• Title/Summary/Keyword: growth environment characteristics

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Improvement of Growth of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) Plants at In Vitro and Ex Vitro and Energy Efficiency by Environmental Control with Growth Stage in Photoautotrophic Micropropagation System (광독립영양 기내 미세증식 시스템에서 생육단계별 환경조절을 통한 감자의 기내 및 기외 생육과 에너지 효율 향상)

  • Oh, Myung-Min;Lee, Hoon;Son, Jung-Eek
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of optimized environment conditions with growth stage in photoautotrophic micropropagation on the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) plantlets and energy efficiency. Optimum environment conditions at each stage were decided in our previous study. For the evaluation of optimized environment control, potato plantlets were cultured under four different conditions: photoautotrophic optimum conditions of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and $CO_2$ levels with growth stage (POG), photoautotrophic constant condition with average PPFD and $CO_2$ levels (PCA), photoauototrophic constant condition with maximum PPFD and $CO_2$ levels (PCM), and photomixotrophic conventional condition with 3% sucrose (PMC) as control. As a result, environment control with growth stage (POG) significantly promoted all the growth characteristics such as the number of nodes and unfolded leaves, shoot height, shoot diameter, and fresh and dry weights of potato grown in vitro. In addition, based on dry weight consumed electricity and $CO_2$ were the lowest in POG suggesting the highest energy efficiency among the treatments. After transferring potato plantlets to greenhouse, the plantlets under POG showed vigorous growth, which was pretty similar with those under PMC. The accumulations of dry matter in POG were 4.7 times in vitro and 3.8 times in greenhouse as much as those in the conventional control (PCM). Thus, we concluded that in vitro environment control with growth stage induced vigorous growth of potato plantlets both in vitro and in greenhouse with less energy consumption.

An Empirical Analysis of the Characteristics of Acquiring Manufacturing Firms in Korea : The Focus on Environmental Factors and Firm Performance (합병한 국내 제조기업들의 특징에 관한 실증적 연구 : 환경적 요인과 기업성과를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Younsuk;Park, Soohoon
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.91-109
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    • 2015
  • The M&A of firms has been emerged as the effective means of fast diversification and growth in dynamic environment. However, the empirical research about M&A in Korea has not been implemented rich due to the difficulty of obtaining M&A data. In this research, we empirically investigate the relationships among M&A, environment and firms' performance focused on Korean manufacturing firms, understanding the current practice of M&A in Korea. We use the Manufacturing Productivity Panel Survey Data, which are collected by Korea Productivity Center in 2013. The sample size is 575 and the sample is divided into M&A group and non-M&A group. We conduct logit analysis with the independent variables of environment factors (munificence, dynamic, uncertainty), and firms' performance (sales growth, ROS, labor productivity and Inventory turnover), and dependent variable of M&A group or non M&A group. The results show that M&A is closely related to environment feature and firm performance: M&A firms are likely to be the higher munificence and dynamic and the lower sales growth and higher profitability than non-M&A group. In addition, we also examine the characteristics of firms by M&A types (competitors, customer/supplier and firms from unrelated industry). These results imply that if firms confront the pressure of uncertainty (dynamic) and the lower growth, they tend to choose M&A. Futhermore, to profoundly understand the behavior of firms about M&A, it is required to classify the M&A firms by merge types.

Response of Growth and Toxigenicity to Varying Temperature and Nutrient Conditions in Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanophyceae) (환경조건에 따른 Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanophyceae) 균주의 성장 반응 및 독소 생성)

  • Ryu, Hui-Seong;Shin, Ra-Young;Lee, Jung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.538-545
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate growth response and toxigenicity under various temperature and nutritional conditions, in order to understand the physioecological characteristics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, which is a bloom-forming cyanobacterium in the Nakdong River. The strain was inoculated into media under combinations of four temperatures (4, 12, 21, $30^{\circ}C$) and three nutrients (modified CB medium, P-depleted CB medium, N-depleted CB medium) for 28 days. The algae-inhibition tests were performed to assess the potential allelopathic effects of the strains' filtrates on the growth of four algae strains (Microcystis aeruginosa, Aulacoseria ambigua f. spiralis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Scenedesmus obliquus). Toxin production of a strain was measured by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSolbent Assay (ELISA). The optimal growth temperature (Topt) of strains was $19.9^{\circ}C$ ($18.3-21.2^{\circ}C$), and the temperature range for growth was from $-0.3^{\circ}C$ to $34.3^{\circ}C$. Specific growth rate (${\mu}$) in modified CB medium varied from 0.10 to $0.16day^{-1}$, and the maximum growth rate (${\mu}_{max}$) was $0.17day^{-1}$. Although growth curves under N-existed and N-depleted conditions were almost the same, growth under N-depleted condition was relatively slowed (${\mu}=0.09$ to $0.14day^{-1}$), with a decreased maximum cell density. However, growth under the P-depleted condition was restricted for all temperatures, Two stains of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were confirmed as not producing toxins, because saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin were not detected by ELISA. The exudates or filtrates from the Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (DGUC003) resulted in significant inhibition of algal growth on the Aulacoseira ambigua f. spiralis (DGUD001) and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (DGUC001) (p < 0.01).

Variations in carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and in heavy metal contents of mariculture kelp Undaria pinnatifida in Gijang, southeastern Korea

  • Shim, JeongHee;Kim, Jeong Bae;Hwang, Dong-Woon;Choi, Hee-Gu;Lee, Yoon
    • ALGAE
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 2017
  • Korean mariculture Undaria pinnatifida was collected during the months of January, February, March, and December of 2010, as well as from January of 2011 to investigate the changes in the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\delta}^{15}N$) and heavy metal with respect to it growth and to identify the factors that influence such changes. The blades of U. pinnatifida showed ${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\delta}^{15}N$ in the range (mean) of -13.11 to -19.42‰ (-16.93‰) and 2.99 to 7.57‰ (4.71‰), respectively. Among samples with the same grow-out period, those that weighed more tended to have higher ${\delta}^{13}C$ suggesting a close association between the carbon isotope ratio and growth rate of U. pinnatifida. Indeed, we found a very high positive linear correlation between the monthly average ${\delta}^{13}C$ and the absolute growth rate in weight ($r^2=0.89$). Nitrogen isotope ratio tended to be relatively lower when nitrogen content in the blade was higher, probably due to the strengthening of isotope fractionation stemming from plenty of nitrogen in the surrounding environment. In fact, a negative linear correlation was observed with the nitrate concentration in the nearby seawaters ($r^2=0.83$). Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, and Fe in the blades showed a rapid decrease in their concentration per unit weight in the more mature U. pinnatifida. Specifically, compared to adult samples, Cu, Hg, and Pb were concentrated by 30, 55, and 73 folds, respectively, in the young blades. Therefore, U. pinnatifida tissue ${\delta}^{13}C$ is as an indirect indicator of its growth rate, while ${\delta}^{15}N$ values and heavy metal concentrations serve as tracers that reflect the environmental characteristics.

A Study on the Stress ratio affect on the Fatigue Crack Characteristics of Pressure Vessel SA516 Steel at Low Temperature (저온 압력용기용 SA516강의 응력비에 따른 피로크랙 전파특성에 관한 연구)

  • 박경동;하경준;박형동
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.1228-1236
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    • 2001
  • In this study, CT specimens were prepared from ASTH A5l6 steel which was used for pressure vessel plates for moderate and lower temperature service. And we got the fellowing characteristics from fatigue crack growth test carried out in the environment of room and low temperature at $25^{\circ}C$ , $-30^{\circ}C$, $-60^{\circ}C$, $-80^{\circ}C$, $-100^{\circ}C$ and $-120^{\circ}C$ and in the range of stress ratio of 0.1, 0.3 by means of opening mode displacement. At the constant stress ratio, the Threshold stress intensity factor range ΔAKth in the early stage of fatigue crack growth (Region I) and stress intensity factor range $\DeltaK$ in the stable of fatigue crack growth (Region II) was increased in proportion to descend temperature. It assumed that the fatigue resistance characteristics and fracture strength at low temperature is considerable higher than that of room temperature in the early stage and stable of fatigue crack growth region. The straight line slope relation of logarithm da/dN-$\Delta$K in Region II that is, the fatigue clack growth exponent m increased with descending temperature at the constant stress ratio. It assumed that the fatigue crack growth rate da/dN is rapid in proportion to descend temperature in Region II and the cryogenic-brittleness greatly affect a material with decreasing temperature.

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A Study of Fatigue Crack Threshold Characteristics in Pressure Vessel Steel at Low Temperature (압력용기용 강의 저온 피로크랙 하한계 특성에 관한 연구(II))

  • 박경동;김정호;정찬기;하경준
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2000
  • In this study, CT specimens were prepared from AST SA516 Gr. 70 which was used for pressure vessel plates for room and low temperature service. And we got the following characteristics from fatigue crack growth test carried out in the environment of room and low temperature at 25$^{\circ}C $, -60$^{\circ}C $, -80$^{\circ}C $ and -100$^{\circ}C $ and in the range of stress ratio of 0.05, 0.3 by means of opening mode displacement. At the constant stress ratio, the threshold stress intensity factor range ${\delta} K_{th}$ in the early stage of fatigue crack growth (Region I) and stress intensity factor range $\delta $K in the stable of fatigue crack growth (Region II) were increased in proportion to descending temperature. It was assumed that the fatigue resistance characteristics and fracture strength at low temperature is considerable higher than that of room temperature in the early stage and stable of fatigue crack growth region. The straight line slope relation of logarithm da/dN -$\delta $K in Region II, that is, the fatigue crack growth exponent m increased with descending temperature at the constant stress ratio. It was assumed that the fatigue crack growth rate da/dN is rapid in proportion to descending temperature in Region II and the cryogenic-brittleness greatly affect a material with decreasing temperature.

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