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http://dx.doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2018.12.1.067

A Comparison between Wet-only and Bulk Deposition at Two Forest Sites in Japan  

Imamura, Naohiro (Center for Forest Restoration and Radioecology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)
Iwai, Noriko (The Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
Tanaka, Nobuaki (Ecohydrology Research Institute, The University of Tokyo Forests, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo)
Ohte, Nobuhito (Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University)
Publication Information
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment / v.12, no.1, 2018 , pp. 67-77 More about this Journal
Abstract
To investigate the effects of forest and the surrounding natural and anthropogenic sources on the bulk depositions on forested land, this study examined differences in ion concentrations between wet-only and bulk samples at two forested sites in Japan. The surrounding natural and anthropogenic sources at each site were different; Shirasaka is in a rural area and Tanashi is an urban environment. The volume weighted (vw) mean concentrations of $K^+$ and $Ca^{2+}$ in the bulk samples were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the wet-only samples at both sites. The forest canopy and a nearby incineration plant were hypothesized to be the main sources of $K^+$ contaminants at Shirasaka and Tanashi, respectively. The transport of sea salt and urban dust may explain the presence of enriched $Ca^{2+}$ concentrations in the bulk samples at Shirasaka and Tanashi, respectively. The $NH_4{^+}$ concentrations in the Shirasaka bulk samples were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in the wet-only samples. The vw mean $SO{_4}^{2-}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ concentrations in both sample types were not significantly different at either site. This study demonstrated that the ion concentration differences between wet-only and bulk samples were affected by nearby natural and anthropogenic sources even at forest sites, similar to previous findings for non-forested locations. However, the $K^+$ concentration differences between wet-only and bulk samples may be higher owing to forest sources, even in the absence of anthropogenic sources.
Keywords
Atmospheric deposition; Dry deposition; Forests; Urban areas; Rural areas;
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  • Reference
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