor markets to the forefront in the examination of individuals' earnings attainments. The empirical vaidation of the role of metropolitan labor market charecteristics on earnings attainment, while exploratory contributes towards a broader perspective of geographic labor market research that recognizes that individuals' labor market experiences are intertwined with geographic contexts of labor market operatin. operatin.

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Labor Market Polarization and the Formation of Social Exclusion in the Metropolitan Areas: Understanding the Spatiality of the Labor Market Changes (광역대도시 노동시장의 양극화와 사회적 배제의 형성: 노동시장 변동의 지역성에 대한 이해)

  • Lee, Won-Ho
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 2011
  • This study investigates the patterns of labor market polarization and analyzes the characteristics and roles of regional labor market in the structuring process of the polarization in the metropolitan areas of Korea. The labor market polarization plays a role of key mechanism for deepening social exclusion in the area through expanding low-pay jobs and working poor. It is of great significance to adopt a spatial approach of local labor market in order to understand underlying dynamics of labor market polarization. Especially it is necessary to develop a more differentiated and systematic policy options based on the analysis of labor market polarization in the metropolitan areas of Korea. It is because understanding spatial differentiation of labor market dynamics is essential to figure out the structuring processes of poverty and sociall exclusion in the metropolican labor market in Korea.

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Analysis and Comparison of Labor Market Stability by Business Categories in Urban and Rural Areas : Industrial Group, Employment Size, and Survival Duration (도시 및 농촌지역 사업체 유형별 노동시장 안정성 비교분석: 산업군, 종사자규모 및 존속기간별 유형을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jemyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.97-112
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    • 2017
  • Stability of labor market in rural areas was analyzed in this paper with categories of industrial group, employment scale, surviving period, and founder group. The stability of each classified labor market was compared with each other to figure out the stable business class and the unstable class in rural areas. The results of rural areas were compared with those of urban areas. The stability was analyzed with average and coefficient of variation (C.V.) of annual total employees' change rates. It was revealed that labor market of 'primary industry', including agriculture, is unstable. Especially, labor market of 'mid-size' and 'primary industry' businesses founded as 'incorporated company' in rural areas is vulnerable. While labor market of 'large-size' is proved to be unstable, it is confirmed that 'small-size' or 'mid-size', and 'over-ten-year survived' businesses have positive contribution to the stable labor market in rural and urban areas. The results show that the stability of labor market is different in each category of business and in each region of rural or urban area. It is expected that the results can be utilized for the regional development policies, of labor and industry part.

The Determinants of Working Poor' Poverty-Exit Possibility : Path Dependency of Working Poor Labor Market (근로빈곤층의 빈곤탈출 결정요인 연구 : 근로빈곤노동시장의 경로제약성을 중심으로)

  • Ji, Eun-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.147-174
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    • 2007
  • This study examines how path dependency of working poor labor market segmented from the primary and the secondary labor market affects employment and quality of employment of working poor. It Further examines how path dependency makes working poor to remain in the labor market and makes it difficult for them to escape from a vicious poverty cycle. Data is based on the $3{\sim}7th$ Korea Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS). Markov's transition probability and discrete-time hazard analysis are used for analysis. This study finds that Korea labor market is divided into three parts; the primary labor market, the secondary labor market and the working poor labor market. The proportion of employed poor has been reduced, but the proportion of non economically-active working poor has been increased and has become the main group among the working poor. This shows that labor demand of working poor is fundamentally lacking and there are structural barriers that block working poor's employment itself. The regression analysis shows that the longer working poor labor market participation is, the lower poverty-exit rate. This is an evidence of vicious poverty cycle that the poor have little chance to exit from working poor labor market, once they step into it. Therefore, the longer their participation in poor labor market, the more likely they would move only within the closed working poor labor market. Consequently, it is necessary to fundamentally reform labor market structure and to alleviate negative perception and discrimination about the poor labor while activating labor demand.

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Analysis of Career Behaviors on the Women's Second Labor Market Transition (경력단절 여성의 노동시장 재진입 욕구형태에 따른 진로행동 분석)

  • Park, Sung-Mi
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.165-179
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze career behaviors(job exploration, job hunting) of the need mode in the women's second labor market transition. To obtain this objective 501 women, who quitted their job in 780 women randomly sampling completed questionnaire. To analyze data, $x^2$, ANOVA were executed. Research results were explained, there were no difference career behaviors, experience of career counseling, experience of career education, aspiration of career behaviors by the need mode in the women's second labor market transition. But, there were difference motivation of labor market entry, career barriers, preference of occupations, level of job competence of career behaviors by the need mode in the women's second labor market transition. The implications of the results on women's second labor market transition of developing career education and counseling programs were discussed and finally suggestions for further study were made.

Estimating State-Level Matching Efficiencies in the Indian Labor Market

  • Lee, Woong;Lee, Soon-Cheul
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-301
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    • 2020
  • We analyze state-level matching efficiencies in the Indian labor market using stochastic frontier analysis. The key contribution of this research is the estimation of matching efficiencies at the state level because these can be used for a state-level measure of labor market conditions. Next, we explore the relationship between the estimated matching efficiencies and population density, labor market flexibility, and the Ease of Doing Business index, respectively. The results show that matching efficiency is heterogeneous across states with considerable variation in accordance with the regional diversity in India. However, we find that there is little relationship between the estimated matching efficiencies and the labor market conditions of interest, suggesting that other regional diversity affects matching efficiencies across states in India.

Labor Market Restructuring and Unemployment of Young-Adult Workers : Analysis and Policy (현 노동시장 구조조정과정에서 겪는 청 ${\cdot}$ 장년층의 실업문제와 정책과제)

  • Jang, Chang-Won
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.83-112
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    • 1998
  • The unemployment rate in Korea increased sharply since the deep economic depression. The rapid increase of unemployment rate is attributed, in part, to economic shock, but more basically to the structural problem of labor market. Moreover over 2-3 years later, the labor market perspective looks dismal. To overcome the labor market crisis, the fundamental reforms aimed at improving the labor market function is required. Thus the focus of policy should shift from reducing unemployment to increasing employment.

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Information Aspects of Changes in the Labor Market of the EU and Ukraine in the Context of Ensuring Safety Through COVID-19

  • Andriyiv, Nataliya;Zachepa, Andryi;Petrukha, Nina;Shevchuk, Inna;Berest, Ihor
    • International Journal of Computer Science & Network Security
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    • v.21 no.12spc
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    • pp.657-663
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    • 2021
  • The main purpose of the study is to analyze the information aspects of the impact of COVID-19 on the labor market in the EU and Ukraine. In addition to studying the key parameters of changes in the labor market under the influence of COVID-19, i.e. the unemployment rate and the share of the employed population, a thorough study of gender equality, labor migration and the impact on youth made it possible to characterize the effectiveness of the policy of stabilization and restoration of the labor market in the EU and Ukraine. The results obtained form the necessary information basis for modeling labor market regulation in the event of possible subsequent disturbances, in particular under the influence of global pandemics.

Impact of Military Actions on the EU Labor Market

  • Kopytko, Marta;Franchuk, Vasyl;Panchenko, Vladimir;Viunyk, Olha;Myshchyshyn, Olha
    • International Journal of Computer Science & Network Security
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2022
  • The main purpose of the study is to analyze the main aspects of the impact of military actions on the EU labor market. The research methodology includes modern theoretical methods and methods for analyzing the state of the EU labor market. The war in Ukraine changed not only the economy of one country, but the whole continent. The European Union has very sensitively felt the changes brought about by the military actions on the territory of Ukraine. Military actions on the territory of Ukraine are a destructive factor in the labor market. Today, the main task of economic recovery is to minimize the consequences of humanitarian problems and preserve human potential, which is an important source of business activity. Based on the results of the study, we have identified key aspects of the impact of military actions on the EU labor market.