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Security of Password Vaults of Password Managers

패스워드 매니저의 패스워드 저장소 보안 취약점 분석

  • Received : 2018.06.01
  • Accepted : 2018.09.20
  • Published : 2018.10.31

Abstract

As the number of services offered on the Internet exponentially increases, password managers are increasing popular applications that store several passwords in an encrypted database (or password vault). Browser-integrated password managers or locally-installed password managers store the password vault on the user's device. Although a web-based password manager stores the password vault on the cloud server, a user can store the master password used to sign in the cloud server on her device. An attacker that steals a user's encrypted vault stored in the victim's device can make an offline attack and, if successful, all the passwords in the vault will be exposed to the attacker. This paper investigates the vulnerability of the password vault stored in the device and develops attack programs to verify the vulnerability of the password vault.

웹사이트 이용이 증가하면서, 패스워드들을 암호화하여 데이터베이스에 저장 관리해주는 패스워드 매니저의 사용이 증가하고 있다. 브라우저 기반 패스워드 매니저와 로컬 기반 패스워드 매니저는 암호화된 데이터베이스를 로컬 컴퓨터에 저장한다. 웹 기반 패스워드 매니저는 암호화된 데이터베이스를 클라우드 서버에 저장하지만 사용자는 클라우드 서버에 접속하는데 사용하는 마스터 패스워드를 로컬 컴퓨터에 저장할 수 있다. 공격자가 사용자의 컴퓨터에서 패스워드 데이터베이스를 훔쳐 복호화에 성공한다면, 사용자의 모든 패스워드들이 노출되는 심각한 문제가 있다. 본 논문에서는 로컬 컴퓨터에 저장된 패스워드 저장소의 보안 취약점을 분석하는 절차를 제시하고, 패스워드 저장소를 공격하는 시나리오를 제시하며, 공격 프로그램을 개발하여 패스워드 저장소를 공격함으로써 패스워드 저장소의 보안 취약점을 확인한다.

Keywords

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Fig. 1. Security of Password Vaults

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Fig. 2. Format of Chrome password vault

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Fig. 3. BLOB HEX data

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Fig. 5. Overall operation of LastPass

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Fig. 4. Login option of LastPass

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Fig. 6. Format of LastPass password vault

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Fig. 7. Decryption of LastPass master password

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Fig. 8. Decryption of AES-CBC encrypted password

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Fig. 9. KeePass Key generation

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Fig. 10. Encryption for the verification of user's master password

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Fig. 11. Attack scenario on a Chrome password vault

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Fig. 12. Flow chart of the HPassChrome

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Fig. 13. C++ pseudo code of HPassChrome

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Fig. 14. Execution result screen of the HPassChrome

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Fig. 15. Attack scenario on a LastPass password vault

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Fig. 16. Flow chart of the HPass

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Fig. 17. C# pseudo code of HPass

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Fig. 18. Execution result screen of the HPass

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Fig. 19. Extraction of a crackable hash from a KeePass database

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Fig. 20. Brute force attack by using the hashcat

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Fig. 21. Decryption of a KeePass database

Table 1. Vunerability analysis of password vault

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Table 2. Location and format of Chrome password vault

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Table 3. Location of provider and master GUIDs

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Table 4. Location and format of LastPass password vault

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Table 5. KeePass database fields

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Table 6. Vulnerability Comparison of Password Managers

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