• Title/Summary/Keyword: Mesophilic

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Comparison of Dry Medium Culture Plates for Mesophilic Aerobic Bacteria in Milk, Ice Cream, Ham, and Codfish Fillet Products

  • Park, Junghyun;Kim, Myunghee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.269-272
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Swine Manure (中溫및 高溫嫌氣性消化에 의한 豚糞處理)

  • Kim, Nam Cheon;Min, Kyung Sok;Chung, Paul Gene
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 1984
  • This study was made to evaluate the temperature effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. A laboratory single-stage, high-rate, anaerobic digester was operated at 10, 20 and 30 day's HRT at the temperature of 35$\circ$C or 55$\circ$C. The conclusions from this study are as follows: (1) COD and BOD reductions were similar in both the mesophilic and thermophilic digestions. (2) With thermophilic digestion, volatile reduction increased to 67%, as compared with 60% of mesophilic digestion. With thermophilic digestion, the pH increased to 8.5 as compared with 8.0 of mesophilic digestion. With thermophilic digestion, the concentration of volatile acid increased to 763 mg/l, as compared with 250 mg/l of mesophilic digestion. While the gas was produced by mesophilic digestion at 0.74m$^3$/kg of VS fed, it increased to 0.87 m$^3$/kg VS fed by thermophilic digestion. The refractory VS was about 25% of the infiuent VS.

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Waste Activated Sludge for Start-up Seed of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (고온 혐기성 소화공정의 start-up seed로서의 호기성 폐 활성슬러지 이용가능성 연구)

  • Kim, Moonil;Shin, Kyuchul
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.490-495
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    • 2005
  • Since there are very limited numbers of thermophilic anaerobic digesters being operated, it is often difficult to start up a new one using sludge from an existing reactor as a seed. However, for obvious reasons it seems few attempts have been made to compare the start-up performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion using different sources of seed sludges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the start-up performance of anaerobic digestion using aerobic Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) from a plant and mesophilic Anaerobic Digested Sludge (ADS) as the seed source at both mesophilic ($35^{\circ}C$) and thermophilic ($55^{\circ}C$) temperatures. In this study, two experiments were conducted. First, thermophilic anaerobic reactors were seeded with WAS (VSS = 4,400 mg/L) and ADS (VSS = 14,500 mg/L) to investigate start-up performance with a feed of acetate as well as propionate. The results show that WAS started to produce $CH_4$ soon after acetate feeding without a lag time, while ADS had a lag time of 10 days. When the feed was changed to propionate, WAS removed propionate down to below the detection limit of 10 mg/L, while ADS removed little propionate and produced little $CH_4$. Second, in order to further compare the methanogenic activity of WAS and ADS, both mesophilic and thermophilic reactors were operated. WAS acclimated to anaerobic conditions shortly and after acclimating it produced more $CH_4$ than ADS. WAS at mesophilic temperature biodegraded acetate at the same rate as for thermophilic. However WAS at mesophilic temperature biodegraded propionate at a much faster rate than at thermophilic. WAS as the seed source of anaerobic digestion resulted in much better performance than ADS at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures for both acetate and propionate metabolism.

In situ Analysis of Methanogenic Bacteria in the Anaerobic Mesophilic and Thermophilic Sludge Digestion (중온 및 고온 혐기성 소화에서 메탄생성균 군집 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Sun-Jin;Jang, Hyun-Sup;Eom, Hyoung-Choon;Jang, Kwang-Un
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.515-521
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    • 2004
  • Anaerobic digestion has many advantages over the more conventional aerobic treatment processes such as low levels of excess sludge production, low space (area) requirements, and the production of valuable biogas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic loading rate of anaerobic digestion on thermophilic($55^{\circ}C$) and mesophilic($35^{\circ}C$) conditions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method was also used to study the microbial community in the reactors. The stabilizing time in mesophilic anaerobic reactors was shorter as approximately 20 days than 40 days in the thermophilic anaerobic reactors. The amount of methane production rate in anaerobic reactors was independent of the concentrations of supplied substrates and the amount of methanogens. When the microbial diversity in the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors, which had been treated with acetate-based artificial wastewater, were compared, it was found that methanogenesis was carried out by microbial consortia consisting of bacteria and archaea such as methanogens. To investigate the activity of bacterial and archaeal populations in all anaerobic reactors, the amount of acetate was measured. Archaea were predominant in all reactors. Interestingly, Methanothrix-like methanogens appeared in mesophilic anaerobic reactors with high feed substrate concentrations, whereas it was not observed in thermophilic anaerobic reactors.

The Effects of Initial pH on VFAs Production of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Acidogenic Fermentation for Food Waste Recycling Wastewater (음폐수의 중온 및 고온 산발효에서 초기 pH가 VFAs 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Byun, Im-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1255-1263
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    • 2012
  • Batch cultivations were performed to evaluate the influences of the initial pH condition on mesophilic and thermophilic acidogenic fermentation with food waste recycling wastewater. In both conditions of mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation, TVFAs production rates were maximized at the initial pH 7 condition as 0.15 and 0.23 g TVFAs/L hr, respectively. And pH was also maintained stably between 6 and 7 during 72hr acidogenic cultivation at both conditions. However, predominant VFA components were different according to reaction temperature conditions. In mesophilic condition, propionic acid which has low conversion efficiency to methane was accumulated up to 1,348 mg/L while acetic and butyric acid were predominant in thermophilic condition. Therefore, thermophilic acidogenic fermentation was superior for the effective VFAs production than mesophilic condition. From the DGGE analysis, the band patterns were different according to the initial pH conditions but the correlations of the each band were increased in similar pH conditions. These results mean that microbial communities were certainly affected by the initial pH condition. Consequently, the adjustment of the initial pH to neutral region and thermophilic operation are needed to enhance acidogenic fermentation of food waste recycling wastewater.

Microbial Distribution in Refrigerated Beef (냉장 우육내의 미생물의 분포)

  • 정해만;조광필
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.195-198
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    • 1991
  • Isolation and identification of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria distributed in Korean refrigerated beef were attempted. Total isolated colonies were 192, and identified as 5 genera and 10 species. Among them, mesophilic bacteria were Enterobacter aerogenes, E. agglomerans, Serratia liquefaciens, Proteus mirabilis, and "psychrotrophic" bacteria were Pseudomons fluorescens, P. putida, P. pickettii, P. mendocina, P. stutzeri, Alcaligenes faecalis. Dominant species was Serratia liquefaciens as mesophiles, and Pseudomonas putida as psychrotroph.chrotroph.

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Kinetics of Anaerobic Digestion: A Comparative Study on Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (혐기성소화(嫌氣性消化)의 동력학(動力學) : 중온(中溫) 및 고온혐기성소화(高溫嫌氣性消化)의 비교연구(比較研究))

  • Chang, Duk;Chung, Tai Hak
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1987
  • Comprehensive laboratory experiments including digestion failures were conducted to identify differences between mesophilic and thermophilic digestion. Critical HRT was found to be near 10days for mesophilic and near 5days for thermophilic digestion. Inhibition occurred rapidly when operated below critical HRT. However, inhibition at mesophilic condition was much greater than that at thermophilic condition. Although digester performances were similar above critical HRT of mesophilic digestion, thermophilic digestion was considerably advantageous below this HRT. Thermophilic digestion produced smaller amount of sludges which had significantly higher settling velocity and lower specific resistance. Reaction rates also clearly demonstrated temperature and HRT effects on digestion. It was also found that gas production rates increased linearly with increasing reaction rates regardless of temperature and their relationships were almost identical at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature.

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Anaerobic digestion of food waste to methane at various organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs): Thermophilic vs. mesophilic regimes

  • Kumar, Gopalakrishnan;Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy;Park, Jong-Hun;Kim, Sang-Hyoun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2016
  • Generation of food waste is a serious issue that needs to be addressed worldwide. Developing suitable treatment methods while generating energy (methane) is a common practice for sustainable treatment of waste. In this study, methane generation by food waste was investigated in mesophilic and thermophilic regimes at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and organic loading rates (OLR). In temperature regimes, influent concentrations and HRTs ranged from 30 to 110 g COD/L and 18 to 30 days, respectively, which corresponding to an OLR of 1.0 to $6.1kg\;COD/m^3-d$. Better methane production and organic removal was observed under thermophilic conditions because of the enhanced hydrolysis of complex polymers and microbial activity at higher temperature. The peak methane productivities attained in thermophilic and mesophilic regimes were 1.30 and $0.99m^3/m^3-d$, respectively. The maximum methane yields were achieved at 50 g COD/L and HRT of 24 d in both cases, and the values were 264 and $221m^3/ton$ COD, respectively. The results of this study will facilitate the development of sustainable methane production technologies using food waste as a feedstock.

Effect of Temperature and Pre-treatment for Elutriated Acidogenic Fermentation of Piggery Waste (돈사폐수의 세정산발효시 온도와 전처리의 영향)

  • Bae, Jin-Yeon;Min, Kyung-Sok
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2005
  • The performance of elutriated acid fermentation with slurry-type piggery waste was investigated, especially to evaluate the effects of temperature and pre-treatment. In the first phase, the acid elutriation reactor with piggery waste after centrifugation operated at both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions to evaluate the effect of temperature. Solubilization yield($gVFAs/gSCOD_{prod.}$) and acidification rate($gVFAs/gSCOD_{prod.}$) in the thermophilic digestion were 0.45 and 0.55, which were higher than those of the mesophilic digestion, 0.25 and 0.45. In addition, the acid elutriation reactor at thermophilic temperature is more effective in removing e-coli. In the second phase, the acid elutriation reactor was fed with piggery waste before centrifugation. With piggery wastes before centrifugation, the solubilization yield and the acidificaton rate were 0.40 and 0.80, respectively, which were higher than the rates using piggery waste after centrifugation at both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The higher sludge volume reduction of 80% benefits sludge management. Furthermore, economical advantages can be achieved by removing the pre-treatment process, such as centrifugation. Consequently, the treatment with piggery waste before centrifugation proved to be effective. Also, the optimum temperature condition was estimated at mesophilic or thermophilic conditions, considering solubilization yields and acidification rates, though the system should be heated.

Comparison of Anaerobic Digestion Efficiency with Different Temperature of Food Wastes (음식물류폐기물의 성상별 온도변화에 따른 혐기성소화 효율 비교 연구)

  • Hwang, Kwanghyun;Kim, Dongik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.332-339
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    • 2019
  • A comparative study on the anaerobic digestion efficiency according to the temperature change was conducted considering the characteristics of domestic food wastes with high water content of about 80 % or more. The substrate was tested for anaerobic digestion efficiency in two substrates, a liquid component separated naturally from food waste and food waste itself. In the anaerobic digestion experiments, the digestion efficiency was the highest at $55^{\circ}C$ (thermophilic temperature). However, the digestion efficiency at $45^{\circ}C$(middle high temperature) was lower than that at $35^{\circ}C$(mesophilic temperature). The comparison of general food wastes anaerobic digestion requiring 30 days of hydraulic retention time to the liquid component indicated a stable digestion efficiency even after 15 days of hydraulic retention time.In the experiments conducted on food waste, the digestion efficiency at $55^{\circ}C$ was higher than that at $35^{\circ}C$. When the food waste, especially the liquid component originating from food waste, is treated by anaerobic digestion method, the mesophilic temperature and thermophilic temperature conditions are more favorable in the digestion efficiency than the middle high temperature ($45^{\circ}C$). However, when applying thermophilic or mesophilic temperature anaerobic digestion process operation in the field, the amount of energy input should be considered.