• Title, Summary, Keyword: wasan

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Indefinite Problem in Wasan (和算家的累约术)

  • Qu, Anjing
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.26 no.5_6
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    • pp.329-343
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    • 2013
  • Japanese mathematics, namely Wasan, was well-developed before the Meiji period. Takebe Katahiro (1664-1739) and Nakane Genkei (1662-1733), among a great number of mathematicians in Wasan, maybe the most famous ones. Taking Takebe and Nakane's indefinite problems as examples, the similarities and differences are made between Wasan and Chinese mathematics. According to investigating the sources and attitudes to these problems which both Japanese and Chinese mathematicians dealt with, the paper tries to show how and why Japanese mathematicians accepted Chinese tradition and beyond. As a typical sample of the succession of Chinese tradition, Wasan will help people to understand the real meaning of Chinese tradition deeper.

The Succession and Innovation of Wasan to Chinese Mathematics -A case study on Seki's interpolation (和算对中算的继承与创新-以关孝和的內插法为例)

  • Qu, Anjing
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.219-232
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    • 2013
  • Japanese mathematics, namely Wasan, was well-developed before the Meiji period. Seki Takakazu (1642?-1708) is the most famous one. Taking Seki's interpolation as an example, the similarities and differences are made between Wasan and Chinese mathematics. According to investigating the sources and attitudes to this problem which both Japanese and Chinese mathematicians dealt with, the paper tries to show how and why Japanese mathematicians accepted Chinese tradition and beyond. Professor Wu Wentsun says that, in the whole history of mathematics, there exist two different major trends which occupy the main stream alternately. The axiomatic deductive system of logic is the one which we are familiar with. Another, he believes, goes to the mechanical algorithm system of program. The latter featured traditional Chinese mathematics, as well as Wasan. As a typical sample of the succession of Chinese tradition, Wasan will help people to understand the real meaning of the mechanical algorithm system of program deeper.

Three Authors of the Taisei Sankei

  • Morimitio, Mitsuo
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2013
  • The Taisei Sankei(大成算経 in Japanese) or the Dacheng Suanjing(in Chinese) is a book of mathematics written by Seki Takakazu 関孝和, Takebe Kataakira 建部賢明 and Takebe Katahiro 建部賢弘. The title can be rendered into English as the Great Accomplishment of Mathematics. This book can be considered as one of the main achievements of the Japanese traditional mathematics, wasan, of the early 18th century. The compilation took 28 years, started in 1683 and completed in 1711. The aim of the book was to expose systematically all the mathematics known to them together with their own mathematics. It is a monumental book of wasan of the Edo Period (1603-1868). The book is of 20 volumes with front matter called Introduction and altogether has about 900 sheets. It was written in classical Chinese, which was a formal and academic language in feudal Japan. In this lecture we would like to introduce the wasan as expressed in the Taisei Sankei and three authors of the book. The plan of the paper is as follows: first, the Japanese mathematics in the Edo Period was stemmed from Chinese mathematics, e.g., the Introduction to Mathematics (1299); second, three eminent mathematicians were named as the authors of the Taisei Sankei according to the Biography of the Takebe Family; third, contents of the book showed the variety of mathematics which they considered important; fourth, the book was not printed but several manuscripts have been made and conserved in Japanese libraries; and finally, we show a tentative translation of parts of the text into English to show the organization of the encyclopedic book.

Solving Sangaku: A Traditional Solution to a Nineteenth Century Japanese Temple Problem

  • Hosking, Rosalie Joan
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.53-69
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    • 2017
  • This paper demonstrates how a nineteenth century Japanese votive temple problem known as sangaku from Okayama prefecture can be solved using traditional mathematical methods of the Japanese Edo (1603-1868 CE). We compare a modern solution to a sangaku problem from Sacred Geometry: Japanese Temple Problems of Tony Rothman and Hidetoshi Fukagawa with a traditional solution of ${\bar{O}}hara$ Toshiaki (?-1828). Our investigation into the solution of ${\bar{O}}hara$ provides an example of traditional Edo period mathematics using the tenzan jutsu symbolic manipulation method, as well as producing new insights regarding the contextual nature of the rules of this technique.

Ethanolysis of Soybean Oil into Biodiesel : Process Optimization via Central Composite Design

  • Tippayawong Nakorn;Kongjareon Eaksit;Jompakdee Wasan
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1902-1909
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    • 2005
  • A process for production of ethyl ester for use as biodiesel has been studied. The sodium hydroxide catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol was carried out at different molar ratio of alcohol to oil, reaction temperature and catalyst amount for a constant agitation in two hours of reaction time. Central composite design and response surface methodology were used to determine optimum condition for producing biodiesel. It was found that ethanol to oil ratio and catalyst concentration have a positive influence on ester conversion as well as interaction effects between the three factors considered. An empirical model obtained was able to predict conversion as a function of ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration adequately. Optimum condition for soybean ethyl ester production was found to be moderate ethanol to oil ratio (10.5: 1), mild temperature range ($70^{\circ}C$) and high catalyst concentrations ($1.0\%$wt), with corresponding ester conversion of $93.0\%$.

Active High pass filter with Notch Characteristic using Uniformly Distirbuted RC Line

  • Tancharoen, Wasan;Panyanouvong, Nouanchanh;Wachirarattanapornkul, Sorapong;Janchitrapongvej, Kanok
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1972-1974
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    • 2004
  • This paper describes the high pass filter with notch charecteristics. The proposed circuits configuration consists of two uniformly distributed RC line (herein after is called URC) and two gain amplifiers ($K_1$ and $K_2$). With the appropriate $K_1$ and $K_2$ , the circuit has a steeper slope of magnitude response at pass band steeper than using a single gain amplifier.

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Korean Mathematics in (the History of) the World (세계 속의 한국수학)

  • Ree, Sang-Wook;Koh, Young-Mee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 2009
  • In this article, we look into the present status of Korean mathematics and stress the importance and the need of research on its history. Some researches on it have been done by Hong, though not known to the world. We search some of the ways of activating the research on Korean mathematics history and introducing it to the world.

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Breast Cancer in Surat Thani, a Province in Southern Thailand: Analysis of 2004-2012 Incidence and Future Trends

  • Tassanasunthornwong, Sukit;Chansaard, Wasan;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6735-6740
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    • 2015
  • Background: With the recent epidemiologic transition in Thailand, featuring decreasing incidences of infectious diseases along with increasing rates of chronic conditions, cancer is becoming a serious problem for the country. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females, not only in the southern regions, but throughout Thailand. Surat Thani is a province in the upper part of Southern Thailand. A study was needed to identify the current burden, and the future trends of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Here we used cancer incidence data from the Surat Thani Cancer Registry to characterize the incidences of breast cancer. Joinpoint analysis was used to investigate the incidences in the province from 2004 to 2012 and to project future trends from 2013 to 2030. Results: Age-standardized incidence rates (world) of breast cancer in the upper parts of Southern Thailand increased from 35.1 to 59.2 cases per 100,000 female population, which is equivalent to an annual percentage change of 4.5-4.8%. Linear drift effects played a role in shaping the increase of incidence. Joinpoint projection suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women aged 50 and above, at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current early detection measures increase detection rates of early disease. Preparation of a budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential.

On the Performance of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing of Cognitive Radio Networks in AWGN and Rayleigh Fading Environments

  • Saad, Wasan Kadhim;Ismail, Mahamod;Nordin, Rosdiadee;El-Saleh, Ayman A.
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.1754-1769
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    • 2013
  • For the purpose of enhancing the spectrum efficiency, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been recently proposed as a promising dynamic spectrum allocation paradigm. In CR, spectrum sensing is the key capability of secondary users in a cognitive radio network that aims for reducing the probability of harmful interference with primary users. However, the individual CRs might not be able to carry out reliable detection of the presence of a primary radio due to the impact of channel fading or shadowing. This paper studies the cooperative spectrum sensing scheme as means of optimizing the sensing performance in AWGN and Rayleigh channels. Results generated from simulation provide evidence of the impact of channel condition on the complementary receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Based on the results, it was found that with constant local SNRs at the secondary users, the probability of missed detection ($P_m$) of cooperative spectrum sensing in a cognitive radio network, calculated using a closed form expression, can be significantly minimized. Thus, the paper illustrates that improvement of the detection performance of the CR network can be achieved by establishing a centralized cooperation among neighboring cognitive radio users. Finally, verification of the validity of the fusion schemes utilized for combining the individual CR decisions is provided.

Epidermoid Cyst of the Mandible: Case Report (하악골에 발생한 유표피낭종: 증례보고)

  • Ohn, Byung-Hun;Koh, Se-Wook;Park, Seul-Ji;Chee, Young-Deok
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.535-539
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    • 2011
  • Epidermoid cyst is a cystic form of teratoma and believed to be derived from trapped embryonic cells along the lines of embryonic closure. A 28-year-old woman presented with a painless swelling over the left mandibular area. On panoramic view, the mandible revealed a $5.5{\times}2.0\;cm^2$ multilocular radiolucent lesion of the left mandibular body and a computed tomography scan showed expansion of both the buccal and lingual plates in the same area. Microscopy found stratified squamous epithelium of the cystic wall and cystic contents of keratinized material. The histological diagnosis wasan epidermoid cyst. The most common location of epidermoid cyst at the head and neck is in the orbit (47%), followed by the mouth floor (23%) and the cervical area (9~24%), but in the jaw bone, it is considered very infrequent. We report the uncommon epidermoid cyst in the mandibular body that had a good healing outcome after treatment with a conservative marsupialization during the 40 months follow-up.