• Title/Summary/Keyword: Calcium

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Characteristics and Sensory Optimization of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) under Different Aging Conditions for Food Application of Black Taro (흑토란의 식품재료화를 위한 숙성 조건에 따른 토란의 특성 및 관능 최적화)

  • Jeon, Yu-Ho;Lee, Ji-Won;Son, Yang-Ju;Hwang, In-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2016
  • The physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and sensory optimization of taro (Colocasia esculenta) under different aging conditions were investigated to develop black taro. Black taro was processed in three steps (steaming: $95{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ for 1 h; aging: 85, 90, $95^{\circ}C$ for 20, 40, and 60 h; drying: $60^{\circ}C$ for 24 h) and ground into a powder for all experiments. Black taro showed an increased crude fiber content and browning index compared to raw taro. Calcium oxalate contents, reducing sugar contents, moisture contents, and lightness values were decreased during the processing of taro. Improvements in total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) were observed in the black taro samples aged at higher temperature. Response surface methodology was used for sensory optimization, and the optimum aging conditions with the highest acceptance values were found to be $88.73^{\circ}C$ for 39.50 h for taste, and $88.82^{\circ}C$ for 42.60 h for overall acceptance.

Effects of Activation Regimens of Recipient Cytoplasm, Culture Condition of Donor Embryos and Size of Blastomeres on Development of Reconstituted Bovine Embryos (수핵 난자의 활성화 방법과 공핵 수정란의 배양체계 및 할구의 크기가 소 핵이식 수정란의 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 심보웅;조성근;이효종;박충생;최상용
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.425-435
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    • 1998
  • To improve the efficiency of nuclear transplantation in bovine, in this study the development in vitro of nuclear transferred (NT) embryos was compared by different activation regimens of the enucleated oocytes. The effect of developmental stage and culture system of donor nuclei on fusion and development in vitro of NT embryos were also evaluated. Oocytes were collected from Hanwoo ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse and matured in Ham's F-10 supplemented with hormones. After 20~22 h maturation, the oocytes were vortexed to be free from cumulus cells and subsequently their nucleus and the first polar body were removed. Enucleated oocytes were divided into 3 groups for activation; the oocytes of group I were activated with ionomycin for 5 min and subsequently incubated in 6-dimetylarninopurine (DMAP) for 4 h, Those of group II were treated with DMAP for 4 h at 39 h after onset of in vitro maturation (IVM) and those of group III were kept in room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) for 3 h at 39 h after onset of IVM. After in vitro fertilization (IVF) the embryos for muclear donor were cultured either by group culture (20 embryos /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) or individually (1 embryo /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) for 4 day and 5 day. At day 4 and 5 after IVF, blastomeres were separated in calcium-magnesium free medium, and then classified into small (day 5: $\leq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4: $\leq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and large (day 5 : $\geq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4 ; $\geq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). The separated blastomeres were replaced into enucleated and activated recipient cytoplasm. The blastomere-oocyte complexes were fused by electrically. The NT embryos were cultured in TCM-199 containing 10% FCS in 39$^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 7 day. The results obtained were summarized as follows; There were no differences in fusion and development to blastocyst between groups as group I (68%, 10%), group II (75%, 14%) and group III (73%, 9%), respectively. However, the cell number in blastocyst of NT embryos in group III were significantly fewer than in the other groups (P<0.05). No differences in fusion and development to blastocyst were found between individual or group cultured and between small or large blastomeres of day 4 and day 5 donor embryos. From these results, it was concluded that the combination of ionomycin and DMAP, or treatment of DMAP at 39 h after onset of IVM were useful for the efficient of production of NT bovine embryos, and the individual cultured embryos could be simply used as donor nuclei for NT bovine embryo.

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Evaluation of Usefulness and Procedures for Safety of Radiopharmaceuticals in Cisternography (Cisternography 검사 시 사용되는 방사성의약품의 안정성 확보를 위한 검사도입 및 유용성 평가)

  • Kim, Da-Eun;Yoo, Yeon-Wook;Choi, Ho-Yong;Kim, Yun-Cheol;Kim, Yeong-Seok;Won, Woo-Jae;Kim, Seok-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Several radiopharmaceuticals were used for cisternography. But recently, due to more short acquisition time, high resolution than other radiopharmaceuticals like In-111 DTPA, we were using Tc-99m DTPA in cisternography. Using of Tc-99m DTPA for intrathecal, was not officially recognised by the FDA. And there are matters of aseptic meningitis, muscular tetany, seizures by inappropriate radiopharmaceuticals handling. So, it is necessary to prevent adverse reactions while handling the radiopharmaceuticals using in cisternography. Therefore, this study aims to evaluation of usefulness and procedures for safety of radiopharmaceuticals in cisternography. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 12radioactive tracer vials using in cisternography in 2008 Dec. 16 - 2009 Dec. 30. (1) Radioactive tracer Vial test - We were measured NaPertechnetate radiation dose and volume, normal saline volume for dilution, source volume and dose activity for patient injection. And then, calculated mass of pure DTPA. (2) Bacterial endotoxin test - We performed pyrogen test using by negative/positive control vials which was added normal saline 0.2 mL and added normal saline 0.1 mL, Tc-99m DTPA 0.1 mL in test control vial. And then, reacted by digital hot plate in $37.5^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour and compared of gel-clot in each control vials. (3) Compliance safety procedure - We were checked safety issues and wrote out a safety procedure exam sheet. Results: (1) Radioactive tracer Vial test - Mass of DTPA per dose for patient injection (mg) was 0.88 (mg) on average, and Mass of DTPA per volume for patient injection (mg) was 0.74 (mg) on average. (2) Bacterial endotoxin test - All control test vials showed negative reactions. (3) Compliance safety procedure - We were checked safety issues and wrote out a safety exam sheet in all the exams. So, there were no adverse reactions. Conclusion: We could examine easier to safety tests using by Techscan - DTPA (Mallinckrodt): CaNa3. Each test results were passed the safety tests and there are no adverse reactions. The use of Tc-99m DTPA for cisternography, always has been become an issue. Since it has occur adverse reaction while examine the cisternography using by Tc-99m DTPA, it needs to set up the 'Standard Operating procedures'.

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Effects of Dietary Salt Restriction on the Development of Renal Failure in the Excision Remnant Kidney Model (식이 sodium 제한 및 식이 sodium 제한에 따른 항고혈압제의 투여가 만성신부전증의 진행에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim Kee-Hyuk;Kim Sang-Yun;Kang Yong-Joo;Maeng Won-Jae;Kim Kyo-Sun
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.170-179
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: To evaluate whether or not sodium restriction had its own beneficial effect and increased the efficiency of the anti-hypertensive drugs on the progression of renal failure. Methods: We studied using the excision remnant kidney model. Treatment groups were as follows: 5/6 nephrectomy and a 0.49% (normal-high) sodium diet (NN); 5/6 nephrectomy and a 0.25% (normal-low) sodium diet (LN); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.49% sodium diet and enalapril (NNE); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.49% sodium diet and nicardipine (NNN); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.25% sodium diet and enalapril (LNE); 5/6 nephrectomy, a 0.25% sodium diet and nicardipine (LNN). Both diets were isocaloric and had the same content of protein, phosphorus and calcium. Proteinuria, remnant kidney weight, mesangial expansion scores, and glomerular volume were assessed. Results: Blood pressure tended to be lower in LN compared to NN (P<0.05). NN developed progressive hypertension. LNE, LU, NNE, and NNN reduced blood pressure. LNE, LNN, NNE, NNN, and LN had significantly less proteinuria than NN at 16 weeks (P<0.05). At 24 weeks, LN developed proteinuria (82 mg/day), which were lessened in LNE (54 mg/day) and not lessened in LNN (76 mg/day). Mesangial expansion scores were significantly less in LN rats compared to those in NN rats. Glomerular volumes at 24 weeks in LN rats were significantly less compared to those at 16 weeks in NN rats. Mesangial expansion scores and glomerular volumes at 4, weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks were not different among LN, LNE, and LNN groups. Conclusion: Dietary salt restriction lessens renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting compensatory renal growth and reducing blood pressure. Enalapril was particularly successful in reducing proteinuria and glomerular injury when combined with dietary salt restriction.

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Hematological Characteristic of Bastard halibut according to Cultured experiment of Mari-floating netcage-II On the Blood serum constituents and Electrolytes in blood serum (넙치의 해상(海上)가두리 사육시험(飼育試驗)에 따른 혈액학적(血液學的) 연구(硏究)-II 혈청화학지수(血淸化學指數) 및 전해질지수(電解質指數)에 대(對)하여)

  • Sim, Doo-Saing;Jeon, Im-Gi;Min, Kwang-Sik;Lee, Jong-Moon
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 1990
  • Chemical constituents in blood serum and electrolytes were mearsured to the cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus classified by control group and establishments of mari-netcages from April 7, 1990 to May 8, 1990. The total protein, albumin and glucose were $5.74{\pm}0.83g/dl$, $0.94{\pm}0.22g/dl$ and $62{\pm}29mg/dl$, respectively in the blood serum constituents of control group. The potassium, sodium and calcium were $2.5{\pm}1.1\;mmol/l$, $169{\pm}17\;mmol/l$ and $5.0{\pm}1.7\;mg/l$, respectively in the electrolytes of control group. In the variation of chemical constituents and electrolytes in blood serum, glucose of PVC group was alone represented $66{\pm}19\;mg/dl$ as control level on the 9th after locomotion to mari-floating netcages, and was stable within period of experiment in comparision with the other group. Subsequently stable netron group was decreased $49{\pm}15\;mg/dl$ on the 12th. Total protein of netron group was alone represented $5.72{\pm}1.11\;g/dl$ as control level on the 27th. Albumin of PVC group was stable, and was retruned $1.00{\pm}0.18\;g/dl$ as control level on the 27th. Potassium of PVC and netron group were stable within priod of experiment. Sodium of PVC, pole-PVC group were stable, and were $169{\pm}17{\sim}178{\pm}10\;mmol/l$, $173{\pm}10{\sim}179{\pm}9\;mmol/l$ respectively in blood serum with in priod of experiment. According to the combined results of chemical constituents in blood serum and electrolytes classified by establishment of mari-floating netcages, the experiment group that were stabilized variation were in order of PVC, netron and pole-PVC group. But the other groups were extended the range of variation.

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Analysis of Dietary Habits by MDA(Mini Dietary Assessment) Scores and Physical Development and Blood Parameters in Female College Students in Seoul Area (서울 지역 여대생의 식생활 평가에 따른 식습관, 신체 발달 및 혈액 인자 비교 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung-Soon;Shin, Kyung-Ok;Huh, Seon-Min;Chung, Keun-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.856-868
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate causes for health problems among college women by analyzing factors related to their dietary habits, physical development, health habits, and blood parameters. The subjects were ages 20 to 24 years, lived in the Seoul area and were randomly selected during March, 2008 to August, 2009. The average height and weight of the overall subjects were $162.02{\pm}4.89\;cm$ and $53.96{\pm}7.00\;kg$, respectively. According to a 3-point assessment scale for the subjects' dietary habits, the average point value was 21.2. The percentage of subjects that ate breakfast daily was only 30.5%, and they omitted regular meals at least once a week. Approximately 83.5% of the subjects reported eating out often or frequently, and preferred Korean foods when they ate out. The subjects had interim meals (snacks) one or two times daily, and 40.4% of them preferred unbalanced meals. As their interim meals, among the 'good' group, ate breaded potatoes (39.3%), carbonated beverages, and ice cream (36.8%), whereas the 'poor' group, drank milk and ate dairy products (38.0%) as well as fast food and fried food (22.8%). Intakes of energy, fat, vitamins $B_2$ and $B_6$, niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, zinc, and phosphorus were higher in the 'poor' group. The average hemoglobin level ($13.77{\pm}1.00\;g/dL$) among the subjects was within normal range; while 2.7% of subjects had hemoglobin levels under 11.1 g/dL (standard value) and were examined as anemic. The degree of interest in health was 24.5% higher among the subjects who had poor dietary habits. In contrast, among those who had good dietary habits, 49.6% reported they had no interest in regular exercise. The subjects reported that regular meals, nutrient intake, sufficient rest, and sleep as necessary to maintain health. The average amount of sleep obtained by the subjects was 6~8 hours. Among the 'poor' group, 36.2% reported that they exercised regularly, whereas 18.5% of the subjects in the 'good' group reported regular exercise (p<0.05). In conclusion, it appears necessary to provide nutrition education through teaching and to promote nutrition and health to college women so they can control their individual health status and create practicable dietary plans.

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Physicochemical Characteristics of Silky Fowl(Gallus domesticus var. silkies) (백봉오골계육의 이화학적 특성)

  • Cho, Chae-Min;Park, Chung-Kil;Lee, Min-Young;Lew, In-Deok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.306-314
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    • 2006
  • In this study, the anatomic characteristics and the contents of nutritional ingredients and minerals of silky fowl and yeonsan ogolgye was investigated. Silky fowl is covered with white silky feather. There is a pinch of vertical white tassel on peak of the head, especially a silky fowl cock. The crown of a silky fowl has a nickname of phoenix crown, the crown of a cock is mostly like a rose, while that of a hen like strawberry or mulberry. The ear of silky fowl is mostly peacock green(Light blue turquoise), bronze for a small part. Peacock green is most common for Silky Fowl with a age of $60{\sim}150$ days, over the age of 150 days, the peacock green will be gradually replaced by purplish red. Beaks are leaden blue, short and stout while the face is smooth and fine. The lower jaw of silky fowl has comparatively long tiny hair, similar to beard. The two legs of silky fowl are covered with a handful of feather, or known as 'Putting on trousers'. Each leg of silky fowl has five talons. The whole skin, eyes, mouth, talons of silky fowl are grey black The bone and marrow of silky fowl are light black the periosteum is black. The whole meat, internal organs and abdominal fat of sillry fowl aye black the heart and leg meat are light black. Silky fowl meat had lower moisture and lipids content, but higher Ash and protein content than meats of yeosan ogolgye and general chickens. For mineral contents of leg muscle and breast muscle, silky fowl had higher contents of phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), potassium (K), zinc (Zn) than those of yeonsan ogolgye, while yeonsan ogolgye had higher contents of calcium (Ca) than that of silky fowl. The contents of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is higher in leg muscle than in breast muscle for the silky fowl and yeonsan ogolgye. Leg muscle of silky fowl contains a lot of iron (Fe), about 4 times as much as that of leg muscle of yeonsan ogolgye. For the silky fowl and the yeonsan ogolgye, leg muscles contains a lot of zinc (Zn), about 5 times, 4 times respectively as much as that of breast muscle.

Nutritional Status of the Elderly Living in a Private Silver Town of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea (부산지역 실버타운 급식시설 이용 노인들의 영양섭취상태)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hee;Park, Jung-Rewng;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.1293-1299
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to assess the nutritional status of the elderly residing in a silver town. A survey was conducted in April, 2005 for fifty two healthy persons (men 18, women 34) aged over 65 years living in a private silver town of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. General data were collected using questionnaires at homes of the subjects and food consumption data for 3 days were obtained by investigating the individual leftovers from the meals served at the foodservice facilities by well-trained graduate students of the Department of Food & Nutrition. Nutrient intake was calculated from food consumption data using Can Pro (version 3.0, Korea). Average daily intake of energy was 1077.6 kcal in men and 974.2 kcal in women. Average protein intake of the men and women amounted to 85.5 g and 67.7 g, respectively. The consumption of cereals contributed 45.3% of energy intake for all subjects. Only 1.1% of calcium intake was from milk and milk products. Almost 100% of the elderly did not reach 75% of estimated energy requirement (EER) in energy intake and 75% of estimated average requirement (EAR) in folic acid intake. Percentages of the subjects who consumed protein above 125% of EAR were 100% and 91% in men and women, respectively. All subjects consumed above EAR in dietary intake of protein and iron. These data suggest that nutrient intake of the elderly living in the silver town would be inadequate, and thus the efficient management of foodservice is necessary to improve the nutritional status of the elderly living in the silver town.

A Comparison of Anthropomery and Nutrient Intakes of Rural Middle School Students Provided with and without National School Lunch Program (경상북도 의성군 농촌지역 급식교와 비급식교 중학생의 영양소 섭취 실태와 체조성과의 상관성에 관한 연구)

  • 장현숙;이옥이
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.116-128
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the nutrient intakes and growth development of rural middle school students provided with and without the national school lunch program(NSLP). The subjects consisted of 340 rural middle school students provided with(n=177) and without(n=163) NSLP. Anthropometric measurements were taken for body weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness and percentage of body fat, and nutrient intakes were assessed by food record method. The results of this study were summarized as follows: There was no significant difference in the height, body weight girls provided with (155.8cm 47.2kg) and without (156.0cm, 49.7kg) NSLP. Total energy intakes of boys were 2123kca1 in with NSLP and 1857kca1 in without NSLP. Total energy intakes of girls were 1913kca1 in with NSLP and 1814kca1 in without NSLP. Total daily energy was provided in the ratio of 19.1%, 39.8%, 32.4% and 8.7% by breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks in the with NSLP and 17.5%, 32.0%, 34.8% and 15.7% in without NSLP, respectively. Phosphorus, vitamin A, vitamin E, ascorbic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin intakes were above the RDA in with NSLP. In without NSLP, phosphorus, vitamin E, thiamin intakes were above the RDA. however, calcium. iron, vitamin A, vitamin B$_{6}$ were less than the RDA. The study showed that total daily energy and nutrient intakes were significantly higher in students provided with than without school-lunch. Thus, the school-lunch program is recommended and necessary to improve the nutritional status of middle school students.

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Effect of Short-term Nutrition Education Camp on Food and Nutrient Intakes of Obese Children (단기간 영양교육 캠프가 비만아동의 식품과 영양소 섭취에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Jin-Hwa;Lee, Yeon-Kyung;Lee, Hye-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.987-999
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term nutrition education camp on food and nutrient intakes of obese children. The subjects of the study were 30 obese children in Gumi city who have obesity index over $130\%$. The food consumption of the subjects was surveyed for three days before the camp, for eleven days during the first camp and for three days after the second camp, by food record method. The mean intakes of energy and carbohydrates in obese children were significantly decreased during and after the nutrition education camp, and that of vitamin C was significantly increased after the camp. The mean daily total food intake of the subjects was gradually decreased from 1646.4g before the camp to 1438.6g during the camp and 1412.66g after the camp. Energy and fat intake ratios from grains and milks were significantly decreased after the camp compared with that before the camp, and the energy intake ratio from grains, milks and eggs was significantly low during the camp. The protein intake ratios from grains, potatoes, vegetables and fishes were significantly increased after the camp. The calcium intake ratios from potatoes and milks were significantly increased during and after the camp, and the ratio from eggs was significantly decreased after the camp. The iron intake ratios from potatoes and fishes were significantly increased during and after the camp, and the ratio from grains was significantly low during the camp. The results of the study demonstrated that the short-term nutrition education program positively affected the overall food consumption and nutrients intakes of obese children.