• Title/Summary/Keyword: R. philippinarum

Search Result 42, Processing Time 0.103 seconds

Dissemination of Perkinsus olseni is affected by the viability of Ruditapes philippinarum (급성 폐사 바지락 (Ruditapes philippinarum) 으로부터 Perkinsus olseni의 확산 기작)

  • Nam, Ki-Woong;Jeung, Hee-Do;Song, Jae-Hee;Choi, Kwang-Sik;Park, Kyung-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.267-272
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was conducted in order to elucidate the dissemination mechanism of P. olseni using field and laboratory experiments. For this purpose, we quantified the level of P. olseni infection in buried (healthy) and surfaced (gapped) R. philippinarum from a clam bed on Wi-do Island on the west coast of Korea. In addition, the levels of internal and released P. olseni cells from artificially infected (and later dead) R. philippinarum were monitored for 8 days using the RFTM-2 M NaOH lysis method. Our results indicate that P. olseni cells in buried R. philippinarum was $2,655,625{\pm}1,536,936cells/clam$; the level in gapped R. philippinarum was considerably lower, $28,203{\pm}24,889cells/clam$ (p < 0.05). In the laboratory experiment, the P. olseni cells remained in the host tissue 2 days after death was approximately 50% lower than the level of infection measured in living clams. The level dropped to 20% 4 days after death and to 1.5% 6 days after death; eight days after death, P. olseni cells were undetectable since the R. philippinarum flesh had completely decomposed. The level of released cells on the day of death was only 0.05% of the internal level in live R. philippinarum; however, the level increased to 2.3% 5 days after death then gradually decreased and no released cells were detected 8 days after death. Therefore, our laboratory experiment suggest that the low level of P. olseni infection observed in gapped R. philippinarum at Wi-do Island could be caused by lysis of the most of P. olseni cells during the decomposition of dead R. philippinarum tissues. Until the end of decomposition of R. philippinarum, 6.68% of the total amount of P. olseni was released within 8 days. Our study showed that the amount of P. olseni cells from dead host is a considerably higher level than naturally released from healthy R. philippinarum, suggesting that death of the host plays an important role in the dissemination of P. olseni.

Indirect Evidence on Sex Reversal with Sex Ratio of Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) and Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia: Veneridae)

  • Lee, Jung-Sick;Ku, Ka-Yeon;Kim, Hye-Jin;Park, Ji-Seon;Park, Jung-Jun;Shin, Yun-Kyung;Jeon, Mi-Ae
    • Development and Reproduction
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.177-183
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study attempts to propose the possibility of the sex reversal in Tegillarca granosa and Ruditapes philippinarum by confirming the changes in the sex ratio with the shell length (SL) in the same population level. For analysis of sex ratio with SL, 1500 individuals of T. granosa (SL 10.1-45.0 mm) and 712 individuals of R. philippinarum (SL 15.1-70.0 mm) were used. Sex was analyzed histologically. The average sex ratios (F:M) of T. granosa and R. philippinarum were 1:1.22 and 1:0.96, respectively. However, sex ratio was found to differ when the clams were divided into groups according to SL in 5.0 mm intervals. Both species displayed the tendency of increase in the proportion of female with increase in SL. In this study, changes in the sex ratio in accordance with the growth of T. granosa and R. philippinarum are determined to be indirect evidence that signifies their sex reversal.

Prevalence and Density of Digenetic Trematode Metacercariae in Clams and Oysters from Western Coastal Regions of the Republic of Korea

  • Sohn, Woon-Mok;Na, Byoung-Kuk;Cho, Shin-Hyeong;Lee, Won-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
    • /
    • v.55 no.4
    • /
    • pp.399-408
    • /
    • 2017
  • A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

Growth Patterns of the Manila Clam, Ruditapes philippinarum at Each Tidal Level in the Intertidal Zone in Tae-an, West Coast of South Korea (태안 안면도 조간대에 서식하는 바지락 (Ruditapes philippinarum) 의 조위별 성장양상)

  • Han, Hyoung-Sum;Ma, Chae-Woo;Kim, Ji-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.29-35
    • /
    • 2012
  • Growth patterns of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum in each tidal level were studied in the intertidal zone in Tae-an on the west coast of South Korea from April to August 2009. Environmental factors and the specimens of R. philippinarum were monthly collected at three intertidal locations: low intertidal zone, low-middle intertidal zone and middle intertidal zone. Temperature of sediment in low intertidal zone were lower than those in other intertidal locations. Concentrations of Chl-${\alpha}$ were not significantly different between in each tidal level. Exposure hours in low intertidal zone were shorter than those in other intertidal locations. Density of each year class in low intertidal zone were higher than those in low-middle intertidal zone and middle intertidal zone. Growth factors of R. philippinarum in low intertidal zone were better than those in other intertidal locations. The growth rate of under one year class individuals of low intertidal zone were higher than those in low-middle intertidal zone and middle intertidal zone, before the main recruitment period of R. pilippinarum. Although the growth patterns of R. philippinarum may be affected by various environmental factors, we suggests that the exposure duration is the main affect in the growth patterns of R. philippinarum in intertidal zone.

Effects of the Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on the Physiology of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum (용존산소의 변화에 따른 바지락 (Ruditapes philippinarum)의 생리적 반응)

  • Shin Yun-Kyung;KIM Yoon;CHUNG Ee-Yung;HUR Sung-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.190-193
    • /
    • 2001
  • To investigate the effects of the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on Scope for growth (SFG) of the manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, we measured $LC_{50}$, filtration, respiration, ammonia excretion, and assimilation rates under $23\pm0.5^{\circ}C$ as a function of DO. The $LC_{50}$ of DO for R. philippinarum, was 2.4 mgDO $L^{-1}$. With decreasing DO, filtration and respiration rates of R. philippinarum decreased, while ammonia excretion rate increased, The assimilation rate was $68.2\%$ at 6.5 mgDO $L^{-1}$, decreased to $29.8\~39.3\%$ at 3.5 mgDO $L^{-1}$. R. philippinarum had positive SFG's at the $DO{\geq}2.5mgDO\;L^{-1}$.

  • PDF

Spatial Distribution of Benthic Macrofaunal Community in Ulsan Bay and Onsan Bay, Eastern Coast of Korea (울산만과 온산만 저서동물군집의 공간분포)

  • Yoon, Seong-Myeoung;Koh, Chul-Hwan;Shin, Hyun-Chool
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.180-189
    • /
    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the macrobenthic community in Ulsan Bay and Onsan Bay, in November of 1997. The density of benthic animals was 535 md./m2, and the number of species was 117. Polychaeta was the most dominant faunal group, comprising a total of 63 species, and its density was 380 md./m2 The most dominant benthic macrofauna was Cirratulrus cirratulas (2.7%), and followed by Tharyx sp. (16.6%), Ruditapes philippinarum (16.1%), Lumbrineris longifolia (10.3%) and so on. The dominant species occupied their distinct unique distribution area. Tharyx sp., R. philippinarum and Grandidierella sp.1 occurred mainly in Ulsan Bay, L. longifolia and Euchone sp. in Onsan Bay, and C. cirratulas and Cirriforimia tentaculata in both bays. By cluster analysis, study area was divided into 4 station groups: Northern Ulsan Bay (Al), the middle area of Ulsan Bay (Bl), offsea area between Ulsan Bay and Onsan Bay (Bll), and Onsan Bay (C). Northern Ulsan Bay was characterized by low species number and high density. The dominant species were C. cirratulas R. philippinarum and Tharyx sp. The middle area of Ulsan Bay was by low species number and density, and its characteristic species was Grandidierella sp.1. The offsea area between Ulsan and Onsan Bay was by high species number and low density. Onsan Bay was by high species number and high density, and its important species were L. longifolia and Euchone sp.

  • PDF

Bacteriological Characteristic of Atrina pectinata and Ruditapes philippinarum under Non-refrigerated and Refrigerated Storage Conditions

  • Kang, Kyoung-Ho;Kim, Byeong-Hak;Kim, Young-Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.24 no.1
    • /
    • pp.25-32
    • /
    • 2008
  • In order to estimate the necessity of refrigerated storage of fresh seafood for short-term storage, and evaluate the effect of refrigerated storage on pen shell Atrina pectinata and clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from Jang-su of Deukryang Bay and I-mok of Sunchen Bay in South Korea, the counts of coliform, Escherichia coli and total aerobic bacteria in A. pectinata and R. philippinarum under non-refrigerated $(28{\pm}1^{\circ}C)$ and refrigerated storage conditions $(4{\pm}1^{\circ}C)$ were determined. The results indicated that the storage at temperature of $4^{\circ}C$ possessed significant effects on inhibiting bacterial growth in live seafood. And refrigerated storage had different effect on A. pectinata and R. philippinarum. Different species and culture environments significantly influenced the initial and ultima bacteria counts. This study confirmed that refrigerated storage for short-term storage of live seafood was necessary, and indicated that the effect of refrigerated storage was influenced by comprehensive effectors.

  • PDF

Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed to crude oil-contaminated sediments

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Ji-Hye;Sung, Chan-Gyoung;Moon, Seong-Dae;Kang, Sin-Kil;Lee, Jong-Hyeon;Yim, Un Hyuk;Shim, Won Joon;Ha, Sung Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.371-381
    • /
    • 2014
  • The bioaccumulation of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to sediments artificially contaminated by Iranian Heavy Crude Oil was measured and the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was estimated through laboratory experiments. The proportion of 16 PAHs accumulated in the tissue of R. philippinarum was only from 3 to 7% of total PAHs. Among 16 PAHs, the concentration of naphthalene was highest in the tissue. Alkylated PAHs were highly accumulated more than 93% of total PAHs. The C3 dibenzothiophene was most highly accumulated. The relative composition of alkylated naphthalenes in the tissue of R. philippinarum was lower than in the sediments. In contrast, those of alkylated compounds of fluorenes, phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes were higher in the tissue than the sediments. The BSAF for sum of 16 PAHs was 0.11 to 0.13 g carbon/g lipid and that for alkylated PAHs was 0.05 to 0.06 g carbon/g lipid. Naphthalene showed the highest BSAF value. Alkylated PAHs with the same parent compound, BSAF tended to increase with the number of alkylated branch increased, except for alkylated chrysenes. BSAF of total PAHs lies between that of field-based values, and are also similar to those of other persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs). This study provides the BSAF values of individual alkylated PAHs accumulated in R. philippinarum for the first time and will be used as a basis for further understanding the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in the marine benthic organisms.

Effect of β-glucan on immune parameters in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (β-glucan이 바지락의 면역력에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Ki-Woong;Park, Kyung-il
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.31 no.2
    • /
    • pp.123-127
    • /
    • 2015
  • ${\beta}$-Glucan is a polysaccharide that is widely used as an adductive in fish feed to facilitate immune stimulation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ${\beta}$-glucan on immune responses in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. For this purpose, three groups of R. philippinarum were exposed to 0%, 0.1%, or 1% ${\beta}$-glucan in sea water for 1 hr/day for 2 weeks using an immersion method. Thereafter, two immune parameters-phagocytic rate and antibacterial activity-were measured. R. philippinarum exposed to 1% ${\beta}$-glucan showed an approximate 30% significant increase in phagocytic rate. In addition, ${\beta}$-glucan significantly limited the growth of the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio tapetis, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. ordalii. Moreover, the mortality rates of ${\beta}$-glucan-treated clams decreased during a 17-day experiment. Our study suggests that treatment with ${\beta}$-glucan significantly increases the immune responses in R. philippinarum, and that immersion is a simple and effective method for immune stimulation in this species.

Relationship of the Clearance Rate and Nonylphenol Uptake Rate of Three Bivalve Species with Different Size Classes and Temperatures (이매패류 3종의 크기 및 수온에 따른 여수율과 노닐페놀 흡수율의 관계)

  • Yang, Songyi;Lee, Jong Hyeon;Lee, Byeong Gweon
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.80-88
    • /
    • 2013
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate relationship between nonylphenol uptake rate and clearance rate of Ruditapes philippinarum, Corbicula japonica and Mytilus edulis. Variation of the temperature and body size of the bivalves was used to modulate clearance rate and nonylphenol uptake rate in this experiment. Clearance rate and nonylphenol uptake rate experiments were determined for two different size classes of the bivalves (R. philippinarum: 0.35, 0.73 g, C. japonica : 0.047, 0.1000g, M. edulis: 0.30, 0.37 g; mean flesh dry weight) and three different temperature regime (5, 13 and $18^{\circ}C$). Weight-specific clearance rate in all animal size and temperature ranges increased in the order of R. philippinarum, C. japonica and M. edulis. The weight-specific nonylphenol uptake rate did not show specific trend among species. The clearance rate and nonylphenol uptake rate generally decreased with animal size and increased with water temperature. For all three species nonylphenol uptake rate had a strong relationship with clearance rate. For a given clearance rate ranges, the nonylphenol uptake rate was in the order of R. philippinarum > C. japonica > M. edulis. The results suggest that water ventilation capacity of filter-feeding organisms is an important physiological factor controlling uptake rate of dissolved nonylphenol.