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Distributional Characteristics and Factors Related to the Population Persistence, an Endangered Plant Glaux maritima var. obtusifolia Fernald (멸종위기야생식물인 갯봄맞이꽃(Glaux maritima var. obtusifolia Fernald)의 분포특성과 개체군의 지속에 관여하는 요인)

  • Kim, Young-Chul;Chae, Hyun-Hee;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Lee, Kyu-Song
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.939-961
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    • 2016
  • For effective conservation of endangered wild plants, it is necessary to understand their interactions with environmental factors in each habitat together with life traits of target species. First, the characteristics of their distribution were investigated followed by their monitoring for 4 years focusing on the habitats in the lagoon. Also, their life traits were compared including production of hibernacles, fruits, and seeds by the soil fertilization and light intensities. Next, the information on the species was secured by germination experiment using the generated seeds from the cultivation experiment. The habitat of Glaux maritima var. obtusifolia Fernald in Korea was located in the rear edge of the worldwide distribution and its four habitats were isolated and distributed far away each other. Two of them were located in small salt-marsh and fine sand estuaries formed in the rocky area of the seashore, and the other two were inhabited with the sandy soil in the lagoon which was connected by river-mouth to the sea. Glaux maritima var. obtusifolia Fernald tends to be distributed in the sites where the establishment and growth of the competitor were inhibited by salinity, periodic flooding, and lower layer of the soil to extend a roots. It maintained its population by recruitments of hibernacles and seedling. The production of hibernacle was assumed to be affected by the particle consist of the sand together with organic matters in the soil. Seedling recruitment was observed only in the salt-marsh area located in the rear sites of sand ridge where was the shore of the lagoon. Glaux maritima var. obtusifolia Fernald was observed to have different threatening factors by each population. Its population in Pohang seemed the sedimentation of fine sand which affected the recruitment of hibernacles had been eroded due to the construction of the coastal road. The population in Ulsan appeared rapid expansion of competitor and reduction of its distribution area due to the interruption of eluted water supplied to the habitat. On the other hand, the habitat in the lagoon maintained the population relatively stable. Especially, the population in Songji-ho was determined to be the most stable one. To sustain the population of Glaux maritima var. obtusifolia Fernald distributed in the lagoon, it is suggested that the wide ranged scale of conservational activities is necessary to maintain the mechanisms including the entrance of seawater which belongs to the lagoon, and periodic flooding.

Dynamics of Phosphorus-Turbid Water Outflow and Limno-Hydrological Effects on Hypolimnetic Effluents Discharging by Hydropower Electric Generation in a Large Dam Reservoir (Daecheong), Korea (대청호 발전방류수의 인·탁수 배출 역동성과 육수·수문학적 영향)

  • Shin, Jae-Ki;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2017
  • Daecheong Reservoir was made by the construction of a large dam (>15 m in height) on the middle to downstream of the Geum River and the discharge systems have the watergate-spillway (WS), a hydropower penstock (HPP), and two intake towers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the limnological anomalies of turbid water reduction, green algae phenomenon, and oligotrophic state in the lower part of reservoir dam site, and compared with hydro-meteorological factors. Field surveys were conducted in two stations of near dam and the outlet of HPP with one week intervals from January to December 2000. Rainfall was closely related to the fluctuations of inflow, outflow and water level. The rainfall pattern was depended on the storm of monsoon and typhoon, and the increase of discharge and turbidity responded more strongly to the intensity than the frequency. Water temperature and DO fluctuations within the reservoir water layer were influenced by meteorological and hydrological events, and these were mainly caused by water level fluctuation based on temperature stratification, density current and discharge types. The discharges of WS and HPP induced to the flow of water bodies and the outflows of turbid water and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Especially, when hypoxic or low-oxygen condition was present in the bottom water, the discharge through HPP has contributed significantly to the outflow of phosphorus released from the sediment into the downstream of dam. In addition, HPP effluent which be continuously operated throughout the year, was the main factor that could change to a low trophic level in the downreservoir (lacustrine zone). And water-bloom (green-tide) occurring in the lower part of reservoir was the result that the water body of upreservoir being transported and diffused toward the downreseroir, when discharging through the WS. Finally, the hydropower effluent was included the importance and dynamics that could have a temporal and spatial impacts on the physical, chemical and biological factors of the reservoir ecosystem.

Comparative Analysis of Bathymetry in the Dongdo and the Seodo, Dokdo using Multibeam Echosounder System (다중빔 음향 측심기를 이용한 독도 동도와 서도 남부 연안 해저지형 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Myoung Hoon;Kim, Chang Hwan;Park, Chan Hong;Rho, Hyun Soo;Kim, Dae Choul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.477-486
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we analyze precise seabed geomorphology and conditions for comparing the nearshore areas of the Dongdo(East Island) and the Seodo(West Island) using detailed bathymetry data and seafloor backscattering images, in Dokdo, the East Sea. We have been obtained the detailed bathymetry data and the seafloor backscattering data. The survey range is about $250m{\times}250m$ including land of islets to the nearshore areas of the southern part of the Dongdo and the Seodo. As a result of bathymetry survey, the southern area of the Dongdo(~50 m) is deeper than the Seodo(~30 m) in the water depth. The survey areas are consist of extended bedrocks from land of the Dongdo and the Seodo. The underwater rock region of the Seodo is larger than the Dongdo. In spite of similar extended rocks features from islets, there are some distinctive seabed characteristics between the southern nearshore areas of the Dongdo and the Seodo. The Talus-shaped seafloor environment formed by gravel and underwater rocks originating from the land of the Dongdo is up to about 15 m depth. And the boundary line of between extended bedrocks and seabottom is unclear in the southern nearshore of the Dongdo. On the other hand, the southern coast of the Seodo is characterized by relatively large scale underwater rocks and evenly distributed sediments, which clearly distinguish the boundary of between extended bedrocks and seafloor. This is because the tuff layers exposed to the coastal cliffs of the Dongdo are weak against weathering and erosion. It is considered that there are more influences of the clastic sediments carried from the land of the Dongdo compared with the Seodo. Particularly, the land of the Dongdo has been undergoing construction activities. And also a highly unstable ground such as faults, joints and cracks appears in the Dongdo. In previous study, there are dissimilar features of the massive tuff breccia formations of the Dongdo and the Seodo. These conditions are thought to have influenced the different seabed characteristics in the southern nearshore areas of the Dongdo and the Seodo.

A Study on Crushing and Engineering Characteristics Caused by Compaction of Recycled Aggregates (다짐으로 인한 순환골재의 파쇄 및 공학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Sik;Chen, KeQiang;Lee, Young-Jae;Moon, Hong-Duk
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2017
  • A large amount of recycled aggregates was produced and crushed from old buildings and pavements. In this study, when these aggregates are re-used in subbase or subgrade materials in near construction sites, their engineering characteristics caused by crushing are investigated in terms of permeability and shear strength. Three different sizes of aggregates (31.5-45.0 mm, 19.0-31.5 mm, 9.5-19.0 mm) and their mixtures, a total of 7 types of aggregates were used in compaction tests (modified D and B methods). After compaction tests, aggregates were sieved and analyzed with four different breakage factors ($B_{15}$, $C_c$, $B_{10}$, $B_r$). The D compaction method gave 2.0-8.0 times more crushable than B compaction method. The breakage factors for the largest size aggregate was 1.4-3.0 times higher than those of the smallest size aggregate. For aggregates with 5.6-9.5 mm sizes, the samples were prepared with $B_{15}$ of 1, 3, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, and 70 for permeability and direct shear tests. As $B_{15}$ increased, the hydraulic conductivity decreased up to 1/22 for $B_{15}=50$. As $B_{15}$ increased from 1 to 50, the peak friction angle increased from $46.1^{\circ}$ to $54.5^{\circ}$. On the other hand, the friction angle decreased after $B_{15}=60$.

Evaluation of Future Water Deficit for Anseong River Basin Under Climate Change (기후변화를 고려한 안성천 유역의 미래 물 부족량 평가)

  • Lee, Dae Wung;Jung, Jaewon;Hong, Seung Jin;Han, Daegun;Joo, Hong Jun;Kim, Hung Soo
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 2017
  • The average global temperature on Earth has increased by about $0.85^{\circ}C$ since 1880 due to the global warming. The temperature increase affects hydrologic phenomenon and so the world has been suffered from natural disasters such as floods and droughts. Therefore, especially, in the aspect of water deficit, we may require the accurate prediction of water demand considering the uncertainty of climate in order to establish water resources planning and to ensure safe water supply for the future. To do this, the study evaluated future water balance and water deficit under the climate change for Anseong river basin in Korea. The future rainfall was simulated using RCP 8.5 climate change scenario and the runoff was estimated through the SLURP model which is a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model for the basin. Scenario and network for the water balance analysis in sub-basins of Anseong river basin were established through K-WEAP model. And the water demand for the future was estimated by the linear regression equation using amounts of water uses(domestic water use, industrial water use, and agricultural water use) calculated by historical data (1965 to 2011). As the result of water balance analysis, we confirmed that the domestic and industrial water uses will be increased in the future because of population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change due to global warming. However, the agricultural water use will be gradually decreased. Totally, we had shown that the water deficit problem will be critical in the future in Anseong river basin. Therefore, as the case study, we suggested two alternatives of pumping station construction and restriction of water use for solving the water deficit problem in the basin.

The Improvement of Real-time Updating Methods of the National Base Map Using Building Layout Drawing (건물배치도를 이용한 국가기본도 수시수정 방법 개선)

  • Shin, Chang Soo;Park, Moon Jae;Choi, Yun Soo;Baek, kyu Yeong;Kim, Jaemyeong
    • Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.139-151
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    • 2018
  • The National Base Map construction consists of the regular correction work of dividing the whole country into two regions and carrying out the modification Plotting by aerial photographs every two years as well as the real time updating work of correcting the major change feature within two weeks by the field survey and the As-Built Drawing. In the case of the Building Layout Drawing of Korea Real estate Administration intelligence System(KRAS) used for real time updating work of the National base map, the coordinate transformation error is included in the positional error when applied to the National Base Map based on the World Geodetic Reference System as the coordinate system based on the Regional Geodetic Reference System. In addition, National Base Map is registered based on the outline(eaves line) of the building in the Digital Topographic Map, and the Cadastral and Architecture are registered based on the building center line. Therefore, the Building Object management standard is inconsistent. In order to investigate the improvement method, the network RTK survey was conducted directly on a location of the Building Layout Drawing of Korea Real estate Administration intelligence System(KRAS) and the problems were analyzed by comparing with the plane plotting position reference in National Base Map. In the case of the general structure with the difference on the Building center line and the eaves line, beside the location information was different also the difference in the ratio of the building object was different between Building center line and the eave. In conclusion, it is necessary to provide the Base data of the double layer of the Building center line and the outline of the building(eaves line) in order to utilize the Building Layout Drawing of Korea Real estate Administration intelligence System(KRAS). In addition, it is necessary to study an organic map update process that can acquire the up-to-dateness and the accuracy at the same time.

A Study on Improvement of the police disaster crisis management system (경찰의 재난위기관리 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Chun, Yongtae;Kim, Moonkwi
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.556-569
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    • 2015
  • With about 75% of the population of Korea criticizing the government's disaster policy and a failure to respond to large-scale emergency like the Sewol ferry sinking means that there is a deep distrust in the government. In order to prevent dreadful disasters such as the Sewol ferry sinking, it is important to secure a prime time with respect to disaster safety. Improving crisis management skills and managerial role of police officers who are in close proximity to the people is necessary for the success of disaster management. With disaster management as one of the most essential missions of the police, as a part of a national crisis management, a step by step strengthening of the disaster safety management system of the police is necessary, as below. First, at the prevention phase, law enforcement officers were not injected into for profit large-scale assemblies or events, but in the future the involvement, injection should be based on the level of potential risk, rather than profitability. In the past and now, the priortiy was the priority was on traffic flow, traffic communication, however, the paradigm of traffic policy should be changed to a safety-centered policy. To prevent large-scale accidents, police investigators should root out improper routines and illegal construction subcontracting. The police (intelligence) should strengthen efforts to collect intelligence under the subject of "safety". Second, with respect to the preparatory phase, on a survey of police officers, the result showed that 72% of police officers responded that safety management was not related to the job descriptions of the police. This, along with other results, shows that the awareness of disaster safety must be adopted by, or rather changed in the police urgently. The training in disaster safety education should be strengthened. A network of experts (private, administrative, and police) in safety management should be established to take advantage of private resources with regard to crisis situtions. Third, with respect to the response phase, for rapid first responses to occur, a unified communication network should be established, and a real-time video information network should be adopted by the police and installed in the police situation room. Fourth, during the recovery phase, recovery teams should be injected, added and operated to minimize secondary damage.

Study on the Fire Risk Prediction Assessment due to Deterioration contact of combustible cables in Underground Common Utility Tunnels (지하공동구내 가연성케이블의 열화접촉으로 인한 화재위험성 예측평가)

  • Ko, Jaesun
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.135-147
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    • 2015
  • Recent underground common utility tunnels are underground facilities for jointly accommodating more than 2 kinds of air-conditioning and heating facilities, vacuum dust collector, information processing cables as well as electricity, telecommunications, waterworks, city gas, sewerage system required when citizens live their daily lives and facilities responsible for the central function of the country but it is difficult to cope with fire accidents quickly and hard to enter into common utility tunnels to extinguish a fire due to toxic gases and smoke generated when various cables are burnt. Thus, in the event of a fire, not only the nerve center of the country is paralyzed such as significant property damage and loss of communication etc. but citizen inconveniences are caused. Therefore, noticing that most fires break out by a short circuit due to electrical works and degradation contact due to combustible cables as the main causes of fires in domestic and foreign common utility tunnels fire cases that have occurred so far, the purpose of this paper is to scientifically analyze the behavior of a fire by producing the model of actual common utility tunnels and reproducing the fire. A fire experiment was conducted in a state that line type fixed temperature detector, fire door, connection deluge set and ventilation equipment are installed in underground common utility tunnels and transmission power distribution cables are coated with fire proof paints in a certain section and heating pipes are fire proof covered. As a result, in the case of Type II, the maximum temperature was measured as $932^{\circ}C$ and line type fixed temperature detector displayed the fire location exactly in the receiver at a constant temperature. And transmission power distribution cables painted with fire proof paints in a certain section, the case of Type III, were found not to be fire resistant and fire proof covered heating pipes to be fire resistant for about 30 minutes. Also, fire simulation was carried out by entering fire load during a real fire test and as a result, the maximum temperature is $943^{\circ}C$, almost identical with $932^{\circ}C$ during a real fire test. Therefore, it is considered that fire behaviour can be predicted by conducting fire simulation only with common utility tunnels fire load and result values of heat release rate, height of the smoke layer, concentration of O2, CO, CO2 etc. obtained by simulation are determined to be applied as the values during a real fire experiment. In the future, it is expected that more reliable information on domestic underground common utility tunnels fire accidents can be provided and it will contribute to construction and maintenance repair effectively and systematically by analyzing and accumulating experimental data on domestic underground common utility tunnels fire accidents built in this study and fire cases continuously every year and complementing laws and regulations and administration manuals etc.

A Methodology for Extracting Shopping-Related Keywords by Analyzing Internet Navigation Patterns (인터넷 검색기록 분석을 통한 쇼핑의도 포함 키워드 자동 추출 기법)

  • Kim, Mingyu;Kim, Namgyu;Jung, Inhwan
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.123-136
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    • 2014
  • Recently, online shopping has further developed as the use of the Internet and a variety of smart mobile devices becomes more prevalent. The increase in the scale of such shopping has led to the creation of many Internet shopping malls. Consequently, there is a tendency for increasingly fierce competition among online retailers, and as a result, many Internet shopping malls are making significant attempts to attract online users to their sites. One such attempt is keyword marketing, whereby a retail site pays a fee to expose its link to potential customers when they insert a specific keyword on an Internet portal site. The price related to each keyword is generally estimated by the keyword's frequency of appearance. However, it is widely accepted that the price of keywords cannot be based solely on their frequency because many keywords may appear frequently but have little relationship to shopping. This implies that it is unreasonable for an online shopping mall to spend a great deal on some keywords simply because people frequently use them. Therefore, from the perspective of shopping malls, a specialized process is required to extract meaningful keywords. Further, the demand for automating this extraction process is increasing because of the drive to improve online sales performance. In this study, we propose a methodology that can automatically extract only shopping-related keywords from the entire set of search keywords used on portal sites. We define a shopping-related keyword as a keyword that is used directly before shopping behaviors. In other words, only search keywords that direct the search results page to shopping-related pages are extracted from among the entire set of search keywords. A comparison is then made between the extracted keywords' rankings and the rankings of the entire set of search keywords. Two types of data are used in our study's experiment: web browsing history from July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013, and site information. The experimental dataset was from a web site ranking site, and the biggest portal site in Korea. The original sample dataset contains 150 million transaction logs. First, portal sites are selected, and search keywords in those sites are extracted. Search keywords can be easily extracted by simple parsing. The extracted keywords are ranked according to their frequency. The experiment uses approximately 3.9 million search results from Korea's largest search portal site. As a result, a total of 344,822 search keywords were extracted. Next, by using web browsing history and site information, the shopping-related keywords were taken from the entire set of search keywords. As a result, we obtained 4,709 shopping-related keywords. For performance evaluation, we compared the hit ratios of all the search keywords with the shopping-related keywords. To achieve this, we extracted 80,298 search keywords from several Internet shopping malls and then chose the top 1,000 keywords as a set of true shopping keywords. We measured precision, recall, and F-scores of the entire amount of keywords and the shopping-related keywords. The F-Score was formulated by calculating the harmonic mean of precision and recall. The precision, recall, and F-score of shopping-related keywords derived by the proposed methodology were revealed to be higher than those of the entire number of keywords. This study proposes a scheme that is able to obtain shopping-related keywords in a relatively simple manner. We could easily extract shopping-related keywords simply by examining transactions whose next visit is a shopping mall. The resultant shopping-related keyword set is expected to be a useful asset for many shopping malls that participate in keyword marketing. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be easily applied to the construction of special area-related keywords as well as shopping-related ones.

Selection Model of System Trading Strategies using SVM (SVM을 이용한 시스템트레이딩전략의 선택모형)

  • Park, Sungcheol;Kim, Sun Woong;Choi, Heung Sik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 2014
  • System trading is becoming more popular among Korean traders recently. System traders use automatic order systems based on the system generated buy and sell signals. These signals are generated from the predetermined entry and exit rules that were coded by system traders. Most researches on system trading have focused on designing profitable entry and exit rules using technical indicators. However, market conditions, strategy characteristics, and money management also have influences on the profitability of the system trading. Unexpected price deviations from the predetermined trading rules can incur large losses to system traders. Therefore, most professional traders use strategy portfolios rather than only one strategy. Building a good strategy portfolio is important because trading performance depends on strategy portfolios. Despite of the importance of designing strategy portfolio, rule of thumb methods have been used to select trading strategies. In this study, we propose a SVM-based strategy portfolio management system. SVM were introduced by Vapnik and is known to be effective for data mining area. It can build good portfolios within a very short period of time. Since SVM minimizes structural risks, it is best suitable for the futures trading market in which prices do not move exactly the same as the past. Our system trading strategies include moving-average cross system, MACD cross system, trend-following system, buy dips and sell rallies system, DMI system, Keltner channel system, Bollinger Bands system, and Fibonacci system. These strategies are well known and frequently being used by many professional traders. We program these strategies for generating automated system signals for entry and exit. We propose SVM-based strategies selection system and portfolio construction and order routing system. Strategies selection system is a portfolio training system. It generates training data and makes SVM model using optimal portfolio. We make $m{\times}n$ data matrix by dividing KOSPI 200 index futures data with a same period. Optimal strategy portfolio is derived from analyzing each strategy performance. SVM model is generated based on this data and optimal strategy portfolio. We use 80% of the data for training and the remaining 20% is used for testing the strategy. For training, we select two strategies which show the highest profit in the next day. Selection method 1 selects two strategies and method 2 selects maximum two strategies which show profit more than 0.1 point. We use one-against-all method which has fast processing time. We analyse the daily data of KOSPI 200 index futures contracts from January 1990 to November 2011. Price change rates for 50 days are used as SVM input data. The training period is from January 1990 to March 2007 and the test period is from March 2007 to November 2011. We suggest three benchmark strategies portfolio. BM1 holds two contracts of KOSPI 200 index futures for testing period. BM2 is constructed as two strategies which show the largest cumulative profit during 30 days before testing starts. BM3 has two strategies which show best profits during testing period. Trading cost include brokerage commission cost and slippage cost. The proposed strategy portfolio management system shows profit more than double of the benchmark portfolios. BM1 shows 103.44 point profit, BM2 shows 488.61 point profit, and BM3 shows 502.41 point profit after deducting trading cost. The best benchmark is the portfolio of the two best profit strategies during the test period. The proposed system 1 shows 706.22 point profit and proposed system 2 shows 768.95 point profit after deducting trading cost. The equity curves for the entire period show stable pattern. With higher profit, this suggests a good trading direction for system traders. We can make more stable and more profitable portfolios if we add money management module to the system.