An Orchestrated Attempt to Determine the Chemical Properties of Asian Dust Particles by PIXE and XRF Techniques

  • Ma, Chang-Jin (Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women's University) ;
  • Kim, Ki-Hyun (Department of Environment & Energy, Sejong University) ;
  • Choi, Sung-Boo (Department of Environment, Yong In University) ;
  • Kasahara, Mikio (Institute of Science and Technology Research, Chubu University) ;
  • Tohno, Susumu (Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University)
  • Received : 2010.08.05
  • Accepted : 2010.11.10
  • Published : 2010.12.31


An orchestrated attempt was made to analyze samples of bulk and individual particulate matters (PM) collected at the Gosan ground-based station on the west coast of Jeju, Korea. A two-stage filter pack sampler was operated to collect particles in both large (> $1.2\;{\mu}m$) and small size fractions (< $1.2\;{\mu}m$) between the Asian dust (hereafter called "AD") storm event and non-Asian dust period. Elemental components in bulk and individual particles were determined by PIXE and synchrotron XRF analysis systems, respectively. To assess the transport pathways of air parcels and to determine the spatial distribution of PM, the backward trajectories of the Meteorological Data Explorer (Center for Global Environmental Research, 2010) and the NOAA's HYSPLIT dispersion-trajectory models were applied. In line with general expectations, Si and other crustal elements in large size particles showed considerably higher mass loading on AD days in comparison with non-AD days. Computation of the crustal enrichment factors [(Z/Si)$_{particle}$/(Z/Si)$_{desert}$ sand] of elements in large size particles (> $1.2\;{\mu}m$) allowed us to estimate the source profile and chemical aging of AD particles as well as to classify the soil-origin elements. On the basis of a single particle analysis, individual AD particles are classified into three distinct groups (neutralized mineral particles, S-rich mineral particles, and imperfectly neutralized particles).



  1. Braaten, D.A., Cahill, T.A. (1986) Size and composition Asian dust transported to Hawaii. Atmospheric Environment 20, 1105-1109.
  2. Center for Global Environmental Research (2010) Calculate Air Trajectory,
  3. Duce, R.A., Unni, C.K., Ray, B.J., Prospere, J.M., Merrill, J.T. (1980) Long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust from Asia to the tropical north Pacific: temporal variability. Science 209, 1522-1524.
  4. Hayakawa, S., Ikuta, N., Suzuki, M., Wakatsuki, M., Hirokawa, T. (2001) Generation of an X-ray microbeam for spectromicroscopy at SPring-8 BL39XU. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 8, 328-330.
  5. Hwang, H.J., Kim, H.K., Ro, C.U. (2008) Single-particle characterization of aerosol samples collected before and during an Asian dust storm in Chuncheon, Korea. Atmospheric Environment 42, 8738-8746.
  6. Iwasaka, Y., Yamamoto, M., Imasu, R., Ono, A. (1988) Transport of Asian dust particles (KOSA): importance of weak KOSA events on the geochemical cycle of soil particles. Tellus 40B, 494-503.
  7. Kang, C.H., KO, H.J., Zahorowski, W. (2007) Radon and TSP concentrations in the ambient air of Gosan area, Jeju Island between 2001 and 2004. Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment 23, 612-624.
  8. Kasahara, M., Park, J.H., Chatani, S. (1996) Size distribution and solubility of 15 elements in atmospheric aerosols. International Journal of PIXE 6, 299-310.
  9. Kasahara, M., Takahashi, K., Sakisaka, M., Tomita, M. (1993) Standard samples and calibration of PIXE analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 75, 136-139.
  10. Kim, K.H., Choi, G.H., Kang, C.H., Lee, J.H., Kim, J.Y., Youn, Y.H., Lee, S.R. (2003) The chemical composition of fine and coarse particles in relation with the Asian Dust events. Atmospheric Environment 37, 753-765.
  11. Ma, C.J., Choi, K.C. (2007) A combination of bulk and single particle analyses for Asian dust study. Water Air, and Soil Pollution 183(1), 3-13.
  12. Ma, C.J., Kasahara, M., Holler, R., Kamiya, T. (2001a) Characteristics of single particles sampled in Japan during the Asian dust storm period. Atmospheric Environment 35, 2707-2714.
  13. Ma, C.J., Kasahara, M., Tohno, S., Hwang, K.C. (2001b) Characterization of the winter atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE, EAS and IC. Atmospheric Environment 35, 747-752.
  14. Ma, C.J., Kasahara, M., Tohno, S. (2008) Physicochemical properties of Asian dust sources. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment 2(1), 26-33.
  15. Ma, C.J., Tohno, S., Kasahara, M., Hayakawa, S. (2005) A case study of the size-resolved individual particles collected at ground-based site on west coast of Japan during Asian dust storm event. Atmospheric Environment 39, 739-747.
  16. Mobile Yonhapnews (2008) The article on Feb. 12, 2008, 30 20 0.html.
  17. Park, M.H., Kim, Y.P., Kang, C.H., Shim, S.G. (2004) Aerosol composition change between 1992 and 2002 at Gosan, Korea, Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (D19S13), 1-7.
  18. Smith, T.N., Phillips, C.R., Melo, O.T. (1976) Diffusive collection of aerosol particles on Nuclepore membrane filter. Environmental Science and Technology 10, 274-277.
  19. Song, C.H., Carmichael, G.R. (1999) The aging process of naturally emitted aerosol (sea-salt and mineral aerosol) during long range transport. Atmospheric Environment 33, 2203-2218.
  20. Szykman, J., Mintz, D., Creilson, J., Wayland, M. (2003) Impact of April 2001 Asian dust event on particulate matter concentrations in the United States. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, S1-S12.
  21. The Mainichi Newspaper (2005) The article on 18 Nov. 2005,
  22. Wang, X., Guanghua, Z. (1996) Some characteristics of the aerosol in Beijing. International Journal of PIXE 6, 361-365.
  23. Zhang, J., Wu, Y., Liu, C.L., Shen, Z.B., Yu, Z.G., Zhang Y. (2001) Aerosol characters from the desert region of Northwest China and the Yellow Sea in spring and summer: observations at Minqin, Qingdao, and Qinliyan in 1995-1996. Atmospheric Environment 35, 5007-5018.

Cited by

  1. Applications of Air Mass Trajectories vol.2015, pp.None, 2010,