• Title, Summary, Keyword: ICM

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History of ICM (ICM의 초기역사 -태동기부터 제5차 ICM까지를 중심으로-)

  • Khang, Mee-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Sook
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2012
  • The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) will next be held in Seoul, Korea from August 13th to 21st 2014. The ICM, currently hosted by the International Mathematical Union, has a history spanning a period of one hundred years and is traditionally held every four years. Felix Klein has often been credited with formulating the concept of the ICM, however George Cantor not only initially propagated the idea of forming a mathematical society in Germany, but also proposed organizing an international mathematical union. This study has endeavored to investigate the early period of development of the ICM. Specifically, this paper has studied the development of early 20th century mathematics through changes in the formulaic language of the ICM, the number of participants, the number of presentations, the nationality of plenary speakers, and the changes in sessions.

Effects of Replacing Backfat with Fat Replacers and Olive Oil on the Quality Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Low-fat Sausage During Storage

  • Moon, Sung-Sil;Jin, Sang-Keun;Hah, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Il-Suk
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.396-401
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    • 2008
  • Effects of replacing pork backfat with a combination (ICM) of isolated soy protein (ISP), carrageenan, and maltodextrin, or with ICM +olive oil, on the quality characteristics of sausages were investigated. Both treatments had lower fat content (p<0.05), but higher protein and moisture contents than the control (p<0.05). The fat content of low-fat sausage containing the ICM was increased on day 30 compared to day 1 and 15 (p<0.05), and that of ICM+olive oil was increased after day 15. The water holding capacity of ICM was lower than the control through day 30 (p<0.05). The ICM+olive oil had a lower cooking loss than ICM on day 1 and 15 (p<0.05). On day 1, the ICM had lower lightness and higher redness values than the control (p<0.05), and the ICM+olive oil had a higher yellowness value than the control and ICM (p<0.05). Both treatments presented higher hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness values than the control (p<0.05). The lipid oxidation values of both treatments were lower than the control on day 15 and 30 (p<0.05), and those were affected by the addition of olive oil. The ICM was rated higher for sensory color and overall acceptability than the ICM+olive oil (p<0.05).

Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor (EGF-R) on the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of Bovine IVM/IVF/IVC Blastocyst (체외생산된 소 배반포기배 ICM세포에서의 EGF-R 발현)

  • ;N.L. First
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1997
  • 본 연구는 체외생산된 소 배반포기배의 inner cell mass (ICM) 세포에서 epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R)의 발현 유무를 immunosurgery와 indirect immunofluorescence (간접 면역 형광방법)을 이용하여 조사하고자 실시하였다. 본 실험에 사용된 ICM 세포는 체외수정 후 7∼8일째에 회수된 소 배반포기배로부터 immunosurgery 방법을 실시하여 얻어졌으며, 회수된 ICM세포는 live/dead 염색방법을 통한 생사 유무와 EGF-R 발현 유무 조사에 공시되었다. 특히, 배반포기배에 대한 immunosurgery를 위해 trophectoderm 세포에 대한 rabbit anti-bovine trophectoderm cell antibody (RABTE)를 제조하여 사용하였다. 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. ICM세포의 회수율은 RABTE와 guinea pig serum (complement)에 각각 15∼30분과 15∼60분동안 처리했을 경우 16.7∼74.2%였으며, 또한 처리시간이 각각 30분과 30분일 때 가장 높은 회수율(74.2%)을 얻었다. Immunosurgery 후 얻어진 ICM세포의 생존 유무를 조사하기 위해 live/dead 염색 방법을 이용하였던바, ICM세포의 생존율은 complement가 60분 처리된 군(69.3%)을 제외한 모든 처리군에서 84.0∼91.6%의 높은 생존율을 나타냈다. 또한, 회수된 ICM세포에 대한 EGF-R의 존재를 확인하였다. 따라서, ICM세포에서의 EGF-R의 발현은 인위적으로 첨가된 EGF의 이용 가능성을 높임으로서 체외에서의 착상전 배 발달을 증진시킬 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

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Simulation of injection-compression molding for thin and large battery housing

  • Kwon, Young Il;Lim, Eunju;Song, Young Seok
    • Current Applied Physics
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1451-1457
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    • 2018
  • Injection compression molding (ICM) is an advantageous processing method for producing thin and large polymeric parts in a robust manner. In the current study, we employed the ICM process for an energy-related application, i.e., thin and large polymeric battery case. A mold for manufacturing the battery case was fabricated using injection molding. The filling behavior of molten polymer in the mold cavity was investigated experimentally. To provide an in-depth understanding of the ICM process, ICM and normal injection molding processes were compared numerically. It was found that the ICM had a relatively low filling pressure, which resulted in reduced shrinkage and warpage of the final products. Effect of the parting line gap on the ICM characteristics, such as filling pressure, clamping force, filling time, volumetric shrinkage, and warpage, was analyzed via numerical simulation. The smaller gap in the ICM parting line led to the better dimensional stability in the finished product. The ICM sample using a 0.1 mm gap showed a 76% reduction in the dimensional deflection compared with the normal injection molded part.

Study on Cost Reduction Device Industry ICM application development (장치산업에서 원가절감방법론(ICM)개발 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Ouk;Bahng, Chan-Seok;Kim, Chang-Eun
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.109-118
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    • 2016
  • IPS(Ideal Production System) is a strategic cost management establishing ideal target cost, innovating cost structure and reduction. However, IPS was commonly used in assembly industry acquiring components and using them to assemble vehicles etc. Applying IPS to steel industry is a new try and not easy because cost elements in flow manufacturing are clustered and obfuscated in a complicated way. This paper proposes ICM (Ideal Cost Management) method adaptive to steel industry. One of the biggest advantages is that ICM could classify and categorize costs in detail according to accounts and manufacturing machines. Based on ICM information, steps of extracting and maximizing ideas are followed effectively. From 2013, ICM was applied successfully to POSCO Pohang Steel Works 38 factories.

Study on Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Expression of EGF-Receptor (EGF-R) in Mouse IVF/IVC Embryo;II. Expression of EGF-R on the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of Mouse IVF/IVC Blastocyst (체외생산된 생쥐배에 대한 EGF와 EGF-R 발현에 관한 연구;II. 체외생산된 생쥐 배반포기배 ICM세포에서의 EGF-R 발현)

  • Kim, E.Y.;Kim, M.K.;Yoon, S.H.;Park, S.P.;Chung, K.S.;Lim, J.H.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 1997
  • This study was undertaken to examine the expression of EGF-R protein on ICM obtained from mouse IVF/IVC blastocyst by immunosurgery and indirect immunofluorescence(IIF). ICM cells used for this experiment were obtained from immunosurgery of mouse blatstocysts produced at 96 h after IVF, and recovered ICMs were assayed for cell viability and expression of EGF-R. The results obtained in this experiment were summarized as follows: when blastocysts were exposed to rabbit anti-mouse serum (antiserum) for 15-30 min. and then transferred them to guinea pig serum (complement) for 15-60 min., recovery rates of isolated ICMs were 8.0-84.2%. Especially, the best recovery (84.2%) of ICMs was obtained when exposure time to antiserum and complement was 30 min. and 60 min., respectively. In addition, when viability of isolated ICMs after immunosurgery was assessed by live/dead staining method, in all groups viability (93.8-100.0%) of isolated ICMs were not damaged if separated from TE cell. Also, we detected the expression of EGF-R on ICM cell by IIF. Therefore, these results suggest that EGF-R expression on the ICMs can stimulate the higher usablity of exogenous EGF to improve the preimplantation embryo development in vitro.

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The impact of ram pressure on the multi-phase ISM probed by the TIGRESS simulation

  • Choi, Woorak;Kim, Chang-Goo;Chung, Aeree
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.62.1-62.1
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    • 2018
  • Galaxies in the cluster environment interact with the intracluster medium (ICM), losing the interstellar medium (ISM) and alternating their evolution. Observational evidences of the extraplanar ISM stripped by the ICM's ram pressure are prevalent in HI imaging studies of cluster galaxies. However, current theoretical understanding of the ram pressure stripping (or ICM-ISM interaction in general) is still limited mainly due to the lack of numerical resolution at ISM scales in large-scale simulations. Especially, self-consistent modeling of the turbulent, multiphase ISM is critical to understand star formation in galaxies interacting with the ICM. To achieve this goal, we utilize the TIGRESS simulation suite, simulating a local patch of galactic disks with high resolution to resolve key physical processes in the ISM, including cooling/heating, self-gravity, MHD, star formation, and supernova feedback. We then expose the ISM disk to ICM flows and investigate the evolution of star formation rate and the properties of the ISM. By exploring ICM parameter space, we discuss an implication of the simple ram pressure stripping condition (so called the Gunn-Gott condition) to the realistic ISM.

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RE-ACCELERATION OF FOSSIL ELECTRONS BY SHOCKS ENCOUNTERING HOT BUBBLES IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

  • Kang, Hyesung
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.185-195
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    • 2018
  • Galaxy clusters are known to host many active galaxies (AGNs) with radio jets, which could expand to form radio bubbles with relativistic electrons in the intracluster medium (ICM). It has been suggested that fossil relativistic electrons contained in remnant bubbles from extinct radio galaxies can be re-accelerated to radio-emitting energies by merger-driven shocks via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), leading to the birth of radio relics detected in clusters. In this study we assume that such bubble consist primarily of thermal gas entrained from the surrounding medium and dynamically-insignificant amounts of relativistic electrons. We also consider several realistic models for magnetic fields in the cluster outskirts, including the ICM field that scales with the gas density as $B_{ICM}{\infty}n^{0.5}_{ICM}$. Then we perform time-dependent DSA simulations of a spherical shock that runs into a lower-density but higher-temperature bubble with the ratio $n_b/n_{ICM}{\approx}T_{ICM}/T_b{\approx}0.5$. We find that inside the bubble the shock speed increases by about 20 %, but the Mach number decreases by about 15% in the case under consideration. In this re-acceleration model, the observed properties of a radio relic such as radio flux, spectral index, and integrated spectrum would be governed mainly by the presence of seed relativistic electrons and the magnetic field profile as well as shock dynamics. Thus it is crucial to understand how fossil electrons are deposited by AGNs in the ICM and how the downstream magnetic field evolves behind the shock in detailed modeling of radio relics.

A Study on the Target Coverage of the ICM (개량고폭탄의 표적제압에 관한 연구)

  • Choe Gwang-Muk;Min Gye-Ryo
    • Journal of the military operations research society of Korea
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.50-70
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    • 1986
  • When the ICM is fired in the artillery weapon, it is necessary to determine rounds of munitions for sufficient damage to targets of different sizes and shapes. This paper analyzes all kinds of delivery errors involved in ICM firing, and then develops the target coverage model appropriate for ICM salvos. This model is evaluated through computer simulation. The expected target coverage is measured according to number of salvos, range and probable error, velocity error, battery arrangement, target size, and shell reliability respectively.

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