• Title/Summary/Keyword: ICM

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History of ICM (ICM의 초기역사 -태동기부터 제5차 ICM까지를 중심으로-)

  • Khang, Mee-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Sook
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2012
  • The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) will next be held in Seoul, Korea from August 13th to 21st 2014. The ICM, currently hosted by the International Mathematical Union, has a history spanning a period of one hundred years and is traditionally held every four years. Felix Klein has often been credited with formulating the concept of the ICM, however George Cantor not only initially propagated the idea of forming a mathematical society in Germany, but also proposed organizing an international mathematical union. This study has endeavored to investigate the early period of development of the ICM. Specifically, this paper has studied the development of early 20th century mathematics through changes in the formulaic language of the ICM, the number of participants, the number of presentations, the nationality of plenary speakers, and the changes in sessions.

Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor (EGF-R) on the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of Bovine IVM/IVF/IVC Blastocyst (체외생산된 소 배반포기배 ICM세포에서의 EGF-R 발현)

  • ;N.L. First
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1997
  • 본 연구는 체외생산된 소 배반포기배의 inner cell mass (ICM) 세포에서 epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R)의 발현 유무를 immunosurgery와 indirect immunofluorescence (간접 면역 형광방법)을 이용하여 조사하고자 실시하였다. 본 실험에 사용된 ICM 세포는 체외수정 후 7∼8일째에 회수된 소 배반포기배로부터 immunosurgery 방법을 실시하여 얻어졌으며, 회수된 ICM세포는 live/dead 염색방법을 통한 생사 유무와 EGF-R 발현 유무 조사에 공시되었다. 특히, 배반포기배에 대한 immunosurgery를 위해 trophectoderm 세포에 대한 rabbit anti-bovine trophectoderm cell antibody (RABTE)를 제조하여 사용하였다. 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. ICM세포의 회수율은 RABTE와 guinea pig serum (complement)에 각각 15∼30분과 15∼60분동안 처리했을 경우 16.7∼74.2%였으며, 또한 처리시간이 각각 30분과 30분일 때 가장 높은 회수율(74.2%)을 얻었다. Immunosurgery 후 얻어진 ICM세포의 생존 유무를 조사하기 위해 live/dead 염색 방법을 이용하였던바, ICM세포의 생존율은 complement가 60분 처리된 군(69.3%)을 제외한 모든 처리군에서 84.0∼91.6%의 높은 생존율을 나타냈다. 또한, 회수된 ICM세포에 대한 EGF-R의 존재를 확인하였다. 따라서, ICM세포에서의 EGF-R의 발현은 인위적으로 첨가된 EGF의 이용 가능성을 높임으로서 체외에서의 착상전 배 발달을 증진시킬 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

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Effects of Replacing Backfat with Fat Replacers and Olive Oil on the Quality Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Low-fat Sausage During Storage

  • Moon, Sung-Sil;Jin, Sang-Keun;Hah, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Il-Suk
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.396-401
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    • 2008
  • Effects of replacing pork backfat with a combination (ICM) of isolated soy protein (ISP), carrageenan, and maltodextrin, or with ICM +olive oil, on the quality characteristics of sausages were investigated. Both treatments had lower fat content (p<0.05), but higher protein and moisture contents than the control (p<0.05). The fat content of low-fat sausage containing the ICM was increased on day 30 compared to day 1 and 15 (p<0.05), and that of ICM+olive oil was increased after day 15. The water holding capacity of ICM was lower than the control through day 30 (p<0.05). The ICM+olive oil had a lower cooking loss than ICM on day 1 and 15 (p<0.05). On day 1, the ICM had lower lightness and higher redness values than the control (p<0.05), and the ICM+olive oil had a higher yellowness value than the control and ICM (p<0.05). Both treatments presented higher hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness values than the control (p<0.05). The lipid oxidation values of both treatments were lower than the control on day 15 and 30 (p<0.05), and those were affected by the addition of olive oil. The ICM was rated higher for sensory color and overall acceptability than the ICM+olive oil (p<0.05).

Study on Cost Reduction Device Industry ICM application development (장치산업에서 원가절감방법론(ICM)개발 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Ouk;Bahng, Chan-Seok;Kim, Chang-Eun
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.109-118
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    • 2016
  • IPS(Ideal Production System) is a strategic cost management establishing ideal target cost, innovating cost structure and reduction. However, IPS was commonly used in assembly industry acquiring components and using them to assemble vehicles etc. Applying IPS to steel industry is a new try and not easy because cost elements in flow manufacturing are clustered and obfuscated in a complicated way. This paper proposes ICM (Ideal Cost Management) method adaptive to steel industry. One of the biggest advantages is that ICM could classify and categorize costs in detail according to accounts and manufacturing machines. Based on ICM information, steps of extracting and maximizing ideas are followed effectively. From 2013, ICM was applied successfully to POSCO Pohang Steel Works 38 factories.

Study on Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Expression of EGF-Receptor (EGF-R) in Mouse IVF/IVC Embryo;II. Expression of EGF-R on the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of Mouse IVF/IVC Blastocyst (체외생산된 생쥐배에 대한 EGF와 EGF-R 발현에 관한 연구;II. 체외생산된 생쥐 배반포기배 ICM세포에서의 EGF-R 발현)

  • Kim, E.Y.;Kim, M.K.;Yoon, S.H.;Park, S.P.;Chung, K.S.;Lim, J.H.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 1997
  • This study was undertaken to examine the expression of EGF-R protein on ICM obtained from mouse IVF/IVC blastocyst by immunosurgery and indirect immunofluorescence(IIF). ICM cells used for this experiment were obtained from immunosurgery of mouse blatstocysts produced at 96 h after IVF, and recovered ICMs were assayed for cell viability and expression of EGF-R. The results obtained in this experiment were summarized as follows: when blastocysts were exposed to rabbit anti-mouse serum (antiserum) for 15-30 min. and then transferred them to guinea pig serum (complement) for 15-60 min., recovery rates of isolated ICMs were 8.0-84.2%. Especially, the best recovery (84.2%) of ICMs was obtained when exposure time to antiserum and complement was 30 min. and 60 min., respectively. In addition, when viability of isolated ICMs after immunosurgery was assessed by live/dead staining method, in all groups viability (93.8-100.0%) of isolated ICMs were not damaged if separated from TE cell. Also, we detected the expression of EGF-R on ICM cell by IIF. Therefore, these results suggest that EGF-R expression on the ICMs can stimulate the higher usablity of exogenous EGF to improve the preimplantation embryo development in vitro.

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A Study on the Target Coverage of the ICM (개량고폭탄의 표적제압에 관한 연구)

  • Choe Gwang-Muk;Min Gye-Ryo
    • Journal of the military operations research society of Korea
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.50-70
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    • 1986
  • When the ICM is fired in the artillery weapon, it is necessary to determine rounds of munitions for sufficient damage to targets of different sizes and shapes. This paper analyzes all kinds of delivery errors involved in ICM firing, and then develops the target coverage model appropriate for ICM salvos. This model is evaluated through computer simulation. The expected target coverage is measured according to number of salvos, range and probable error, velocity error, battery arrangement, target size, and shell reliability respectively.

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Effects of Media Volume on Blastocyst Formation, Cell Numbers and ICM Proportion in Mouse Two-cell Embryos (배양액 용량이 마우스 2-세포기 배의 배반포 형성, 세포수 및 내세포괴 비율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Yob;Park, Kee-Sang
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2004
  • 연구 목적: 본 연구의 목적은 마우스에서 배양액의 용량이 배반포 배 형성과 세포수에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 실시하였다. 연구 재료 및 방법: $3{\sim}4$주령 ICR 암마우스에게 48시간 간격으로 5 IU PMSG와 hCG 주사 후 (hCG 주사 후 수컷과 동숙) $46{\sim}50$시간에 난관으로부터 총 138개의 2-세포기 배를 회수하여 2 ml (group I) 또는 $50{\mu}l$ (group II)의 배양액 (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium + 20% human follicular fluid)에서 72시간 동안 배반포기까지 배양하였다. 배반포 배는 zona-intact (ZiB)와 zona-escape (ZeB)로 등급을 구분하고 나서, propidium iodide와 bisbenzimide를 이용한 differential staining 방법으로 염색하여 평균 세포수, 내세포괴(ICM) 세포수, 영양배엽(TE) 세포수, 총 세포수에 대한 ICM의 비율 (%ICM) 및 ICM:TE 비율을 조사하였다. 결과에 대한 유의성 검정은 $X^2$ test와 t-test를 이용하였으며, p<0.05일 때 통계적인 차이가 있는 것으로 하였다. 결 과: Group I과 II에서, 총 배반포 ($62.3{\pm}20.7%$ vs. $63.8{\pm}22.9%$), ZiB ($31.9{\pm}24.0%$ vs. $30.4{\pm}18.2%$)와 ZeB 형성율 ($30.4{\pm}20.8%$ vs. $33.3{\pm}22.3%$)은 차이가 없었다. 87개의 배반포 배를 염색 시도하였는데, 명확하게 differential staining된 41개의 배반포 배만을 대상으로 세포수를 조사하였다. 평균 세포수 ($61.6{\pm}19.5$ vs. $63.7{\pm}26.8$), ICM 세포수 ($13.0{\pm}10.6$ vs. $12.8{\pm}10.5$), TE 세포수 ($49.0{\pm}19.0$ vs. $47.8{\pm}18.7$), %ICM ($21.0{\pm}12.6%$ vs. $21.1{\pm}13.2%$) 및 ICM:TE 비율 (1:$3.77{\pm}4.9$ vs. 1:$3.72{\pm}4.8$)에서도 group I과 II에서 차이가 없었다. 결 론: 마우스에서 배 발생 능력의 척도로 쓰이는 배반포 배 형성율 배반포 배의 등급 세포수 및 %ICM 등이 20% 난포액을 첨가한 MEM 배양액의 용량에 따라 영향을 받지 않았다.

Effects of the Morphology of Ovaries and Vessels for In Vitro Maturation on the Development and Cell Number of Korean Native Cow Embryos (난소의 형태와 배양 용기가 한우 체외수정란의 발달과 세포수에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Y. S.;Park H. D.
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to improve efficiency and quality of the production of Korean Native Cow embryos. We examined effects of ovarian morphology and maturation vessel on the development and cell number of blastocysts. The development rates to the 2-cell embryos from oocytes collected from the ovaries of different morphological statues were similar ranging between 70.3 and 84.1%. The development rate to the 8 cell- and blastocyst-stage embryos was the highest in the group without both corpus luteum (CL) and follicle. The inner cell mass (ICM), trophectoderm (TE) and total cell number (TCN) were significantly higher in the groups of follicular cyst and regressive CL than other treatment groups, and the same pattern was observed in the ICM/TCN ratio. The development rate to the 2-cell stage was significantly higher in 0.5-㎖ straw group than 0.25-㎖ straw group. However, the development rates to the blastocyst stage were similar between the dish and the straw group. There were no differences in the number of ICM and TE cells, TCN and ICM/TCN ratio of blastocysts from oocytes matured in the different vessels.

Region Decision Using Modified ICM Method (변형된 ICM 방식에 의한 영역판별)

  • Hwang Jae-Ho
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, a new version of the ICM method(MICM, modified ICM) in which the contextual information is modelled by Markov random fields (MRF) is introduced. To extract the feature, a new local MRF model with a fitting block neighbourhood is proposed. This model selects contextual information not only from the relative intensity levels but also from the geometrically directional position of neighbouring cliques. Feature extraction depends on each block's contribution to the local variance. They discriminates it into several regions, for example context and background. Boundaries between these regions are also distinctive. The proposed algerian performs segmentation using directional block fitting procedure which confines merging to spatially adjacent elements and generates a partition such that pixels in unified cluster have a homogeneous intensity level. From experiment with ink rubbed copy images(Takbon, 拓本), this method is determined to be quite effective for feature identification. In particular, the new algorithm preserves the details of the images well without over- and under-smoothing problem occurring in general iterated conditional modes (ICM). And also, it may be noted that this method is applicable to the handwriting recognition.

The impact of ram pressure on the multi-phase ISM probed by the TIGRESS simulation

  • Choi, Woorak;Kim, Chang-Goo;Chung, Aeree
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.62.1-62.1
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    • 2018
  • Galaxies in the cluster environment interact with the intracluster medium (ICM), losing the interstellar medium (ISM) and alternating their evolution. Observational evidences of the extraplanar ISM stripped by the ICM's ram pressure are prevalent in HI imaging studies of cluster galaxies. However, current theoretical understanding of the ram pressure stripping (or ICM-ISM interaction in general) is still limited mainly due to the lack of numerical resolution at ISM scales in large-scale simulations. Especially, self-consistent modeling of the turbulent, multiphase ISM is critical to understand star formation in galaxies interacting with the ICM. To achieve this goal, we utilize the TIGRESS simulation suite, simulating a local patch of galactic disks with high resolution to resolve key physical processes in the ISM, including cooling/heating, self-gravity, MHD, star formation, and supernova feedback. We then expose the ISM disk to ICM flows and investigate the evolution of star formation rate and the properties of the ISM. By exploring ICM parameter space, we discuss an implication of the simple ram pressure stripping condition (so called the Gunn-Gott condition) to the realistic ISM.

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