Background: In patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), lumbar flexion exercise (LFE) is considered a standard therapeutic exercise that widens the space between the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen. However, some researchers have reported that lumbar extension exercise (LEE) may improve lumbar pain and functional ability in patients with LSS. Although exercise intervention methods for patients with LSS have been widely applied in clinical settings, few studies have conducted comparative analysis of these exercise methods. Objects: This study aimed to compare the effects of LFE, LEE, and lumbar flexion combined with lumbar flexion-extension exercise (LFEE) on pain, range of motion (ROM), pelvic tilt angle, and functional gait ability in patients with LSS. Methods: A total of 30 patients with LSS, LFE (n1=10), LEE (n2=10), and LFEE (n3=10) were assigned to each of the three exercise groups. The numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), modified-modified schober test (MMST)-flexion, MMST-extension, pelvic tilt inclinometer, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were measured. Results: After the intervention, statistically significant differences were observed in the NPRS (p=.043), MMST-flexion (p<.001), MMST-extension (p<.001), and 6MWT (p=.005) between groups. According to the post hoc test, the NPRS was statistically significant difference between the LFEE and LEE groups (p=.034). The MMST-flexion was statistically significantly different between the LFE and LEE (p=.000), LFE and LFEE (p=.001), and LEE and LFEE (p=.001) groups. The MMST-extension was statistically significantly different between the LFE and LEE (p<.001), LFE and LFEE (p=.002), and LEE and LFEE (p=.008) groups. The 6MWT was statistically significantly different between the LFE and LFEE (p=.042) and the LEE and LFEE (p=.004) groups. Conclusion: This study suggested that LFEE was the most effective exercise for pain and functional gait ability in patients with LSS, LFE was the most effective exercise for lumbar flexion ROM, and LEE was the most effective exercise for lumbar extension ROM.