• Title/Summary/Keyword: 형식주의

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The Research of Houshan's Comments on Poets and Poetry (진사도(陳師道), 『후산시화(後山詩話)』의 시론(詩論))

  • Kim, Kousun
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.70
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    • pp.9-31
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    • 2018
  • Houshan's Comments on Poets and Poetry by Chen Shidao, one of the most famous comments on poets and poetry in the Northern Song Dynasty, is regarded as the early masterpiece of the literary critic genre called comments on poets an poetry. In particular, the theory on poetry of Houshan's Comments on Poets and Poetry reflected the overall literature fashion of the Song Dynasty, and captured the typical arguments of poetics in the Song Dynasty. The poet's character-building and accumulation of knowledge, the study of Du Fu and other poets and a quest for "No Trace" reveal the practice and aesthetics of the poets in the Northern Song Dynasty. So far, Chen Shidao has been known as a formalist poet, and he has actually focused on learning the rules of verse and learning classical poetry. But the final goal of his theory on poetry was a free creation, not the strict rules. He just thought that he could get the freedom of creation by constantly learning rules and building a poem. Therefore, his comments in Houshan's Comments on Poets and Poetry can not be regarded as simply formalist views. Because he wanted to achieve his ideal freedom of creation with elaborate formats and content.

The Study on the Li-gu's Philosophy of Propriety (이구(李?)의 의리사상(義利思想) 및 예론(禮論)과 의의)

  • Han, Sung Gu
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.31
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    • pp.263-287
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    • 2011
  • Li-Gu was a Confucianist who criticized traditional 'attend to Righteousness and neglect Profit' idea and insisted that people affirmed 'Proprietiy' and 'Interest', which accorded with human nature and desire. He said that 'Proprieties' was made by adjusting one's material life and natural desire. Therefore, if we want 'Propriety' is manifested itself, we must affirm and satisfy the material life and natural desire first. He asserted that if we didn't follow this, the people's life would be devastated and the nation would face a big crisis. Li-Gu's thought not only gave Wang An Suk's Reformation a theoretical basics, but also attached the new and reformist meanings to 'Propriety', which had been changing meaningless and abstract, by criticizing Songming Confucian School and put great stress on uniting the inside and outside. In this article, through examining Li-Gu's the idea of Righteousness and Profit, King and Ruler, Inside and Outside, we can consider what the real 'Propriety' is and what kind of practical meaning 'Propriety' has.

A Study on Dilemma in Internet Addiction Prevention and Solution Policy for Adolescent (청소년 인터넷중독 예방 및 해소 정책의 딜레마 연구)

  • Kim, Ju-Kyoung
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2014
  • The objective for this research is to analyze the origin of the outbreak of a policy dilemma in the government's pursuance of policy aimed at tackling internet addiction among teenagers, as well as analyzing responsive strategy. Therefore, within this research and as the model of the dilemma being the analytical frame, the aspect of the dilemma has been analyzed through the transformation of contexts, conditions, policy values, alternatives, policy actors and policy decision makers. The major research results are as follows. First, each and every dilemma of 'transformation of context and condition', 'policy value and alternatives', 'policy actors' and 'policy decision makers' in processes of policy in preventing and resolving adolescent internet addiction, it acted as a decisive cause in forming the general dilemma of the policy. Second, the government's strategy in policy response within the policy dilemma conditions turned out to be a duplication of policy, occurrence of contradictions, typical response strategy and cyclical choices. Given these factors, the following characteristics have shown up as a result. First, as the problems in duplication of policy and contradictions occurred within a single policy, the government responded to this dilemma in a typical way, which brought about an even more serious dilemma. Second, the government put in effort to re-regulate two values (protection of adolescents and promotion of the video game industry), which are included in the response policy of adolescent Internet addiction. As a result, the policy dilemma has weakened with respect to the past. However, it has not solved the fundamental problems. This research, taking the results as a background, strives to provide implications for establishing a self-consistent groundwork, which combines policy values and vision for the government to pursue effective responsive policy on adolescent internet addiction, which is becoming more and more severe in the information society in which we live.

A Comparing Study of Two Constructivisms on L.E.M. (배중률을 둘러싼 구성주의의 두 입장 비교)

  • Oh, Chae-Hwan;Kang, Ok-Ki;Ree, Sang-Wook
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.45-59
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    • 2011
  • Constructionists believe that mathematical knowledge is obtained by a series of purely mental constructions, with all mathematical objects existing only in the mind of the mathematician. But constructivism runs the risk of rejecting the classical laws of logic, especially the principle of bivalence and L. E. M.(Law of the Excluded Middle). This philosophy of mathematics also does not take into account the external world, and when it is taken to extremes it can mean that there is no possibility of communication from one mind to another. Two constructionists, Brouwer and Dummett, are common in rejecting the L. E. M. as a basic law of logic. As indicated by Dummett, those who first realized that rejecting realism entailed rejecting classical logic were the intuitionists of the school of Brouwer. However for Dummett, the debate between realists and antirealists is in fact a debate about semantics - about how language gets its meaning. This difference of initial viewpoints between the two constructionists makes Brouwer the intuitionist and Dummettthe the semantic anti-realist. This paper is confined to show that Dummett's proposal in favor of intuitionism differs from that of Brouwer. Brouwer's intuitionism maintained that the meaning of a mathematical sentence is essentially private and incommunicable. In contrast, Dummett's semantic anti-realism argument stresses the public and communicable character of the meaning of mathematical sentences.

Review of the Theory of Natural Obligations (자연채무에 대한 재검토)

  • Park, Jong Ryeol
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2014
  • In general, at the relationship between claim and obligation if debtor does not fulfill its obligations arbitrarily the creditor can claim to debtor such as lawsuit. It means, despite the debtor ordered payment through the judgment, if debtor disobey that judgment, compulsory execution can be performed by the force of the country. In the end, fulfillment of obligation is enforced by national authorities in principle. However, exceptionally, even it established as a valid debt, if debtors fulfill themselves, they may not be protected from the national authorities. That is the natural obligation. The natural obligation originated from the Roman law which enforces strict type legal system and it is exceptional phenomenon in modern civil law which is made up as that all the bonds are likely to recourse. Therefore, in Korean theory acknowledge that debt is natural obligation and there is no exception. However, there are still controversy about the presence and occurrence of natural obligation. So, in this paper, want to review about its extent and effect including the concept of natural obligation.

Quest of Wang Yak-heo(王若虚)'s Theories of Poetry - With a focus on Three Volumes of 「Talks on Chinses Poetry」 among "the Collected Writings of Wang Yak-heo"(滹南遺老集) (王若虚的詩論探究(왕약허의 시론 탐구) - 以《滹南遺老集》中的《詩話》三卷爲主(『호남유로집』 중 「시화」 3권을 중심으로) -)

  • Jang, Yung-Ki
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.34
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    • pp.207-224
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    • 2009
  • This research is a quest of theories of poetry of Wang Yak-heo who was a literary critic during Chin(金) dynasty in ancient China. Wang Yak-heo left a fine piece of work, dubbed ${\ll}$Honam Yuro Jib${\gg}$ and, in this paper, the author closely reviewed the theories of poetry that is appeared, especially, in the three volumes of ${\ll}$Talks on Chinese Poetry${\gg}$ among the collections of Wang's poetry criticism. In particular, the author investigated the positive and negative aspects of Honam's commentaries on the works by Chinese poets, including his principles of poetics, creative skills, and practical criticism, etc. Wang Yak-heo has not been known much in the history of Chinese literary thoughts, however, his theory of criticism, especially, among the talks on Chinese the works by Chinese poets, his literature criticisms establish unique and distinctive point of views. Wang Yak-heo's poetics, more than anything else, valued nature, meanings, truth, and contents therein. He exhibited realistic view of literature. Meanwhile, he analyzed the methods of expression by Du Bo(杜甫, pronounced, "Du Fu" in Chinese), So Sik, also known as So Dong Pa (蘇軾, Su Shi or 蘇東坡, Su Dong Po in Chinese), and Hwang Jeong-gyeon(黃庭堅, Huang T'ing-chien), and highly evaluated the realistic poems written by Du Bo, Baek Geo-I (白居易, pronounced, "Bai Juyi" in Chinese), and So Sik. Also, he opposed to formalism or externality, however, he never made light of formality of poetry. In his comments on the works by Chinese poets, he highly evaluated the poems sung by So Sik and Beek Geo-I, in the mean time, however, he criticized their works without hesitation. Having set up his own unique criteria for critique, Wang didn't accept other opinions in a seemingly illogical manner, and he presented what he thoughts and other different points of view from others. Specifically, he attached great importance to whether or not modification of words and phrases, grammar, and whole context were congruent to one another and had been well harmonized. However, in his poetics, Wang was so wrapped himself in reasonableness or rationality, he analyzed each and every word in great detailed manner, as the result, he sometimes didn't read the sentiment or mood that the writers intended to express through poems. He excessively restricted himself to the words and phrases, so that he was not able to realize natural emotions and joy of imagination that were presented in the poems, and, in the end, this brought about adverse effects to the poet's thought.

A Study on the View on Nature in Ch'o-Jung's Three-Verse Poems(Sijo) (초정(艸丁) 김상옥(金相沃) 시조(時調)에 나타난 자연관(自然觀))

  • Choi, Heung-Yeol
    • Sijohaknonchong
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    • v.30
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    • pp.263-300
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    • 2009
  • Adoration for nature constitutes one of the primary subjects that literature has tackled since the origin of human history. Nature expressed through a poet's subjective imagination is the internalized and reorganized nature. This study examines the view on nature enacted in Ch'o-Jung's three-verse poems (sijo) in light of the traditional views on nature implicated in the ancient three-verse poems (koshijo), which is in line with the long-established Oriental view on nature. To dignitaris(sadaebu) in the Chosun Dynasty, nature appeared as the idealistic subject for moral culture ($shims{\breve{o}}ngsuyang$), which also becomes the literary space where the purity and justice of the world view of Neo-Confucianism(Sungrihak) is contained in the form of the three-verse poem, the lyrical poetic space where the "I" is united with nature by way of "enjoying of wind and moon"($umpungnongw{\breve{o}}i$) and "living in quiet retiremen"($yuyuchaj{\breve{o}}k$), and the object for the poetical perception of the surrounding world. Ch'o-Jung' s three-verse odes are found in Reed pipe ($Ch'oj{\breve{o}}k$), Sixty Five Pieces of Three-Verse Odes (Samhaengshi-$yukshipopy{\breve{o}}n$), Autumn Fragrance ($Hyangginam{\check{u}}n-ga{\check{u}}l$), and The Words of Zelko va Tree ($N{\check{u}}tinamu{\check{u}}i-mal$). This study analyzes 212 pieces of Ch'o-Jung' s three-verse poems chosen from theses books. In Ch'o-Jung's poems, the traditional view on nature expressed in the ancient three-verse poems is rendered in such a way that metaphysical understanding of nature is indirectly transmitted through the objective correlatives found nature. Nature is no longer the object of straightforward utterance, but transformed, displaced, and removed: that way, nature gets objectified to form a complicated and multi-layered structure. In conclusion, the view on nature manifested in Ch'o-Jung's three-verse poems is based on traditional metaphysics. Second, nature is the object of lyrical nostalgia and adoration. Third, nature is imbued with the fundamental affection for parents. Fourth, nature is associated with organic life. Fifth, the nature in Ch'o-Jung's poems reveals the beauty of stillness endorsed in Lao-tse's and Chung-tze's philosophy. And last, nature is the agent for self-realization and meditation.

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