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Morphological Characteristics of Needle Leaves and Analysis of Abies species based on Chloroplast DNA Sequences

한국 전나무(Abies holophylla), 일본 전나무(A. firma, A. homolepis), 그리고 법정 보호 전나무의 잎 형태적 특성 및 엽록체 DNA 분석

  • Ahn, Chang Ho (Division of Forest Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Choi, Yong Eui (Division of Forest Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Park, Wan Geun (Division of Forest Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Han, Jung Yeon (Division of Forest Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kwak, Yoo Shin (Division of Forest Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Se Chang (Division of Forest Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Park, Chan Woo (Forest Research Institute, Kangwon National University)
  • 안창호 (강원대학교 산림과학부) ;
  • 최용의 (강원대학교 산림과학부) ;
  • 박완근 (강원대학교 산림과학부) ;
  • 한정연 (강원대학교 산림과학부) ;
  • 곽유신 (강원대학교 산림과학부) ;
  • 김세창 (강원대학교 산림과학부) ;
  • 박찬우 (강원대학교 산림과학연구소)
  • Received : 2019.01.28
  • Accepted : 2019.05.03
  • Published : 2019.06.30

Abstract

The aim of this study was to provide the basic information necessary to identify Korean fir (Abies holophylla), momi fir (A. firma), and Nikko fir (A. homolepis), and other fir trees planted in South Korea that are protected by law. Analysis of the morphological characteristics of the needles from each sample was investigated. The shape of the needle-leaf tip from A. holophylla was acute, whereas that from A. firma and A. homolepis was emarginate and that from the protected fir trees was obtuse. The number of stomata on the needles was not significantly different between A. holophylla and A. firma, and the number of stomata on the needles from A. homolepis and the protected fir trees were highly similar. In addition, the genetic differences among the Abies species were analyzed using the sequences of five chloroplast DNA regions-matK, atpF-atpH, rpoC2-rps2, rpoC1, and psbA-trnH.The atpF-atpH and psbA-trnH regions were useful for discriminating A. firma from the other species, but there were no differences among A. holophylla, A. homolepis, and the protected fir trees. The same chloroplast sequences were found in both A. holophylla and A. homolepis, which suggests that additional genetic studies might be necessary to identify the Abies species planted in both South Korea and Japan.

본 연구는 한국 전나무(Abies holophylla) 및 2종의 일본 전나무(A. firma 및 A. homolepis), 그리고 우리나라 법정 보호 전나무 간의 구별을 위한 기초자료를 제공하기 위하여 수행하였다. 각각 조사대상목의 잎 끝의 형태적 특성을 분석한 결과, A. holophylla는 뾰족한 형태를 보였고, 반면에 A. firma와 A. homolepis는 미요두(微凹頭) 형태를 보였다. 그리고 법정 보호 전나무의 잎 끝은 원두(圓頭) 형태를 보였다. 각각 전나무 종들 간의 잎 기공수를 비교한 결과, A. holophylla와 A. firma의 잎 기공수는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었으며, A. homolepis와 법정 보호 전나무의 잎 기공수는 매우 유사한 것으로 보였다. 엽록체 DNA 바코드(matK, atpF-atpH, rpoC2-rps2, rpoC1, psbA-trnH)를 이용하여 전나무 종간 유전적 차이를 비교 분석하였다. 그 결과, atpF-atpH와 psbA-trnH 영역에서 A. firma와 다른 전나무 종들 간의 분명한 염기서열의 차이가 있었다. 하지만, 종명이 분명히 다른 한국 전나무(A. holophylla)와 일본 전나무(A. homolepis)간에 엽록체 염기 서열차이가 전혀 없으며, 또한 법정 보호 전나무와도 차이가 없었다. 따라서 이들 종간의 유전적 차이에 대한 구체적인 연구의 진행이 필요하다고 본다.

Keywords

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Figure 1. Leaf tips occurring in the genus Abies.

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Figure 2. (A) Stomatal pattern and distribution in abaxial surface of the needle-like leaf of A. holophylla. The square equals 4 mm2. (B) Bar graph of stomatal density. The graph shows the number of stomata per 4 mm2. Error bars are standard errors. Different letters indicate significant differences among samples according to the Tukey’s test at P ≤ 0.05.

Table 1. Location and of sampled fir trees in Korea.

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Table 2. List of primers and nucleotide sequences.

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Table 3. Gene size and G+C content of the matK, atpF-atpH, rpoC2-rps2, rpoC1, and psbA-trnH region in A. firma.

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Table 4. Alignment matrix for each sequence region of the atpF-atpH. Dots indicate the same nucleotide as the reference A. firma (FJ899565).

HOMHBJ_2019_v108n2_200_t0004.png 이미지

Table 5. Alignment matrix for each sequence region of the psbA-trnH. Dots indicate the same nucleotide as the reference A. firma (FJ899565).

HOMHBJ_2019_v108n2_200_t0005.png 이미지

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