A Comparison between Wet-only and Bulk Deposition at Two Forest Sites in Japan

  • Imamura, Naohiro (Center for Forest Restoration and Radioecology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute) ;
  • Iwai, Noriko (The Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) ;
  • Tanaka, Nobuaki (Ecohydrology Research Institute, The University of Tokyo Forests, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo) ;
  • Ohte, Nobuhito (Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University)
  • 투고 : 2017.06.22
  • 심사 : 2017.10.12
  • 발행 : 2018.03.31


To investigate the effects of forest and the surrounding natural and anthropogenic sources on the bulk depositions on forested land, this study examined differences in ion concentrations between wet-only and bulk samples at two forested sites in Japan. The surrounding natural and anthropogenic sources at each site were different; Shirasaka is in a rural area and Tanashi is an urban environment. The volume weighted (vw) mean concentrations of $K^+$ and $Ca^{2+}$ in the bulk samples were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the wet-only samples at both sites. The forest canopy and a nearby incineration plant were hypothesized to be the main sources of $K^+$ contaminants at Shirasaka and Tanashi, respectively. The transport of sea salt and urban dust may explain the presence of enriched $Ca^{2+}$ concentrations in the bulk samples at Shirasaka and Tanashi, respectively. The $NH_4{^+}$ concentrations in the Shirasaka bulk samples were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in the wet-only samples. The vw mean $SO{_4}^{2-}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ concentrations in both sample types were not significantly different at either site. This study demonstrated that the ion concentration differences between wet-only and bulk samples were affected by nearby natural and anthropogenic sources even at forest sites, similar to previous findings for non-forested locations. However, the $K^+$ concentration differences between wet-only and bulk samples may be higher owing to forest sources, even in the absence of anthropogenic sources.



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피인용 문헌

  1. Geographic Factors Explain the Variability of Atmospheric Deposition of Sulfur and Nitrogen onto Coniferous Forests Within and Beyond the Tokyo Metropolis vol.231, pp.3, 2018,